« ForrigeFortsæt »
Our two adventurers were now ap- undergo certain purifying pains, to proaching the rive , when Charon, prepare them fur Elyfium. These pains the ferryman, alarmed at the sight of a are more or less severe, and of longliving man in complete armour, called 'er or shorter duration, according to to the Trojan to itop, and give an ac- the degree of guilt committed in the coum of himself. The Sybil pacified upper world. The fouls, op pafliog Charon, by declaring the name and the Styx, appear before the judge quality of her fellow-traveller, and Minos, who summons a council, eifhowing the golden bough. They ther of ghosts or of infernal deities, were then ferried over; and the three- but whether as a jury, or as witneffes, headed dog Cerberus, preparing to we know not; and having informed attack them, was quieted with a cake himself of the lives and characters of which the priestels had got ready for those who are brought before him, him, and which he had no fooner allots to each a suitable manfion in fwallowed than he fell fast aflcep. this purgatory.
What could have given rise to this The souls' thus disposed of, arefable of Charon and his boat, it is not first, those of good men, who, after very material to inquire. Mytholo. undergoing the necessary paios of gical writers have said, That the parification, pass into Elysium, where Greeks learned it from the Egyptians, they remain in a state of happiness for which is indeed probable enough ; ever; 2dly, of those who have been that the Egyptians framed both this, of little or no.use to mankind ; 3dly, and some other fables relating to the of those who have been cut off by an dead, from certain customs peculiar antimely death, so that the real cha. to their country ; that in particular racters could not be exactly ascertainthere was, not far from Memphis, a ed ; 4thly, of those who, though guil. famous burying-place, to which the ty of crimes, had not committed any dead bodies were conveyed in a boat tl.ing very atrocious; and, lastly, of across the lake Acherusia ; and that those whofe crimes, though atrocious, Charon was a boatman who had long were confidered as the effects, rather officiated in that service. The learn- of an unhappy deftiny, than of wil. ed Dr Blackwell fays, in his life of ful depravation. Homer, that, in the old Egyptian That the fouls of good men, who language, Charoni fignified ferryman. were to have an eternal abode in Ely
The travellers had now before them fium, were previously obliged to upa region which the poet calls lugentes dergo purgation by suffering, is not campi, extending from the other lide expressly declared, but may be inferred of the Styx to the road that leads to from what Anchifes fays « QuilElyfium on the right hand, and that que fuos patimur manes :" « every one which termipates in Tartarus on the of us undergoes what is inflicted on him left. These melancholy plains must by his manes ;'* that is, by those deinot be confounded with Tartarus. ties of the nether world who were the
The latter is a place of eternal tor- dispensers of expiatory punishment. ment, prepared for those who, in this This is the original, or at least the world, bad been guilty of great crimes; most usual sense of the word manes, for there, says the poet, “ Sedet, which, however, fometimes denotes æternumque fedebit infelix Theseus.” metonymically, the infernal regions in The former, though an uncomforta. general, and sometimes, but more ble region, is not a place of endless rarely, the fouls or shades who inpunishment, but a sort of purgatory, habited those regions. In Tartarus, in which all those souls that are not it does not appear that the manes had conligned to Tartarus, are doomed to any thing to do. The dispensers of
panishment in that dreadful place were notes the furies, and quote as an auTiGphone and her filter furies. The thority, “ Ignofcenda quidem, scirent manes must have been a gentler sort fi ignofcere manes.” But this is not of beings. Some derive the word sufficient authority. That verfe of from manus, or manis, which they Virgil relates to Orpheus looking beSay (on what awthority I know not) hind him, when conducting his wife is an old adjective fignifying good to the upper world ; a fault, or infaThe invocations of the manes practised tuation, which was to be punished, at funerals, the altars that were erected not by the scourge of the furies, but to them, and those monumental inscrip- by calling back Eurydice to the tions which began with the words shades below; and which the Manes, Dis Manibus, were all, no doubt, in- however placable, could not pardon, tended as acts of worship, or as com- because it was a dired violation of pliments, to these deities, and suppo- the treaty with Proferpine. fed to incline them to mercy in their It is somewhat difficult to undertreatment of the persons deceased, stand distinctly what the ancients whose fouls were now in their hands meant by the words animæ, umbra, in purgatory. Horace tells us, that fimulacra, which, in this discourse, the Manes, as well as the gods above, I call ghosts, shades or fouls. We know, might be rendered placable by fong that man conGils of a body and a soul, - Carmine di superi placantur, car. a material and an incorporeal part mine manes." But the furies were the one, like all other bodies, inactive, inexorable and merciless~" Nesciaque the other the saurce of life, motion, humanis precibus manfuefcere corda.” and intelligence. But on compaAnd I do not find that worship, or ring the general doctrine of this sixth any other honours, were, except by book with a passage in the fourth witches, paid them, though to mo- Georgic, and with the eleventh of ther Midnight, whose daughters they the Odyssey, we find, that our poet, were, facrifice was occasionally per. following in part the opinions of Pyformed. Orid lays indeed, that they thagoras and Plato, and partly too the relented on hearing the song of Oro representations of Homer, supposed pheus, but assures us it was for the first man to confift of three substances ;first, time. Virgil, in his account of that a vital and active principle, derived affair, says only, that they were an either from the Deity himielf, or from itonished.
that universal spirit whom he created Here I cannot but remark how ab. in the beginning, who animates all surd it is for us to begin an epitaph nature, and of whom the vital princi. with the words Dis Manibus, or the pal of brutes is also, according to letters D. M. wbicb oftener than once Virgil, an emanation ; 2dly, a shade I have seen on a modern tombstone. or ghost, umbra, anima, fimulacrum, Such an exordium may be classical; but, or aliwas, as Homer calls it; and, 3dly, in a Christian .church-yard, an invoca- a body. At death, the vital princi. tion to Proferpine would not be more ple was re-united to that universal incongruous. Addison did well, spirit whereof it was originally a part; when he advised the writers of his the body was burned or buried, and time not to sacrifice their catechism returned to the earth whence it came; to their poetry.
and the shade or ghost went to I said, that the Manes seem to the nether world, and appeared behave had nothing to do in Tartarus. fore Minos or Rhadamanthus, who I am not ignorant, however, that alligned it such a mansion of happi. Rpeus and the common Dictionaries nels, of torment, or of expiatory lufafirm, that the word sometimes de- fering, as the person's behaviour ou KK 2
euro had merited, or his circumftan- edness. Had they been guilty of im. ces with respect to pollution or puri piet;, justice, want of natural affection, ty required. These shades or ghosts or any gro's immorality, they would, were lo far corporeal as to be visible, according to our author's plan of sto but could not be touched; they retain. tribution, have been consigåed to evered the same appearance their bodies lasting punishment in Tai tarus. But had before death; they had reason and as we find them in a state of expiato. fpeech and consciousness, and a re- ry suffering, and characterised by membrance of their past lives; they this epithet, we muft, I think, fup. could be happy or unhappy; retained pole, that the poet bere speaks of that all the passions and affections of hu- felf-destruction, which, being partly manity; and were capable (such of the effect of infirmity, was, in his them at least as had not been atroci- judgment, the object of pity as well ous criminals) of being purified from as of disapprobation. the pollutions of guilt by the opera- The Trojan and his guide were tion of air, fire, and water,
now arrived at that part of the mes 'l bat part of the lugentus campi lancholy plains, where the country, which Eneas first passed through, 'afif I may call it fo, seemed to open ter crolling the Styx, was peopled by into a wider extent. Here was a difthe Thades of infants, of persons trict, where, in a myrile grove, were Alio had suffered death by a false ac- wandering the shades of unhappy low cusation, and of those who had taken RCTS: Here Eneas met with Dido, & way their own lives. Thele are all who had rejoined her husband Si. placed in the same neighbourhood, theus; and here he saw feveral others, probably because, 'having been cut some of whom, by the by, had led 611, as we say, before their time, fuch lives on earth as would seem to they had not had the means, while 'deserve a feverer doom than that of on earth, of displaying their charaéier Virgil's purgatory. :.'. in its full extent. This, however, is -, Adjoining to the grove of lovers, but conjecture; for the poet only and at the furthelt extremity of these mentions "the circumstance, with regions, was a province inhabited by out affigning a reason. The self-mur- deceased warriors. Here he found derers, who occupy this district, are several of his old acquaintance, who termed infontes, innačent or harmless ; were glad to see him, and converse an epithet 'which the commentators and walk with him, and curious to Ho not understand, or at least do not know the occasion of his coming. fee the propriety of in this place, Vir The Grecian ghost knew him likewise, pil, we are fure, did not mean to in- and fled from before him, as they had Tinuare, thao self-destroyers in general been accustomed to do in the Trojanwari are guilty of no fault; for he places Here he saw the shade of his brotherriven thete ir: fontes, who' in respect of in-law Deiphobus, in the same mangothers were comparatively innocent, led condition in which his body had in an uncomfortable situation, and been left by the Greeks in the night of Javs, that they would now return to the burning of Troy. A long conthe earth if they could, and willing- versation ensued between the two ly submit to poverty, and those other friends, which was at latt interrupt crils, which when alive they thought ed by the priestess, who told Eneas insupportable. By the word infentes, that he had no further time to lose. dierefore, as here applied, I under- Be not angry, faid Deiphobus; I Rand such unhappy persons as had shall go away, return to my darkness, destroyed themselves, without being and there complete my term of pechargeable wiih any other great wick. Dance,
Bifcedam, explebo numerum, reudarque the poor mangled ghost of Deipho• tenebris.
bus laad heen ambitious to diftinguish The words explebo numerum are vari- itself at this time as a rhetorician, Dully interpreted ; but the sense is pro- and well skilled in the art of rounding bably what is here given. Rueus is a period. Dryden understands the inclined to explain it thus, ** Be not passage as I do. Serveus hints at angry, great priett:ss, I shall juft wind the same interpretation, but seems up the laft period of my discourse, and to prefer another. . then return to my darkness ;” as if ; , [To be continued.]
Sir Arthur Davillao : A Gothic Story.
JT was about the end of September ‘cent ; and a doubt how he might be 1 when Sir Arthur Davillan arrived received by a brother, to whom he in England from the Holy Land. He was little known, contributed to inwas second fon to the Lord Davillan, crease the gloom of his reflections. In and had, by his command, attended this mood he ascended the eminence Richard I. on an expedition to Pale- 'on which the castle of Davilian was fine. His gallant behaviour in war placed. Over the arched gate-way with the Infiuel attracted the notice of which presented itself to him, after his monarch, , who rewarded him li- having crossed the drawbridge, the berally, and knighied him. When a hand of ancient sculpturé had repréiruce was concluded with Saladio, and sented the founder of his family in a Richard had returned to his native kneeling polture, and a superior being Jand, Sir Arthur remained at Joppa, was in the attitude of placing a hela where he enjoyed an honourable post. met on his head, as the reward of a Here he continued for the space of deed of signal justice and valour, which thirty years, during which time he re- had procured from his sovereign the ceived no account of the friends he giant of the lands which he transmitleft' behind : at laft, unable to bear ted to his pofteriry. As Sir Arthur the tortures of anxiety, he got permis- entered the gate, he felt a fliglit trefion to revisit England. When he ar- mulous motion of the earh ; the helrived, he hurried with impatience to met dropt from the hands of the stathe castle belonging to his family. tue, and was shivered into a theusand Oa his journey he was informed that pieces at his feet. He was welcomed his father was dead many years, and by his bro:her with affoction ; who that his brother was row in posse:lion told him, that from his long filence, of his deinerne..
he was ilought to have fallen under :. The sensations with which Sir Ar- the banner of the sacied cross, but, thur approached the dwelling of bis since he had now so unexpectedly reancestors were of a melancholy na- turned, invited him to pass the reture. The reflection of the lawpiness mainder of his life in the castle. The and innocence of his early days rofe day was spent in conversuion of this like a charming vision to his mind, fort, and in narrations of the deeds of but like a vision of wh ch the rints prowels performed by the magnani. were faded, and the subítance vanish- mous Richard, and the generons, the ed for ever ; the death of his father, unbelicving Saladin, and the night was brave, generous, and beloveit, having preity far advanced when eich retired heard of so lately, bc mourned as re- to his apartment. There Sir Arthur heard a sound proceeding from the before midnight retired to his ipartchamber beneath him, as if a person ment. Among other questions he put åt equal and considerable intervals, to the servant who attended him, he trod solemnly across the floor : and inquired who Nept in the chamber a figh, long and deep, which came beneath him. He was informed that from the same quarter, gave him to it was uninhabited. “What is the believe that the person was in sorrow. caase of that ?" laid Sir Arthur;" for. Imagining this to be produced by some merly the lower storey contained the one of the family, after having invok- best rooms in the caftlé.” « Nay," aned the protection of the Saints, he be- swered the servant, “ I cannot inform took himself to ref. In Neep his mind your honour. Soon after my old malwas distracted by distressful dreams. ter's death, the present lord forbade He imagined himself transported to à any of the family to enter it, and nowild common, surrounded by rock's body presumes to dispute his comScooped into difmal caverns. Enter. mand." The servant then withdrew. ing one of these he found a man lying The mind of Sir Arthur was in that on the ground, which was Itained with state of doubt and hesitation, which blood. Horror, and astonishment glid. every where finds food for its fufpici. ed through his foul, when he found, ons. This intelligence, and the reon railing him gently up, that he was collection of the sounds he had heard his father. The old man looking in the night before, threw his thoughts his face, and discovering by whom he into a tumult, and made him fear be was embraced, raised his Anger as if knew not what.“ Guardian of the pointing to something. Sir Arthur holy city," cried he,' “ in that chameben observed a person, who seemed beri perhaps As he uttered these Atealing away thro' a dark passage, and words, the footsteps again truck his different from that by which he had ear. They were louder than the night sentered. Quitting his father, he hur. before. His attention was directed ried after ihe affalhin, who, when he to the chamber next his own on the was seized, turned Suddenly round, north side, from which he heard a and uttered a loud fhriek. With the poise, as if a confiderable weight bad noise Sir Arthur awoke. The dream fallen from the roof, and track op however made a great impression on something which emitted a hollow his mind. He imagined that he was found. He raised his eyes from ap acquainted with the features of the involuntary eagerness to liften, and a fancied murderer, but tried in vain coffin, having a sword and walk croflo recollect them.
fed on it, issued from the adjoining a As the morning was now far spent, partment, and passed Dowly by him. he drest himself, and descended to the It moved irregularly towards the door, hall, Here he found only his brother, which opened. He followed the cof. who seemed wsape in meditation. At fin with his eye. It glided out, and fight of him Sir Arthur started, for vanished. He then thought he dite be thought he discovered in him à covered through the darkoefs, a fi Atriking similarity to the visionary gure standing at the door, but he murderer of his father. Lord Davil. could not distinctly discover what it Jan Seemed equally affeded by his en. was. It appeared an old man, bis trance, but soon recovered from his eyes. were glaring and fixed, and he confusion, and bade bis brother good. waved his hand, as if inviting him to morrow with his accustomed frank- follow. Sir Arthur snatched the lamp, ness. But Sir Arthur could not view and rushed out of the room, but he him without borror. All day he was only saw the black skirts of the cloaththoughtful, absent, and uneasy : and ing of a person who seemed entering