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On the Theology of the Our two adventurers were now ap- undergo certain purifying paids, to proaching the rive, when Charon, prepare them for Elyfium. These pains the ferryman, alarmed at the sight of a are more or less severe, and of longliving man in complete armour, called 'er or shoster duration, according to to the Trojan to itop, and give an ac. the degree of guilt committed in the count of himself. The Sybil pacified upper world. The fouls, on pafling Charon, by declaring the name and the Styx, appear before the judge quality of her fellow-traveller, and Minos, who summons a council, ei. fhowing the golden bough. They ther of ghosts or of infernal deities, were then ferried over; and the three- but whether as a jury, or as witnesses, headed dog Cerberus, preparing to we know not; and baviag informed attack them, was quieted with a cake himself of the lives and characters of which the prieftels had got ready for those who are brought before him, him, and which he had no sooner allots to each a suitable manfion in fwallowed than he fell fast afleep.

this purgatory, What could have giveo rise to this The souls' thus disposed of, arefable of Charop and his boat, it is not first, those of good men, who, after very material to inquire. Mytholo- undergoing the necessary pains of gical writers have said, That the parification, pass into Elysium, where Greeks learned it from the Egyptians, they remain in a ftate of happinefs for which is iodeed probable enough; ever; 2dly, of those who have been that the Egyptians framed both this, of little or no .afe to mankind; 3dly, and some of her fables relating to the of those who have been cut off by an dead, from certain customs peculiar antimely death, so that the real chato their country ; that in particular sacters could not be exactly ascertainthere was, not far from Memphis, a ed; Athly, of those who, though guilfamous burying-place, to which the ty of crimes, had not committed any dead bodies were conveyed in a boat thing very atrocious; and, lastly, of across the lake Acherusia ; and that thofe whofe crimes, though atrocious, Charon was a boatman who had long were confidered as the effects, rather officiated in that service. The learn- of an unhappy deftiny, than of wiled Dr Blackwell fays, in his life of ful depravation. Homer, that, in the old Egyptian That the fouls of good men, who language, Charoni lignified fertyman. were to have an eternal abode in Ely

The travellers had now before them lium, were preriously obliged to upa region which the poet calls lngeries dergo purgation by suffering, is not campi, extending from the other side expressly declared, bat may be inferred of the Styx to the road that leads to from what Anchises says QuisElyfium on the right hand, and that que suos patimur manes :" " every one which termipates in Tartarus on the of us undergoes what is inflicted on him left. These melancholy plains must by his manes ;"* that is, by thofe deinot be confounded with Tartarus. ties of the nether world who were the The latter is a place of eternal tor- dispensers of expiatory punifhment. ment, prepared for those who, in this This is the original, or at least the world, had been guilty of great crimes; most usual sense of the word manes, for there, says the poet, “ Sedet, which, however, fometimes denotes aternumque fedebit infelix Theseus.” metonymically, the infernal regions in The former, though an uncomforta. general, and sometimes, but more ble region, is not a place of endless rarely, the fouls or shades who inpunishment, but a sort of purgatory, habited those regions. In Tartarus, in which all those souls that are not it does not appear that the manes had cooligned to Tartarus, are doomed to any thing to do. The difpenfers of


punishment in that dreadful place were notes the furies, and quote as an auT'iGphone and her filter furies. The thority, “ Ignofcenda quidem, scirent manes must have been a gentler sort fi ignoscere manes."

But this is not of beings. Some derive the word fufficient authority. That verfe of from manus, or manis, which they Virgil relates to Orpheus looking befay (on what authority I know not) hind him, when conducting his wife is an old adjective fignifying good. to the upper world ; a fault, or infaThe invocations of the manes practised tuation, which was to be punished, at funerals, the altars that were ere&ted not by the scourge of the furies, but to them, and these monumental inscrip- by calling back Eurydice to the tions which began with the words shades below; and which the Manes, Dis Manibus, were all, no doubt, in- however placable, could not pardon, tended as acts of worship, or as com- because it was a dire& violation of pliments, to these deities, and suppo the treaty with Proserpine. fed to incline them to mercy in their It is fomewhat difficult to under. treatment of the persons deceased, stand distinctly what the ancients whose fouls were now in their hands meant by the words animæ, umbræ, in purgatory. Horace tells us, that fimulacra, which, in this discourse, the Manes, as well as the gods above, I call ghosts, shades or fouls. We know, might be rendered placable by fong that man con Gils of a body and a soul, - Carmine di fuperi placantur, car- a material and an incorporeal parts mine manes." But the furies were the one, like all other bodies, inactive, inexorable and merciless—“Nesciaque the other the source of life, motion, humanis precibus mansuescere corda.” and intelligence. But, on compaAnd I do not find that worship, or ring the general doctrine of this sixth any other honours, were, except by book with a passage in the fourth witches, paid them, though to mo- Georgic, and with the eleventh of ther Midnight, whose daughters they the Odyssey, we find, that our poet, were, sacrifice was occasionally per- following in part the opinions of Pyformed. Ovid says indeed, that they thagoras

and Piato, and partly too the relented on hearing the song of or representations of Homer, supposed pheus, but assures us it was for the first man to confift of three substances ; first, time. Virgil, in his account of that a vital and active principle, derived affair, says only, that they were 2 either from the Deity himielf, or from ftonished.

that universal spirit whom he created Here I cannot but remark how ab. in the beginning, who animates all furd it is for us to begin an epitaph nature, and of whom the vital princiwith the wards Dis Manibus, or the pal of brutes is also, according to letters D. M. wbicb oftener than once Virgil, an emanation ; 2dly, a shade I have seen on a modera tombatone. or ghost, umbra, anima, fomulacrum, Such an exordium may be classical; but, or alowany, as Homer calls it; and, 3dly, in a Chriltian church-yard, an invoca- a body. At death, the vital princi. tion to Proserpine would not be more ple was re-united to that universal incongruous. Addison did well, ipirit whereof it was originally a part; when he advised the writers of his the body was burned or buried, and time not to facrifice their catechism returned to the earth whence it came ; to their poetry.

and the shade or ghost went I said, that the Manes seem to the nether world, and appeared behave had nothing to do in Tartarus. fore Minos or Rhadamanthus, who I am not ignorant, however, that alligned it such a mansion of happiRpeus and the common Dictionaries nels, of torment, or of expiatory lufaffirm, that the word sometimes de fering, as the person's behaviour ou


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On the Theology of the Sixth Book or Virgil's Eneid. eur had merited, or his circumftan- edness. Had they been guilty of im, ces with relpect to pollution or puri piet, justice, want of natural affection, ty required. These fhades or ghosts or any gro's immorality, they would were lo far corporeal as to be visible, according to our author's plan of re. but could not be touched; they retain. tribution, have been consigoed to evered the same appearance their bodies lafting punishment in Tartarus. But had before death; they had reason and as we find them in a state of expiato. fpeech and consciousness, and a re- ry suffering, and characterised by membrance of their past lives; they this epithet, we muft, I think, fup, could be happy or unhappy; retained pole, that the poet bere speaks of that all the paffions and affections of hu. felf-deftruction, which, being partly manity; and were capable (such of the effect of infirmity, was, in his them at least as had not been atroci- judgment, the object of pity as well ous criminals) of being purified from as of disapprobation. the pollutions of guilt by the opera- The Trojan and his guide were tion of air, fire, and water,

now arrived at that part of the me 'l hat part of the lugentus campi lancholy plains, where the country, which Eneas first passed through, af- if I may call it fo, seemed to open ter crosting the Styx, was peopled by into a wider extent. Here was a disthe shades of infants, of persons trict, where, in a' myrile grove, were Aliv had suffered death by a false ac- wandering the shades of unhappy locusation, and of those who had taken versi Here Eneas met with Dido, away their own lives. These are all who had rejoined her husband Si. placed in the same neighbourhood, cheus; and here he saw several others, probably because, 'having been cut fome of whom, by the by, had led 6f, as we say, before their time, fuch lives on earth as would seem to they had not had the means, while 'deserve a severer doom than that of on earth, of displaying their character Virgil's purgatory. in its full extent. This, however, is Adjoining to the grove of lovers, but conjccture; for the poet only and at the furthelt extremity of these mentions "the circumftance, with regions, was a province inhabited by out affigning a reason. The self-mur- deceased warriors. Here he found derers, who occupy this district, are several of his old acquaintance, who termed infontes, innocent or harmless; were glad to see him, and converse an epithet 'which she commentators and walk with him, and curious to Ho not understand, or at least do not know the occafion of his coming. fee the propriety of in this place, Vir- The Grecian ghoft knew him likewise, pil, we are fure, did not mean to in- and fled from before him, as they had Inuate, than self-destroyers in general been accustomed to do in the Trojanwari are guilty of no faule; for he places Here he saw the fhade of his brotherrven there irfontes, who' in respect of in-law Deiphobus, in the same mangothers were coinparatively innocent, led condition in which his body had in an uncomfortable situation, and been left by the Greeks in the night of days, that they would now return to the burning of Troy. “A long conthe earth if they could, and willing- versation ensued between the two ly fubmit to poverty, and those other friends, which was at latt interruptu cvils, which when alive they thought ed by the priestess, who told Eneas insupportable. By the word infentes, that he had no further time to lose. Ujerefore, as here applied, I under. Be not angry, said Deiphobus ; ! rtand such unhappy persons as had shall go away, return to my darkness, destroyed themselves, without being and there complete my term of pechargeable wich any other great wick. nance,



Difcedam, explėbo numerum, redderque the poor mangled ghost of Deipho• tenebris,

bus laad been ambitious to distinguish The words explebo numerum are vari- itself at this time as a rhetorician, Dusly interpreted ; but the fenfe is pro- and well skilled in the art of rounding bably what is here given. Rueus is a period. Dryden understands the inclined to explain it thus, “ Be not passage as I do. Serveus hints at angry; great prieftess, I shall juft wind the fame interpretation, but feeins up the laft period of my discourse, and to prefer another. then return to my darkness ;" as if

(To be continued.)

Sir Arthur 'Davillao: A Gothic Story.

T was about the end of September cent ; and a doubt how he might be

when Sir Arthur Davillan arrived 'received by a brother, to whom he in England from the Holy Land. He was little known, contribated to inwas second son to the Lord Davillan, crease the gloom of his reflections. In and had, by his command, attended this mood he ascended the eminence Richard I. on an expedition to Pale- on which the castle of Davillan was Itine. His gallant behaviour in war placed. Over the arched gate-way with the Infidel attracted the notice of which presented itself to him, after his monarch, , who rewarded him li- having crossed the drawbridge, the berally, and knighted him. When a hand of ancient fculpture had repretruce was concluded with Saladin, and sented the founder of his family in a Richard had returned to "his native kneeling posture, and a superior being Jand, Sir Arthur remained at Joppa, was in the attitude of placing a helwbere he enjoyed an honourable port. met on his head, as the reward of a Here he continued for the space of deed of signal justice and valour, which thirty years, during which time he re- had procured from his sovereign the ceived no account of the friends he grant of the lands which he tranfmitleft behind : at laft, unable to bear ted to his pofterity. As Sir Arthur the fortures of anxiety, he got permis- entered the gate, he felt a flight tror fion to revisit England. When he ar- mulous motion of the earth; the helrived, he hurried with impatience to met diopt from the hands of the stathe cafle belonging to his family. tue, and was shivered into a thousand On his journey he was informed that pieces at his feet. He was welcomed his father was dead many years, and by his bro:her with affection ; who that his brother was r.ow in poffe:lion told him, that from his long filence, of his deinerne..

he was il.ought to have fallen under The sensations with which Sir Ar. the banner of the facíed cross; but, thur approached the dwelling of bis since he had now so unexpectedly reancestors were of a melancholy na- turned, invited liim to jass the reture. The reflection of the bavpine's mainder of his life in the cattle. The and innocence of his early days rose day was spent in conversuion of this {ike a charming vision in his mind, fort, and in narrations of the deeds of but like a vifion of wh ch the tints prowels performed by the magnaniwere faded, and the fubitance vanish- mous Richard, and the generons, the ed for the death of his father, unbelieving Saladin, and the night was brave, generous, and beloved, having pretty far advanced when erch retired beard of so lately, to mourned as re- to his apartinent. There Sir Arthur


ever ;


Sir Arthur Davillan : A Gothic Story. heard a sound proceeding from the before midnight retired to his apartchamber beneath him, as if a person ment. Among other questions he put át equal and considerable intervals, to the servant who attended him, he trod sulemnly across the floor : and inquired who Nept in the chamber a figh, long and deep, which came beneath him. He was informed that from the same quarter, gave him to it was uninhabited. « What is the believe that the person was in sorrow. caose of that ?" laid Sir Arthur;" for Imagining this to be produced by fome merly the lower storey contained the one of the family, after having invok- beft rooms in the caftlé.” “ Nay," aned the protection of the Saints, he be- swered the servant, “ I cannot inform took himself to reft. In sleep his mind your honour. Soon after my old malwas distracted by distressful dreams. ter's death, the present lord forbade He imagined himself transported to a any of the family to enter it, and nowild common, surrounded by rocks body presumes to dispute his comscooped into difmal caverns. Enter. mand." The servant theo withdrew. ing one of these he found a mão lying The mind of Sir Arthur was in that on the ground, which was stained with state of doubt and hesitation, which blood. Horror and astonishment glid. every where finds food for its fufpici: ed through his foul, when he found, ons. This intelligence, and the reon railing him gently up, chat he was collection of the sounds he had heard his father. The old man looking in the night before, threw his thoughts his face, and discovering by whom he into a tumult, and made him fear be was embraced, raised bis ánger as if knew not what. « Guardian of the pointing to something. Sir Arthur holy city,” cried he,' “in that chameben observed a person, who seemed ber perhaps-As he uttered these Atealing away thro' a dark passage, and words, the footsteps again ftruck his different from that by which he bad ear. They were louder than the night entered. Quitting his father, he hur before. His attention was directed ried after the allallin, who, when he to the chamber next his own on the was seized, turned Suddenly round, north side, from which he heard a and uttered a loud shriek. With the noise, as if a confiderable weight bad noise Sir Arthur awoke. The dream fallen from the roof, and track op however made a great impression on something which emitted a hollow his mind. He imagined that he was found. He raised his eyes from ap acquainted with the features of the involuntary cagerness to liften, and a fancied murderer, but tried in vain coffin, having a sword and maik crof20 recollect them.

fed on it, issued from the adjoining * As the morning was now far (pent, partment, and passed dowly by him. he dreft himself, and descended to the It moved irregularly towards the door, hall, Here he found only his brother, which opened. He followed the cof. who seemed wrapt in meditation. At fin with his eye. It glided out, and fight of him Sir Arthur started, for vanilhed. He then thought he dif be thought he discovered in him a covered through the darkpefs, a filAtriking similarity to the visionary gure standing at the door, but he murderer of his father. Lord Devilo could not distinctly discover what it Jan Seemed equally affected by his en- was. It appeared an old man, bis trance, but soon recovered from his eyes. were glaring and fixed, and he confusion, and bade bis brother good- waved his hand, as if inviting him to morrow with his accustomed frank. follow. Sir Arthur snatched the lamp, ness. But Sir Arthur could not view and rushed out of the room, but he him without horror. All day he was only saw the black skirts of the cloaththoughtful, absent, and uneasy : and ing of a person who seemed entering


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