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tal watering place is so near the palace The military force of Brazil conthat, when disputes or contentions a- lists of a troop of horse, which serve rile between the boats crews of diffe- as guards for the vicetoy, twelve rerent ships, the slaves, &c. they are, giments of regulars from Europe, and fuppressed and acjufted by the soldiers fix raised in the country : these last on guard ; who, in the Portugueze enlist men of a mixed colour, which service, have great power, and often the former are by no means suffered treat the people with no little seve- to do. Besides the foregoing, there rity.
are twelve regiments of militia always · While we said at this place, we embodied. This whole force, regu. made several short excursions into the lars and militia, except those on outcountry, but did not go near the ports and other needful duties, appear mines, as we knew the attempt would early in the morning, on every first not only prove hazardous, but inef- day of the month, before the palace, fectual.
where they undergo a general suster, Froin its complicated state, I could and review of arms and necessaries. learn but few particulars relative to The private men, although they are the government of Brazil. The vice- confidered as persons of great conse. roy is invested with great power and quence by the populace, are, on the authority, subjet, in some cases, to other hand, equally submisive and oan appeal to the court of Lisbon ; but, bedient to their officers. This strict like a wise and prudent ruler, he fel. discipline and regularity, as the city dom exerts it, unless in instances, is in a great measure under military where found judgment and true polic orders, renders the inhabitants excy render it expedient and necessa- tremely civil and polite to the officers, ry. He is a man of little parade, who, in return, study to be on the and appears not to be very fond of most agreeable and hap!y terms with pomp and grandeur, except on pub- them. A captain's guard (indepenlic days, when it is not to be difpenf. dent of the cavalry, who are always ed with. When he goes abroad, for in readiness to attend the viceroy) is amusement, or to take the air, his mounted every day at the palace. guard consists of only seven dragoons; . On both sides of the river which but on public occafions, he makes his forms the bay, or harbour, the counappearance in a grander stile. I once try is picturesque and beautiful to a saw him go in ftate to one of the degree, abounding with the most luxcourts of justice ; and, though it was uriant flowers and aromatic (hrubs. situated oot a hundred yards from his Birds of a lovely and rich plumage palace, he was attended by a troop of are seen hopping from tree to trce in horse. His ftate carriage is tolerably great numbers, together with an endnear, but by no means elegant or fu- less variety of insects, whose exquisite perb; it was drawn by four horses, beauty and gaudy colours exceed all irregularly mottled.
description. There is little appear. Carriages are pretty common at ance of cultivation in the parts we vithis place ; there is scarcely a family fited; the land seemed chiefly pastuof respectability without one. They rage. The cattle here are small, and are mostly of the chaise kind, and when killed do not produce such beef drawn in general by mules, which as is to be met with in England; it are found to answer better than horses, is not, however, by any means so bad being more indefatigable and furer- as it is represented by some travellers to footed, consequently better calculated be ; on the contrary, I have seen and to ascend their steep hills and moun- eat here tolerably good, sweet, and
well-talled beef. I never saw any
mutton : they have, indeed a few and lapidaries, of which occupation sheep, but they are small, thin, and there are many in Rio, I law some valean. The gardens furnish most sorts luable diamonds, and a great number of European productions, such as cab- of excellent topazes, with many other bages, lettices, parsley, leeks, white sorts of 'stones of inferior valuc. Se. radishes, beans, peale, kidney-beans, veral topazes were purchased by my. turnips, water-melons,excellentpump- self and others, but we chose to buy kins, and pine-apples, of a small and them wrought, in order to avoid imindifferent kind. The country like- position, which is not unfrequent when wise produces, in the most unbound- the stones are sold in a rough state. ed degree, limes, acid and sweet le- One of the principal ftreets of this mons, oranges of an immense size and city is nearly occupied by jewellers exquisite flayour, plantains, bananas, and workers of these stones; and I yams, cocoa-outs, calhoo apples and observed that persons of a similar pronuts, and some mangos. For the use fellion generally resided in the same of the slaves and poorer sort of people, street. the capado is cultivated in great plen- The manufactures here are very ty; but this cannot be done through few, and those by no means extensive, a wanț of corn for bread, as I never All kinds of European good's sell at faw finer Aour than at this place, an immoderate price, notwithstand, which is plensiful, and remarkably ing the shops are well stored with cheap.
them. The riches of this country, arising The Brazil, or native Iodians, are from the mines, are certainly very very adroit at making elegant cotton great : to go near, or to get a fight hammocks, of various dyes and forms, of these inexhaustible ireasures, is im- It was formerly the custom of the possible, as every pass leading to them principal people of Rio to be carried is strongly guarded, and eyen a person about in these hammocks, but that taken on the road, unless he can give fashion is succeeded by the use of the a clear and unequivocal account of sedan chairs, which are now very com. himself and his businels, is imprison- mon among them ; but they are of a ed, and perhaps compelled ever after to more clumsy form than those used in work in those subterraneous cavities England. The chair is fufpended which avarice, or an ill-timed and fa- from an aukward piece of wood, burne tal curiosity, may have prompted him on the shoulders of two flaves, and e, to approach.
levated sufficiently to be clear of the In addition to the above fource of inequalities of the street. In carry. wealth, the country produces excel- ing, the foremost slave takes the pare, lent tobacco, and likewise fugar canes, ment, and the other the street, one from which the inhabitants make gord keeping a little before the other ; fo sugar, and draw a spirit called aqua- that the chair is moved forward in a dente. This fpirit, by proper manage- fide-long direction, and very uplikę ment, and being kept till it is a pro- the procedure of the London chair. per age, becomes toierable rum. As men. These fellows, who get on at it is sold very cheap, the commodore a great rate, never take the wall of purchased a hundred pipes of it, for the foot passengers, nor incommode the use of the garrison, when arrived them in the smalleit degree. at New South Wales. Precious and The inhabitants in general are a valuable stopes are also found here : pleasant, chearful people, inclining indeed they are so very plenty that a more to corpulency than those of certain quantity only is suffered to be Portugal ; and, as far as we could collected annually. At the jewellers judge, very favourably inclined to the
English. The men are straight and ance. Custom, however, reconciles well proportioned. They do not ac. us to the most outré fashions, and custom themselves to high living, nor what we thought unbecoming, the indulge much in the juice of the Portuguese considered as highly ornagrape.
mental. I was one day at a gentle“ The women, when young, are man's house, to whom I expressed my remarkably thin, pale, and delicately wonder at the prodigious quantity of shaped ; but after marriage they ge- hair worn by the ladies : adding, nerally incline to be lusty, without that I did not conceive it possible for it losing theat conftitutional pale, or ra- to be all of their own growth. The genther fallow appearance. They have tleman assured me that it was ; and, regular and better teeth than are usual. in order to convince me that it was ly obfervable in warm climates, where so, he called his wife, and untied her sweet productions are plentiful. They hair, which, notwithstanding it was have likewise the most lovely, piercing, in plaits, dragged at least two inches dark eyes; in the captivating use of upon the floor as she walked along. which they are by no means unskil. I offered my service to tie it up again, led. Upon the whole, the women of which was politely accepted, and conthis country are very engaging; and fidered as a compliment by both. It rendered more so by their free, easy, has been faid that the Portugese are and unrestrained manner. Both fexes a jealous people ; a disposition I never are exiremely fond of suffering their could ever perceive among any of hair, which is black, to grow to a those with whom I had the pleasure prodigious length. The ladies wear it of forming an acquaintance; on the plaited, and tied up in a kind of a c ub; contrary, they seemed sensible of, and or large lamp ; a mode of hair dreif- pleased with, every kind of attention ing that dves not feem to correspond paid to their wives or daughters." with their delicate and feminine appear.
On the Theology of the Sixth Book of Virgil's Eneid. By Dr Beattie *. T HE poetical beauties of Virgil's it all is dark and uncomfortable. “I
I fixth book are great and many; would rather, says the ghost of Aand a most agreeable talk it would chilles, be the Nave of a poor peasant be to point them out: but that is not among the living, than reign sole mo. my prefent purpose. Nor do I intend narch of the dead :" a passage blamto draw a comparison of the senti. ed, not without reason, by Plato, as ments of our poet with those of Ho. unfriendly to virtue, and tending to mer, concerning a future state. From debase the soul by an unmanly fear Homer, no doubt, Virgil received of death. the first hint of this episode ; but the My design is, to give as plain an evocation of the ghosts, in the ele. account as I can of the theology (if I venth book of the Odyffey, is not in may be allowed to call it fo) of this any degree so striking, or so poetical, part of Virgil's poem. And I shall as Eneas's descent into the world of make the poet his own interpreter spirits. Nor does the former exhibit without trusting to commentators, or, any diftinct idea of retribution. In seeking unnecessary illuftrations from
Plato, . From the Second Vol. of the Edinburgh Pbil. Trans,
Plato, to whom Virgil, though he pre-existence and transmigration, thei differs from him in many particulars, taught in some of the schools, as was indebted for the outlines of the to exhibit in their pre-existent state, system, and who probably owed them such of the hero's pofterity as there to philosophers of the Pythagorean might be occasion for. He chose school.
the latter method; and bas so mario The learned Bishop Warburton has aged it, that we must acknowledge commented on this part of the Eneid, the choice to have been judicious. Many of his observations are pertinent, As the chief thing I have in view is, but some are fancitul; and in more to illustrate the moral and theologia places than one he seems to have cal sentiments of my author, I aced misunderstood the author. His ge- not take up much time, either in vin. neral position is, That what the poet dicating, or in apologizing for, his says of Elysium and the infernal re- general fictioo; I mean, his laying gions, we are to understand as nothing the scenery of a future state in the fubmore than a figurative account of the terranean regions. That on the coalt of mysteries exhibited in the temple of Italy, in the neighbourhood of CuCeres at Eleulis ; and that the poet mæ, there should be a passage under meant in this way to tell us, that ground, leading to the rivers Ache. Eneas had, like some other heroes or ron, Cocytus, and Styx, and thence lawgivers of old, been initiated into to Tartarus on the left hand, and Ely. those mysteries. This theory he sup- sium on the right; that in this Ely. ports very ingeniously, but not, I be. fium, though thus situated, there ihould lieve, to the satisfaction of many read. be a fun and stars, and graffy plains, ers. I admit there are allegories in and delightful groves and rivers, and the book, as I shall have occasion to two gates, the one of ivory, the other show; but that the whole is an al- of horn, opening into the upper world legory, or rather an allegorical repre. at no great distance from the Curæ fentation of the Eleusinían mysteries, above mentioned ; and that in the subI can no more suppose, than that the terranean spaces thus bounded, there arrival at Carthage is an allegory, or Should be different forts of accommo the visit to Evander, or the combat dation for all the lades or fouls of with Turnus, or any other of our the dead : -- these, I say, are fables, hero's achievements. I consider this which as they cannot, according to our episode as truly epic, and as a part, way of judging, be reconciled to pro though not a necessary part, of the bability, or even to posibility, we mult poet's fable ; and that he contrived it, endeavour, to acquiesce in the beft first, that he might embellish his work way we can. So, in reading Ovid's with a poetical account of a future story of Phaeton, if we would erter ftate ; and secondly, and chiefly, that into the posi's views, and be saitably he might thence take an opportunity affected with his narrative, we must to introduce a compliment to his suppose, what we know to be absolutely country, by celebrating the virtues imposible, that the sun is driven a. of some of the great men it had pro. hout the world in a chariot, which, duced. As these great men did not though made of gold and filver, and fourish till after the death of Eneas, dragged by real horses, and support: there were but two ways in which the ed by nothing but air, yet pailes a. poet could make himself acquainted long in a bearen highway, where the with them. One was, by causing some marks of the wheels are clearly ais. priest or soothsayer to prophecy con- cernible. Fables of this fort, howe. cerning them; and the other, by so ver inconsistent with the laws of naavailing himself of the doctrines of ture, whico rendered by the art of the
poet consistent with themselves, it giants, one with three heads, and anis not our interest to criticize too other with a hundred hands, and the minutely; especially if, like that now chimera breathing fire, and the manyunder consideration, they abound in headed ferpent of Leraa roaring hifublime description and instructive lef. deouily. By placing there at the end fons of morality. The fable then trance, the poet perhaps intended to let us acquiesce in for a momenti figðify, in the way of allegory, the Our dreams, while they last, we be- horrors that accompany the near apliere withou: inconvenience; and the proach of death; or perhaps those scenery of this fable will not be more many evils, real and imaginary, which lasting than that of a dream. As we must all pass through in our way
As a fort of apology for the wild- to the other world.. pess of some parts of this fable, it From this place to the river Styx may be remarked, that formerly, at was a region, in which the gholts of Cumæ, near which the Trojan fleet those, whose bodies had not been was now stationed, there lived a prophe. honoured with the rises of fepulture, tess called the Cumean Sybil ; that in were obliged to wander in a melan. her neighbourhood, encompassed with choly condition for the fpace of an hunthick woods, there was a lake called dred years, before they could be perAvernus, which emitted pestilential mitted to pass the river, or appear Itrams; that in the same parts of before any of the internal judges: Italy there are many dreadful caverns, Hure Ejeas met with his old pilot one of which is to this day cal. Palinarus, who, in toeir last voyage, led the Sybil's Grotto ; and that for havin, fallen over board in the night, those who knew nothing of the real and swam to the main land of Italy, size of the earth, or the final deftina- was there murdered by the natives, tion of man, it was not altogether who did not give themselves the trou. absurd to imagine, as all dead bodies ble to bury him, but threw his body return to the earth, that the fub:er into the fea. He begged Eneas to ranean regioos might be the mansions take him under his protection, and of the ghosts or shades of human be. procure him a passage over the Styx. ings departed.
« It cannot be, said the Sybil; you The necessary facrifices being per- `must have patience. In the place formed, and Eneas having found in where you were murdered, there will the woods that golden bough which, soon be prodigies, which will induce being intended as a present to Profer- the natives to perform your funeral pine, was to serve him as a paftport rites, and call a promontory after your through her dominions; the Sybil or name; and then you may pass the priestess plunged into the cavern, cala river, but not before.” Palinarus acling to him to follow her, with his quiefced, well pleased to hear that sword drawn in his hand. They went such honours awaited him. a great way through a lonely region, Toinculcate this doctrine,thatthe soul where there was no more light than would suffer for some time in another one travelling in a wood receives in world, if the body were not decently a cloudy night from the moon. At buried in this, and that the neglect length they arrived at the entrance of of the funeral. ceremonies is offensive the infernal world, where a number of to superior beings, was a very warterrible beings resided : Disease, Old rantable fraud in the lawgivers of Age, Fear, Famine, Poverty, and Greece and Egypt; as it would no Peath, and Labour, and War, and doubt make the people attentive to Discord; and fuch monstrous things a duty, whereof we find that savage 28 centaurs, gorgons, harpies and nations are too apt to be forgetful. 1 VOL. XII. No. 70. Kk