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and that one of the principal perfor- piring fovereign, and exhibited ; mers in this tragedy had been pur- shocking spectacle in Petersburgh, of sued for years, by the idea of his ex- remorse, and of insanity.”
Account of the Bastille *.
THE Bastille was built in 1370, most all the apartments had two floors,
1 under the reign of Charles V. one of for the other of oak. The It then consisted only of two sepa- dungeons were twenty feet below rate towers, one on each side of the the level of the earth, and about five road leading into Paris, intended to above that of the ditch : their only defend its entrance. Since that time opening was a narrow barbican lookit had received considerable altera- ing into this ditch. The wretch convions : fix more towers were added, demned to one of these could not and united to each other by lofty live in it long, surrounded by rais ' walls. These were again surrounded and spiders, plunged into a damp and by ramparts, and a wide and deep noisome atmosphere, and in the midst ditch. Horrible the prison must have of a mud filled with the spawn of roads. been, though its horrors have been Their sole furniture was a large stope exaggerated. Not the least trace of covered with straw for a bed. All the those cages of wood, covered with prisons except these, had stoves, or iron, was to be found, or of the fire-places. The chimnies were very çubliettes + mentioned by several au- narrow, and closed at the bottom, at thors; though they both may perhaps top, and sometimes at intermediate have existed formerly. Each of the spaces with bars of iron. Their com. sowers consisted of five stories. All, mon furniture was a bed-stead with except the uppermost, were irregular curtains of green ferge, a paillaffe[mai. polygons of sixteen or seventeen feet grass stuffed with straw,) and matrass, diameter, and as many high. Some one or two tables, two pitchers, 2 had several windows, but the walls candlestick, a pewter fork, Spoon, and were enormously thick. Thole of cup, two or three chairs, a rinderthe upper flory were more than fix box, Aint, and steel, sometimes as a feet, and this increased in proportion matter of favour, a small pair of tongs, as they were nearer the ground. A and an old fire-Shovel, and two large kind of wooden capes were occasion. Itones by way of dogs. After almost ally adapted to the windows to oball the prisoners were deprived of the struct the view of the country. Each walk of the bastion, and that of the prison was closed with twu doors, top of the tower was permitted to fet, fastened each with three locks, and they were reduced to that of the court. fome had wickets. The rooms of the This was about 1 10 feet by 77: the upper story were the worit of all, ex air in it, however, could be but litcept the dungeons. In winter ex tle renewed, and it must have concericellively cold, in fummer insupporta' trated the heat excessively in fummer, bly hot, they adnitted no light, no the buildings with which it was surair, but throngh a chink two or three rounded being nearly eighty feet bigh. inches wide externally, where it was Even this was not permitted to all; crossed by strong bars of iron. Al and to no one for more than an hour
* La Bastille devoillee. &c.
+ Dungeons concealed by trap-doors, into which persons to be made away with secret Ty were made to fall, and there copsigned to oblivion.
at a time, in order to make room for kidnapping an author, who had taken others, as no two were permitted to refuge in England or Holland, whilft walk together. There was also a a few pounds were denied to furnish fmall nich in which the prisoner was conveniencies for the prisoners, and obliged to shut himself up, when in. while the governor of the Bastille pocformed by the sentinel that any one keted twopence-halfpenny a-day out was passing. The food of the prison. of the fifteen pence allowed a soldier, ers was in general scanty, and of the thut up with a prisoner as a guard, or worst quality, though some had fuf- rather as a spy, though under the preficient influence to have their table text of attending and consoling him. well supplied.
If any thing could heighten the nefaWhen we consider a fellow crea- riousness of those who thus wantonly ture, deprived of liberty, at a tyrant's and arbitrarily punished men for actions cod, condemned to solitude in such that claimed applause, it would be, a place, and kept in the profoundest that the fame instrument was employignorance of his fate, and of the fitu- ed to protect the guilty from the hand ation of those most dear to him, per- of justice. Not to mention those who haps for years, we cannot bnt exe. procured themselves in the Bastille crate his oppressor. How much then an afylum to secure them from the must our indignation rise, when we demands of their creditors, Jean Claude find that his sole crime was the hav- Fini, calling himfelf Hypolite Chajog dared to satyrize the flagrant vices moran, and Mary Barbara Mackay, of some petty minister, or lome cour- Atyling herself his wife, were conduce tier's mistress, who, though not ted to this prison, under pretence of ashamed to act them in the face of being concerned in libels, but in fact to day, yet would not permit them evade giving them up to our governto be talked of! nay, perhaps, even ment, by which they were claimed, this he had not done ; he was con- in order that they might be delivered demned to a punishment fufficiently over to justice for that atrocious vila severe for the most atrocious crime, lainy perpetrated by Mr. Mackay, in on the flighiert fufpicion. On looking a lone house at Newington, in the over the long list of victims of despo- year 1785, which our readers must no tism, (about 2000 are said to have doubt will remember. These wretch. been confined in a series of only 46 ches were set at liberty, as soon as years) few appear to have been really the affair was supposed to be blown guilty of crimes, and far the greater over. If a minilter of some forcign part such as were suspected of having power were offended, the case was written or published accounts of the different. An officer, in the service of diffolute lives of men in power, or the king of Sardinia, of the name of discovered to have done so, by the Caffe, had a quarrel with the minister molt base and in Gdious means. To at war, whom he accused of having detect the writers of such pieces, or done him an injustice. Full of resentfappress their publication, no expence ment, he came to France, threatenvas spared, and no artifice that the ing to avenge himself, by publishing vileft treachery could suggest unem. the minister's conduct, No sooner ployed. The grand spy of Mr. Le- were his departure and menaces ndir, in this department, Jaquet de la known at Turin, than the Sardinian Dsuai, confessed, that he annually cost ambassador was dire&ted to solicit an che government 30,000 liv. [1250 1.] order for his being arrested. This and made it expend 100,000 liv. was easily obtained : C:ffe was con. [4,1661. 135. 4d.] One or two thou- veyed to the Bastille ; all his papers aad guineas would be squandered in were seized, and put into a bag, with
out any inventory of them being permishon to shave himself. His wife, taken: and a month afrerwards he then suckling her first child, was so was sent under a strong guard to a much affected, that bob the and her town on the confines of Savoy, where infant nearly lost their lives. Mr he was delivered to a Sardinian offi- Do's accounts, which had already been cer, who with twenty dragoons, el- examined and passed, were demanded corted him to the castle of Miolans, of him. Nothing that could justify the Bastille of that country. His his detention appearing, he and Mr papers, however valuable they might S. were set at liberty. A committee have been, packed carelessly in a bag was appointed to inspe&theiraccounts, much too large, were torn to pieces by which declared, that they were near the length of the journey. Let us 400,000 liv. (16,666 I.] in advance, here observe, that every king in Eu- and at the same time passed an encosope, except the king of England, mium on their conduct. At this time has a Bastille, the gates of which two different opinions prevailed on the open and shut at his nod, at the nod subject of the corn trade. Mr. Turgot of his minifters, their secretaries, his was for its being totally free. He was mistresses, or any nobleman, or female, supported by abbé Morellet, abbé who has acquired a certain influence, Beaudeau, and Mr. de Condorcet, either by place, or intrigue, whilft who successively published answers to justice looks on unconcerned.” Ano Mr. Neckar's work on legislation and ther instance of French justice we the corn-trade. This work, which ad. must mention. An abbé, in concert vanced opposite principles, occasioned with a girl of the town, having Itab. its author many vexations. Mr. T. bed his brother as he was embracing then comptroller general, fearful of him, cut the body in pieces and fed the propagation of a doctrine so oppoto Venice. There this fratricide was fite to his own, applied to the lieute. arrested, on an accusation of having nant of police to prevent its publicamurdered his mistress and accomplice. tion. Unable to obtain any thing of He was claimed by the court of him, he went to the cenfor, Mr Ca. France.-To inflict an exemplary det de Sainville, requesting him to punishment op him, no doubt?-No. refuse his approbation. Mr. de S. de He was related to some magistrate, fired an order to this purpose in writand in consequence was only confined ing. Mr. T. not complying with this, at Pierreen Cize.
he gave his approbation in the follow The following anecdotes of some ing terms: 'I have read, &c. Tho' who have taken up their abode in this the principles contained in it appear den of despotism may tend farther to to me different from those announced disclose the secrets of the pace.' by government, yet the author bav.
Dar. Doumerc, commissioned to ing confined himself fimply to a disfurnish corn on account of the king, cussion of his subject without perfonaentered May 5, 1775, set at liberty lities or declamation, and as I conJune 20. The law of 1764, repder. ceive, that the truth cannot but gain ing the exportation of corn free, occa- by the investigation of so important a fioned a scarcity. Without revokiog question, I think the publication of the law, it was thought fit to import this work must be advantageous. corn from abroad. Mr Turgot, fuf- Mr de la Tour jun. This young pecting Mcstrs Sorin and Doumerc, gentleman, who has vilised almoft all who were partners, of improper con- the prisons and houses of confineduct, ordered them to be conducted ment in France, the son of the first to the Bastille. Mr D. was thirteen president of the parliament of Aix, days withont a change of linen, or and related to several other perfons of
diftin&ions distinction, came to the Baltille strong- but it was now quite the reverfi. ly recommended to the governor. His reformation was despaired of, Mr. de Launey paid the greatest re- and he was sent to another prison spect to his illustrious prisoner, who laden with irons. Thence, however, was a dissipated youth sent to the Baf- he found means to escape : but he tille to be reclaimed, by his friends. did not abuse his liberty. He emA few days after his arrival he was ployed it in attempting a reconciliaintroduced to Mde. de L. whom he tion with his friends, which he obafterwards visited daily. He was calo tained by the promises he made of aled by the name of St. Julien, that mendment, promises that he appears he might be present even when there to have kept. De L. was mean e. was company. When the governor nough on this occasion to refuse payand his wife were absent, he was ment for goods furnished Mde. T. by master of their house. On these oc- his orders, and one tradesman was casions he made love to the waiting not paid till fix years afterwards, tho' miid, who was by no means cruel. de L, had received the money from This being soon known to de L. he de la T. at the delivery of the arsaid to him one day : 'You are ticles ; nor would he than have been young, you have pasions like other paid, had not de L. been embroiled m:n, I will bring you acquainted with in some affairs which made him dea charming little woman, with who'n firous of hufhing up this. you will be enchanted : you shall The next article with which we marry her, but without a parfon or shall present our readers, will probabattorney: you understand me.' De ly excite their curiosity more than 2L. had a mistress, one Mde. Tellier, ny other. This is the history of the to whom he would have been gener. man with the iron mask, which has ous, but he was sordidly avaricious. been the occasion of so much enquiry. De la T. was rich, and thus he No politive proof of who he was, has thought he might conciliate his two yet been obtained, though we own opposite propenfities. The same e. there is some probability in the supvening he led his prisoner to the house policion here advanced, as founded on of Mde. T. There he left him, whilst presumptive proofs. After bringing he paid fome visits in town, and re- fufficient arguments to show that he turned at night to conduct him to his was not the duke of Beaufort, the apartment in the Bastille. Mde. T. duke of Monmouth, Fouquet, the senow removed to a more elegant ha- cretary of the duke of Mantua, the bitation. The greater part of every Armenian patriarch Avedick, who day was spent by de la T. at her was carried off by the Jesuits, the house, and he was always ready to re- count de Vermandois, natural son to turn when called for in the evening. Lewis XIV, a younger brother of Unfortunately, the governor found a Lewis XIV, son of Anne of Austria, letter from the young gentleman to and cardinal Mazarin, or a twin brohis mistress, in which he was painted ther of that monarch, each of whom not altogether to his liking. The next has been asserted to have been the perday poor de la T. found all his en- fon, it is now supposed, that the most joyments at an end. The doors of and strongest probabilities are in fahis dungeon were no longer open to your of his having beenaneli er brother him. He was not even permitted to of Lewis XIV. On this hypo:hesis the breathe, the air of the court. Hither- following is all we can gather of mis to de L. had given a favourable re- history. The duke of Buckingham, port of his conduct to his friends, who went to France in 1625, to bring Vol. XII. No.70. Hh
over the princess Henrietta, wife to we have called him, in conformity to Charles I. openly paid great attention custom, the man with the iron mark, to the queen, Anne of Austria, to but many cireumstances tend to show, . whom his gallantry was not displeas- that his mask was in fact of black vel. ing. The fruit of this intrigue was a vetr fon, born in the beginning of the year We shall conclude this article with 1626. As it was well known, that some account of what passed the 14th the king and queen of France had of June, 1789. The Bastiile was not long had separate beds, the profound: taken by assault: the gates were 0. est secrecy was observed, and the child pened by the garrison. Only one was educated in the most private cannon was discharged, and the gar. manner. Anne of Austria died Ja- rison made but a light defence. They nuary 20, 1666. It appears, that the would have surrendered fooner, but man with the iron mask, was convey- the people, in their tumultuous fury, ed to Pignerol, previous to tlie year fired upon them repeatedly after they 1671, and not before 1666. Moft offered to deliver up the fortress, probably, therefore, it was soon after thus compelling the garrison, as it the death of Anne. Confided to the wire, to fire upon them in return. care of St. Mars, then governor of The story of a number of citizens that place, he appears always to have being admitted within the walls, been entrusted to the fime person. In and maffacred in cold blood, we are 1666 he was transferred to the island happy to say, is udtrue. Some who of St. Marguerite, when St. Mars was bad advanced with a flag of truce, promoted to that government, and it is were fired upon; but they had reremarkable that the prison of the island mained in an outer court, after the of St. Marguerite was constructed on flag, with a party, had withdrawn, that occasion. In 1698, St. Mars be- and the people had re-commenced ing removed to the Pastiile, took his their firing. On opening the prison, prisoner with him. Here he died on only seven prisoners were found : all ihe 19th of November, 1703. The alive ; no dead bodies ; no skeletons; following is an extract from the mor. fio men in chains. It is true there tiary register of the royal and paroo were some anatomical preparations in chial church of St. Paul, at Paris. a closet, belonging to the surgeon, 'An. 1703. Nov. 19. Marchialy, ag- which probably gave rise to such reed about forty-five, died at the Bas- ports. The prisoners were Tavernier, ville, and his corpse was interred in put into the Bastille August 4, 1759: the burying ground of this parish, the count de Solages, February 28, 1784 20th of the faid month, in presence of De Whyte, February 29, 1784: Bé: Mr. Rofarges, major of the Bastille, chade, and La Roche, January 10, and of Mr. Reish, furgeon-major of 1787: La Caurege, January 18, that place, who have signed this.' Ex- 1789: and Pujade, February 8, 1787: čept Mr. St. Mars, Mr. Rofarges ap- Of Tavernier we are only informed, pears to be the only person who ever that he was a natural son of ParisTaw the prisonet. He was major of Duverney, brother to Paris-MontPignerol when the prisoner arrived martel, and that he is become insane. there, and also accompanied him till The count de S. was shut up by his he died. After his death, the door relations at Vincennes in 1782. De of his apartment was taken up and Whyte also came from Vincennes. burnt, with all its furniture, and the The true name of Béchade is La plaster was scraped off the walls. In Barte; he was accused of forgery. Speaking of this unfortunate person, La Roche, La Courege, and Pujade,