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of Anżasca form the handle. The nearly horizontal, but they rise a few principal place of the village of Ma- degrees towards the south. The head cugnaga, according to this idea, is of the White Pic is almost insulated: fituated in the interior part of the but its base and its body adhere on the racket, but near its boundary, or ra- eaft and west to the chain of Mount ther that part of the disc which Rose ; and on the north to a mountain joins its handle. The Alp of Pe- which projects to the interior of the driolo is on the opposite side. The circle. This mountain is the Cichudiameter of the circle, including sa, and it is, by following its ascent, half the thickness of the walls, is that a traveller can go from the pas, about two leagues.

tures of Pedriolo to the summit of The white Pic is not overlooked the pic. It is wholly composed of foby any mountain which can conceal liated rocks, of which some are beauthe plains of Italy; but during our au- tifully veined granites, hard and whit: thor's stay, a bluish vapour covered ith; others quartzy, micaceous, ferru. these plains, and a vast cloud, suspend. gineous stones, sometimes mixed with ed over the vault of heaven, formed schorl, and occasionally with plumbaan immense curtain, which concealed go: They found also a ftratum of all this profpe&t. “At times, this calcareous stone, like that which occurtain seemed to break, and through curred at Siinplon, and like it, boundthe rents we saw sometimes lake Major, ed on each side by rocks, supposed to fometimes the Teslin, then the Na. be primitive. viglio grande; but we could dis 'The veined granites of this moons tinguish neither Milan por Padua, tain are mixed occasionally with solid por any city of Lombardy, which granite, and the same block is some

are fufficiently conspicuous in clear times found to contain each kind; but : weather.” The structure of the moun- they observed a very singular pheno

tains which separated them from the menon. In a great mass, the middle plains, was not remarkable. The was of veined well characterized gras highest was Tagliaferro; its form that nite, while the two external surfaces of a sharp pyramid, and its point scarce. were of maffy granite. M. Warner, ly less elevated than that of the White we understand, has a large mass of Pic: it is bare of snow, which is to true granite, in which are very dif. be attributed to the steepness of its tinct rounded stones in some places, Gides ; the height is 1594 toifes. pretty large, of gneiss. We have

In their delcent, the travellers had mentioned formerly having seen maftime to examine the nature of the ses of granite in granite, but we do not rock more particularly. Its top is recollect that the included stones were partly composed of granite veined in of the gneiss kind: and those too were twisted laminæ, filled with large cryf. not rounded. The latitude of Mount Itals of feld (path ; and partly of a fo- Rose is 46° 0' 10". Its longitude liated rock, composed of thin plane could not be determined on account leaves. The strata, we have said, are of the cloudy weather.

Account of the Czar Peter III. by the King of Sweden.* THIS prince; who for some time through the medium of the calumnies and was only known in Europe, of his assassins--this priace, born and · Vol. XII. No.70. Gg

educated • Danger of the Political Balance of Europe,

educated in Germany, had all the in. Turkish negociations, or the caprici. clinations of his native country, and, ous motions of the Khan of the Tara contempt for his new subjects. tars. Mailer of Holstein, a member conse- The first misfortune of this prince quently of the German empire, he ad. (Peter III.) was, to be adopted by E. ded weight to the Russian crown, in- lizabeth to mount the throne one day. terfered in the German fyftem, in his The second, to have been led from own personal right, and fortified his Holstein, to become a Dave at Elizainfluence with new alliances with the beth's court ; and his wife was the northern powers. Happily, this pro- third misfortune. His Imperial aunt fpect did not inspire him with ambi- obtained the crown by a revolution tion ; he was ingluenced only by a Itaiced with injustice, and was always just resen: ment against Denmark, and in dread of a counter-revolution, her by his friendihip for Frederick the nephew was a prisoner of state. The Grea:. Policy leagued with his mo- cabinet was barred, and its councils deration. For, the ruinous war which were concealed ; all intercourse was Elizabe:h waged against the king of suspected with him; his German ferPrusia, bad cost her three hundred vants were deprived of the comforts thousand men, and above thirty mil- of his conversation, and their attachlions of roubles.

ment was a principle of disgrace; Though the third Peter had no o. surrounded by enemies, the right of ther idle to public esteem than that approach was only given to spies, ob. of saving a prince, upon whose prefer- servers, and betrayers of his conversavation che maintenance of the politi- tion_his matrimonial misunderstandtal equilibre depended, his memory ing left the prince without domestic Mould be regarded and esteemed. In confolation, and reviewing fome troops fomu venal writings, the productions at Orienabaum, became his only reof fanciful historians, his attachment creation. to the king of Prussia was ridiculed His complaints gave rise to an in. as the effect of enthusiasm, and the trigue, which serves to lead us thro' puerile love of emulation :--but al- the mazes of those deplorable erents, furedly an enthusiasm for, and admira- which uliimately deprived the emper. tion of, the qualities of a man, who or of his scepter, and of his life. wrought, such prodigies of wisdom The chancellor Bestuchef, the great and intrepidity, was very excusable confidant of Elizabeth, was the Grand and the heroism of friendship is a rare Duke's avowed enemy; his infolence quality amongst kings.

in coptriving mortifications, made him This profound respect, and regard, tremble at the prospect of a new reigo; for Frederick the Great, demonstrat. he formed the project of substituting ed judgment and sensibility in the the prince Paul, son of Catharine the third Peter ; the enemies of Prussia, Second, under her regency, in the at Petersburg, had signalized them- place of Peter the Third. Bestufelves, by the perfecution of the young chef presuppofed the success of his ezar, during the reign of Elizabeth. plot, from a multitude of groundless This prince had accordingly counter- calumnies against the Grand Duke, acted their measures, and his fable- and the favourable reception of Eliquent conduct, in supporting the king zabeth; and, lastly, upon the intention of Prufiiayvias perfectly consistent of Catharine to deprive her husband This last monarch was now in dan- of the crown, and to appropriate the ger; the new English minister (Lord' regency to herself. It would be preBute) threatened him with defertion, sumptuous to advance, that this prinand his fafety seemed to depend on his cess was concerned in this plot- but

‘aturedly

ile.

assuredly Bestuchef must have believ. lities of his government were justice ed it, or he never would have en. and clemency-and his magnanimity countered her refiftance. Elizabeth, to some Prullian officers, whom the doubtful at first, resumed a more dig- fortune of war had deprived of liber. nified conduct, and supported her ne- ty, and who groaned in extreme ferphew against the chancellor ; and an vitude, is too well known to be reincautious expression of the empress corded. Elizabeth is still cited, • I know my The commencement of his reign aephew,' said she one day, to the slan- promised zeal for promoting order, derers of the prince, • I have nothing and discovered application, vigilance, to fear from a good heart, I am not and activity-he was early at the seso well acquainted with my niece. nate, at the different offices, and set

Bestuchef, afterwards disgraced by an example of industry, by his superElizabeth, was excepted out of the intendance in various departments : amoefty; upon the accession of the the first Peter was his model, and his third Peter ; but apon the indulgence plans formed the chart of his legislaof Catharine, he was recalled from ex- tion-to him Russia owes the wiseft

ordinances which have decorated that The preceding facts, which repose government. . upon the authority of authentic hifto- Not satisfied with limiting the defrians, describe the first clouds of that potism of his officers, he abridged his tempeft, in which the third Peter was own power, by abolishing the secret involved; prudence could alone pre- council of chancery, a state inquiliserve him from the rocks and break- tion, which, upon the least suspicion, ers thr Jugh which he passed ;-but imprisoned, tortured, or executed, naamongst his other virtues, he found tives and strangers. He was a warm one, namely, confidence, which cauf- friend to toleration ; and he framed ed his destruction.

that memorable decree which enfranNotwithstanding the reproaches chised the nobles from compulsive ferm justly cast upon that monarch, from vice, and permitted them to travel, the excess of his good qualities, spite without the royal permission. of the blame with which he is at. These traits exhibit the character tacked, upon the unfortunate career of Peter III. in a new point of view, of his debaucheries, and of the San- and afford a very striking example of Wers which hatred and remorse have the light that is usually thrown on attached to his memory, few princes truth by time. have began to reign with more wis: Precipitation, however, the king dom ; his first public actions expiated of Sweden obferves, accompanied some the defects of inany preceding years, of his falutary innovations ; particu. and they had only six mon:hs dura. larly those relating to the clergy; tion.

, which, though juft, reasonable, and Siberia, and the state prisons, were political in themselves, hocked the filled with distinguished captives, vic- cuftoms and manners of the country, tims of the favourites, and ministers and furnished pretexts for rendering of Elizabeth-the emperor redreffed his government unpopular. their wrongs—tbe illustrious Munich The regiments of Ismailoff and Prewas recalled, and reinstated-Biron, obrazinski, formed a body of guards, Lestock, and some of those who had of- in barracks in Petersburg, licentious fended him in the late reign, were re- and ill disciplined, their want of substored to liberty, by a prince who ex- ordination enervated their loyalty; tended his clemency to the insolent and in former revolutions they were favourites of his aunt the first qua. sold to the highest purchaser. Peter G g 2

the

the Third conceiving, that a rigorous favours were lavished ; at the end of discipline would secure their obedi- fix months, he experienced a fare, ence, and prevent the disorders of a which ten years stained with crimes, body so badly organized, he introdu- and with tyranny, could have scarce ced the Prussian discipline, modelled ly justified, them after his Holstein guards, and Qur author having detailed the insecured order by severity: had this frigues that led to the death of the discipline been firmly established, their Czar, says, fideliiy would have been secured ; cor- '" To his last day, even to his laf ruption is difficult in a corps inured hour, Peter preserved his magnanito the daily detail of their duty; but mous, fatal security, and confdence; the reformation was of necessity en. his Ruflian guards were corrupted by truit d to German, in preference to Orlof, and Rozamouky ; Catherine Ruslian, officers. These ftrangers was mistres of the Capital, and his were considered as usurpers; their fa- officers were seduced by flanders a. your became the object of ridicule, gainst their sovereign. Already had and the national troops were initi- the conspirators impiously counteractgated to revolt, by the igaorant pride ed their fidelity, by swearing and of being offended at foreign inftruc. binding themselves in the most fation.

lemn manner, to commit high trea. When we reflect, that many of these fon--and the archbishop of Novogowise regulations were in that short pe. rod, ibat fanatic incendiary, whom riod of six months, which put a peri: the clemency of Peter had pardonod to the reign of their author, we are ed, presided in the folemnization of affected by pity, and with horror." 1. this ceremony, under the auspices of " Some of these innovations deserve the Empress. Ac leogth the Emfublic gratitude, others, the reproach peror's friends were arrefted, and of precipitation-though a sovereign ihe people were deceived by the despot, this prince excelled in acts of artful reports, that the Prince bad died bounty, and of justice. His enter. by à fail from his horfe, before Peter prizes against Denmark were more suspended the enterprize at Petersnatural, and less pernicious, tbag the burg..; . war against Prussia, fostered by the “* He was then at the Orienabaum. personal hatred of Elizabeth, and her Spite of the bafeness and servile infiminister. The private life of Peter, delity of many nobles, of military it is true, was disfigured by the excess and civil officers, he had still some fes of the table, which ultimately resolate friends,--the chancellor of might have rendered him contemp- Woronzof, the various mareschal tible ; but where is the king, or the Munich, and his faithful Holstein ir dividual, whore inarmities are not troops ;-affairs were not yet defperelieved by some good qualities ! rate--the intrepid Munich counsel. Does not equity Irold the balance of led Peter to march dire&ly to Pererla good, and of bad qualities ?-If the burgh, at the head of the German virtues and defects of the Emperor troops :-—"I shall precede you," said were weighed, who is there could juf- the generous veteran," and my dead tify his dethronement, and his death ? body shall be a rampart to your sacred Is the least equality visible, between perfon.” Polfibly such a resolution the discontents he produced, and his would have crushed the confpirators; unfortunate exit? A warm friend, a the same fervile spirit which had good father, an indulgent husband, prostrated the nobles, the people, and but too easy, too confident, and too o. the foldiery, would bave reduced them pen to those traitors, upon whom his to their lawful fovereign, marching to

vindicats

vindicate his crown with his sword, Papin, that frivolous and versatile and with the abilities of Munich. minister, loaded with praises by hirc

But, alas ! irresolution superced- ling gazetteers--that Panin, who had ed courage ; not that Peter wanted dared to dictate to his master, and spirit, but he was distracted by dif- benefactor, to a favereign, who was cordant councils-in his train were a prisoner, an act of abdication, and emiffaries of the Empress, bathing the of dishonour; an act conceived in bands of this prince with deceitful the most humiliating expreflionstears, affecting to reprefent the dangers that Parin, in fine, who forced the he incorred, and inviting him to the descendant of Peter the First to Empress, and deprecating relistance. take his oath in the prelence of the This perfidy accomplished what treach. Almighty, and renounce his crown, ery had commenced ; and thus Peter, to sign with his own hard fuch a Surrounded by trators, was entangled monument of audaciousness, and int in their snares, and a prey to uncer- famy. tainty, when every moment was pre- “ Notwithstanding this abdication, cious, and called for decision. which served as a new title for pre

“ Europe, and posterity, will never serving his life, and liberty, the emu forget the cruel fate of this monarch, peror, that very night, was confined in the flower of his age-dragged in. in the castle of Robscha. Whilst her to captivity, and expiring in the fe- hufband entered this tomb, the emrocious bands of his wife, and his press furprised Petersburgh with the own confidents. The humane com- poise and buftle of a triumphal entry. paflionated his misfortunes; and none “ But this pegeant was not sufiwere insensible of his sufferings, fave cient to ftifte the sensibility of the only those from whom he had a claim multitude; disloyalty, in a vast numto succour and to confolation. ber of them, was rapidly succeeded

“On the contrary, outrages of every by remorse, and by compassion. The kind were offered to hiin : by deliver- people, who are always good, when ing himself up voluntarily to her, who, left to their natural impulfe, were during fourteen years, had the hon- fhocked at hearing that their sovereign our to be the partner of his bed, it had just passed from a throne, into seemed he was protected by all that the horrors of an eternal prison. The is most facred amongst men. His soldiery manifefted their emotions, person, committed to the discretion every one was affected by the rememof the Empress, became a depofit, up- brance of Peter's virtues, and his on which it was no longer permitted faults were forgotten, as the ditpleato form attacks--it neither belonged sure hourly mcreased; the Empress to his enemies, by the rights of war, was threatened with a frightful rener by that of the laws; and from verse ...... But let us draw a veil the moment Peter had surrendered, over this melancholy scene, which put without compulsion, every abode of an end to his inquietudes; let us not Catherine should have been an in- repeat, that the seventh day of his violable asylum for him :-alas! captivity, Peter the Third was no this illusion, by which he had been more; that he contended for his un. dazzled, was of a short duration. happy life, with the ferocious cour

“ He had been defamed by a ma- tiers who penetrated into the fornifesto of June the twenty eighth ; tress; that the screams of his convulbardly arrived at Peterhot, he became five agonies were to that two days a prisoner, and felt the humiliation after, fon;e strangers Save the walls of being secretly visited by count stained with the Emperor's bloid;

and

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