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of vengeance gathered o'er the Re- can refrain from enlarging on the virman camp-it burst ; and Varus and tues which charactise your country his Legions were no more. Rome in this her golden age. But scenes fel the faral blow. Hér tyrant trem- as glorious of a later date demand bled on his throne; and, frantic, your ear. They arise in chat dark called on Varus to restore his Le- period that succeeds the destruction gions in vain! Victims of liberty and of the Roman power. vengeance, their bones were scatter. When deepest ignorance obscur'd ed o'er the German wilds; their the world, war was the only science arms and glittering ensigns decked then; the only virtue, valour; and the sacred groves. From that glori. fuperftitious fear usurped religion's ous day, though sometimes vanquilh- holy name: Yet, even in this age, ed by superior skill, the Germans : the fplendour of the German arms rose with vigour from their fall: blazes like a meteor thro' the night, The Romans triumphed, but they and seems to glare destruction to could not conquer. Numerous are their foes, unul their science, rifing the examples of whole armies refuf- like the sun, difpels the gloom, and ing every offer of submislion, and pierces even fuperitition's cloud, difpreferring death to life, devoid of fules itself like that glorious lumina. freedom. Nor was this spirit con- ry o'er the world, and full illumines fined to the warriors ; even their the remotest regions with its rays. women, catching the noble enthufi. From among the many instances asm of valour, have rushed upon the of your country's palour, which, in foe, and with heroic refolution fuf- this period, fill the historic page, fered death rather than dishonour. permit me to select one, the import.

Equally admirable were the fim- iant contigences of which demand plicity and virtue of the ancient the grateful admiration of the ChrifGermaos : As far removed from the tian world. When the enthusiastic uncivilized barbarity of savage life, followers of Mahomet had erected as from effemioate refinements of the Atandard of the Impoftor in the luxury. They were in that happy East, and advanced in {teps of blood ftate of society, in which manners along the provjøces of Africa when govern rather than the laws--. when domeitic treachery bad made them courage is not extinguished by the masters of Spain, aiming at universal arts of luxury, nor the love of free. dominion, they delcer:ded like a tordom made fubfervient to the love of rent from the Pyrenean Hills, and gold. Blessed with the most un threatened snal sun to the Chriftian bounded liberty, with porest man- name. France, for a while, too fa. Ders and with limple laws, they live tally oppofed their course-in one ed with innocence amid their native dellractive day, she saw her fiells forests---Forests! more glorious than . vo peopled by the iword of war; and ibe proudeft monuments thai cyranny the faa hiftorian get laments, that has raifed. Here hospitality, and "God alone could count the plain," every social virtue, dwel. Here lie whole bodies feftered on their native berty indignant Aed from fervile plains. "The Christian would law no Rome. Here your heroic fathers in defence againit the Moliem's sword, dependant lived; here died in their and feemed in silence to expect its defence, and hence they rushed to face. Then your gallant ancestors overturn the power of Rome, and appeared the champions of Christen. free the world from their oppreflive dom. Ac Tours their valour turn. shain.

ed the sale of fight. Led by a It is with difbculty, Gentlemen, I Prince of German race, they fougþt


rad conquered ; they chased the Sa- which her empire is extended o'er Tacens from France, and Europe baile the world. To them fcience is ined them her deliverers from a bloody debted for a perfect fyftem of the unifoc.

verse, and for all the treasures of · Let us here pause to examine the chymistry. And while time itself importance of this victory; let us for endures, their memory will live, who a moment imagine the infidels to gave us forft the means to mark and bave atchieved the conquest of Eu- calculate its rapid fight. Their geTope, and that from the Thracian nius not only supplied most of the Bofphorus, to the Columns of Her- discoveries that sweeten life and difcules, from the Indian to the North- fuse the blessing of scientific and coman Ocean, infidelity had reigned mercial improvements; but by ab and bade its crescent triumph o'er important discovery, which, dreadful the holy cross-How fatal then had as thunder of Heaven, augmented the been the change ; for civil freedom, horrors of war, they lefsened its del lawless tyranny had reigned; for tructive force, and have thus intromild religion, bloody fuperftition; duced as complete a revolution is science and the arts, every noble ex- the military operations as in the ertion of the mind would have been laws, politics and religion of Europe. extinguished by oppression, or deba- So much indeed the art of war is sed by slavilh fear. All Europe would theirs, that it may be expected I have been what Turkey is; and if should enlarge upon the thene: that chance had led them to this western I should recount their battles, boall world, instead of freedom's chosen of their victories, and dwell upon the feat, it would have been the vile a. exploits of those heroes who have bode of laves—nay, on the very spot been the ornament and defence of where freemen now are listening to their country. But the scope of this the praises of their race, a trembling discourse will not permit the under crowd, perhaps, had crouched be- taking ; nor can I express myfelf ia Death a despot's frown.

terms equal to the dignity of the These are the evils from which subject.“ Germanic valour freed the world. No, gallant Chiefs ! Heroic Wor. Nor has their argument been less thies,! No, my voice shall not attempt fuccefsful. Forceful and bold, it your praise. I have no colours for burft those chains in which the papal to 'paint your deeds : no language to tyranny enslaved the mind. It dared attempt so vast a theine. But fame, attack corruption in its source, and illustrious Chiefs ! that fame for which draw the mask from powerful hypo- you toiled, shall still be yours: it : crily. Thus did your country, by shall perpetuate the grateful praise the glorious reformation, purify re- of your country. Pofterity shall adligion from the errors of superfti- mire, and the remotest ages' ftrive to tion, as before her valour'had deliver- mitate your virtues. ed it from the open violence of infi. Unable then to investigate the delity ; and thus emancipate herself characters, or display the perfections from the religious as well as civil of that numerous band of heroes, power of Rome. Nor is it a zeal for statesmen, and philosophers, wbc Teligion, or the support of freedom have adorned the apoals of Germany, alone, that makes this memory dear. permit me to call your attention 10 2 Commerce records the praises of her gentle race, no less the subject of forft protectors in the Hanseatic your country's boaft. Those poetical league. To their inventive genius, children of fancy, who have writies learning owes the important art by to amuse, inftrud and humanize the

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world: whose genius either foars ad- gentle life that song describes, Featrous with the epic muse, and I have chosen this triumvirate to fings the hero on the embattled plain, reprelent the poetical genius of your or thews the world a pizture of itself, country; and it closes the cursory or playful sports among the flowers, survey i have taken of German emi. and paints the fimple manners of the 'nence in arms, and arts, and science. Shepherd's life., Of these, the firit A sketch, at belt, but hasty and imin rank and dignity is Klopítuck, perfect. But yet how many subjects whose towering genius fought in vain for an honelt triumph will even this an object worthy of its powers on afford ? Europe delivered from the eartlı; then borne on fancy's wing, sword of the infidels ; from the civil beyond the skies, he found a theme tyranny and ecclefiaftical ufurpations io Heaven, and sung in rapturous of Rome; the world enlightened by ftrains the great Redeemer of the the discoveries, instructed by the world. Gellert, the glory of your science, and amused by the genius of faze, advances next. Deligh:ful, your country. These, gentlemen, whether he excite the tender emoti- are topics fit for declamation. Grateons of pity, or describe the transports ful to you; glorious to your country. of successful passion; whether he Such themes no other nation's pride ridicule the folly, or expose the de- can boast. Indulge then the pleasing formity of voice, he still delights. emotions they excite, and emulous Geffner, your favourite pastoral bard, of the action you admire, Itudy to deby seeming to elude, deserves your serve an equal fame. Such were the praise. Crowned with the sweetest Germans in their native foil-nor flowers, his gentle muse flies, irem- has their genius left them in a foreign bling flies, the crowded city and the land. Their emigrants have buen dia of arms; fecluded in the vale, led by wildom and prudence. Lathe fings the blameless rustic, and his buur, industry, and ingenuity, have, fimple life, and gathers wreaths to attended their steps, while their proCrown her Daphne's hair; so simply gress is marked by cultivation, imTweet the lay, it seems the voice of provement and plenty. Balure-her's the song, and her's the

On the German Tragedy *.

AMONG the various exertions of itself in the painting of narration, are If human ingenuity, which, please unneceffarily weak and languid in while hey instruct, drama:ic poetry effect, when compared with that po. has from the carlieít times claimed eric delusion, which places in our the nearest interest in the heart, and view the fpectacle of man himsel, exerted a power over the mind, the man, acting and suffering. Mind is most universally acknowledged. The here the higher nobler object. It is other species of composition, which the secret workings of those powers, call up before us all the variegated by which a human soul is swayed or graces of Nature's beauties, which taken to its foundation, the drama wanton in the luxuriance of defcrip. discloses to our eyes. Seizing the tign, and emulate the vividiiy of trach vanlient and ever-chaczing colours of VOL. XII. No. 69. Bu


From the Speculator.

pation, the momentary, almost evanef- tries. The farcasms of Voltaire and cent shades of mental emotio', it his adverents fufficiently thew, with fixes and embodies the feeting Icene, whii averlion a nation, of which the in one great picture, for our warning delicacy was vitiated almost to die or instruction. To reprel outions of eale by exccitive reEnemedi, regarded this nature, the tragic com has ever the rough energy with which the gcheld the highest ization. Greater in nils of the Earlith drama thot wild iis fubiici, as including a'lunc trong and And the Erg. er motives of the coul, and more inte. Luan has gtberally turned with diri resting to the heart, as conclud with guit or in litention from the polithed The suurces cf human corrow and ca. artifice and laboured declamation of lamitv, it has lit conicdy only the the French thcatre, to fealt with douinterior ;rurince of correcti: g fully ble taeure oo naiure and pulbon in by rive, and fixing on those lits the pages of his own Shkeip-are. A digoted and hucibler ramers, which, Gew and watuid field till preltnis it. 15 jugh not coproductive of a certaia felf; the tragedy of a great, old, aod di trcís and incricacy, are le rela. original people, has long lain in that ted to terror or pity. But it is not und ferved thade of obscurity, which alone as subtervient to the pleasures in this country surrounds the real of mankind, or as claiming to herself brilliancy of the lait æra of German a rank among the luttier eifcrts of literature. mental activity, that ihe tragic muse, The German tragedy, from gede. presents itself to notice. She assumes tal causes of retardation, appeared at a wichier ofice, without which the a very late period, and under a form fear of pity is vain and Iterile, and little indicative of the strength and vithe pasions taught to move without gour, which were to mark its later and ao end. In her proper pofi, her voice more improved ftage. From a begio. is that of the intrucirels of mankind, ving of the utmost rudeness, it grathe moderatrix of passion, the scourge dually assumed the form, which ia ibe of vice. Conüdered in this light, the bands of Gotthe, Lesling, and Schilinportance and sility of tragic com- ler, has appeared to respectable and position augurients with the increase of interesting. The earlier efforts of the power of picaớng. The appeal to the German ftige bear the trongest the heart gives irrelistible energy to relemblance to our own myfteries, the preceots of wildom. Nor was it and like then only afford a picture without foundation, that the great of the flow or dations by which the Stagyrire pronouncedacaleci tragedy human mind rists from ignoracce and the nullist work of human intelleét. dcprullion to intellectual light and vi

Irom caules like these, an atten. gour. The religious origin of the tion to the drama, particularly tra. drama muitin molt Dations be till the gedir, has usually kept pace with the fame. The spirit which prvados civi ization of nations, and has pre- thefe ruder sketches is chicaly that of fentea in general no inadequate itand. laborious tameneís, presenting few ári, by which to judge of manners vettiges of that bold aod natural pen. and refinement.

cil with which their modeio dclincado acquaintance with French tra- rions of the human soul are drawn, geiy has long been universal among The fire and animation of their trath: Itudents of polite literature in this gedy did not manifest itself tiil a much island. But the diffution of this know-, later period. The co-operation of ledge has, on the subject of tragic po- many causes laid the foundation of etry, becri attended with little conge- tlie present prevailing genius of Diulity of sentiment in the two coun. German tragedy.


The interest of our nation in the the judgment by firict attention to the tragic writing of the Germans will unities; to arrest the ear by the exprobably increase, when they know quilito polif of diction, or the music the rank which Shallp-are holds in of verfification, to charm the ferres by their estimation, and ibat probably declamatory eloquence, to fufpend the much of the present taste in the Germind in anxiety and terror by the inman drama owes its origin to an ac- tricate involution of plors, are power, quaintance with our inmonal poet, for which tragedy is indebted to the whole works, at no great dit nie of aslistance of art, and this effec? 1113 time, were received with all the avis ever increafed with the progress of dity that a congeniality of thought, refinement, and the improrement of with deep and keen percepiion of art and ingeruity. But to place the his merit could produce. Some of human miad in action belore our gues, their tragedies are written in proiers to convey tie torugales of glowin fed imitation of Shakespeare, as Goe- passions in the fiong language of the rhe's singular tragedy of Goots von heart ; to melt with pity, tohikesit Berlichingen ; and a wildnefs and ir- terror ; to be great, iubim, aicing, regularity, to be traced to this force, is a province where nuiule rules cious. is general in the modern compoli:10.g. From this disition to d fint Goethe himself has made muy en forms of tragedy will result. Tie thusiasts, and added not a liicle w the grand characvitic feature of turn for elevating and surprising, ence betw.en the German and Trucci wbich marks so many Gerının pro- ftipe is, that in the former the native ductions of later times.

ral exprefion of pullin, in ihe butter To Leffing the German tragedy is art : ad exquitite reture ment, indebted for an attempt to unite the minate. It is on the strong and vivid beauties of art with the energies of delineation of mental emotionalat natural fire and spirit. Elegance and the merits of the German 11ge may neatness of diction, beauty of cadence, fafely be rested; often full of the correctnes, chastity, and regularity, groflett truths, and violating every are joined in his Emilia Galoiti, to rul:, their tragedy moves the foul, high strength and warmth of concep- feizes the a:tention, wakes vivid cution. The last productions of Schil. rionty, terror, and piry; the waterler, as well as some other pieces, fuffi- ítrings of the human soul 27e touchcienily shew, that the Geunan tra- ed in every scene, and thoug!ı ofica gedy may have its wildness and irre- wirb tuo rude a hand, the feelings a:gularity polished down, wi hout lacri. knowl wire the infil Due. This is ficing its effential excellencies. the animating spirit, that giie's life

When we consider the nature of and energy to the tragic drama; withthose agents, which tragedy employs, out its unknce all o her aids are to produce a certain effect upon the frutic, play round the head, but mind, they feem properly to resolve come lot near the heart. It is themselves into the two provinces of not cohl anprobation, but the meie art and nature. To make a perfect refcain; vertit of juvenvist, this tragedy, the union of bith is neceTiry; Species of poetry is to claim. The but such perfection has haruly yet ap- Lriait must be moveil, ogitate, torn; peared. According to the genius of the author mat ceaf: co fpcaks, to exnations, and a variety of moral caufes, it; his foul mult beruntuled into the tragic poetry of different counniss the ficlitious parlonages of bis or m2; has foughi for effect by one of those the delusion mutt to pract, ind a means, common!y to the impolitic ex. new creation riding before out the cluçon of the otisci. Ti conciliae claim all our intercul aniljpathy; B b 2


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