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great number of men, especially if oc. prevalent, could long remain in a cupied in part by catile, it is presum. state of barbarism. But, from all the able, that these retreats were formed ideas we can form of the state of Ca. chiefly for the Security of the women ledonia, at the time when it was ne. and children of the canton, and of cessary to rear those bill-fortifications, their herds. They could be defend there appears no probability that the ed by a few men, while the rest of inhabitants either lived under such a ahe tribe were (ngaged with their e government as we know to have preDemies in the field.
vailed under the influence of the In the descricion I have given of Druids, or had any acquaintance with the fortified hill of Dun-Jardel upon those arts which it is certain they Loch-Ness, I mentioned a Druidical cultivated. Thoie buildings must, circle upon the fhoulder of the hill a. therefore, have been erected previbout fifty.or fixty feet below the for- ously to the introduction of the Dru. tification ; and binted, that this cir- idical system ; that is to say, in a pe. cumftance might posibly afford ground riod of time antecedent to the firft for a conjecture with regard to the vợlitation of this illand by the Celta date of those extraordinary &ructures of Gaul. on the tops of hills.
The Druidical circle upon Dun. The religion of the Druids obtain. Jardel lends its aid in support of this ed in Britain long before the period conj:&ture. If the fortification on the of the Roman iifvasion ; and it was furioit had been erected after the a. probably introduced into the island by, bolition of Diuidiim, it seems ex. the first colony of Celtæ or Gaul's tremely improbable, that the builders who landed from the continent. If, of it would have neglected to employ as is generally fupposed, this island the stones of this circle in rearing was actually peopled from Gaul, their fortification, (ftones extremely Druidism must have been the religion well suited to the purpose, and quite of its first inhabitants. I am disposed, at hand) when they have been at imhowever, to believe, that this island mense pains, to carry up a prodigious was inhabited of old by a race of men quantity of stones from the very bot. who knew nothing of the religion tom of the hill for that work. It is of the Druids, whose manners and not probable that they would have mode of life were too barbarous to be been restrained by any superftitious i. compatible with that system, apd whọ, dea of reverence for the monuments in after times, adopted from those of an extinguished religion. For Druids their first ideas of civilization Prạidism, soon after its abolition, and improvement. The Druids, ie sunk into utter contenipt, and the inis well known, were a very enlight.. troduction of Chriftianity rendered ened order of men ; and they had the the ancient superftitions impious and address to avail themselves of that detestable. That this hill-fortification character of wisdom and learning, in was erected in the times of the Druobtaining an absolute controul, not ids, I have already shewn to be ex. only in natters of religion, but in the tremely in probable. We must, there. civil government of the countries in fore, recur to the only remaining, and which they were established. They the noft natural suppofition, that it cultivated the mechanic arts, and was reared in times antecedent to the even the sciences of Medicine, Aliro- introduction of that religion. And pomy, and Geonetiy, with confider. this fuppofirion carries the date of this able success. In short, no nation, ac fruéiure, and consequently of all the mong whom that fysiem had become rest of the same natuse, up to a pe:
riod of antiquity far beyond all histo- barbarjus, and the condition of life rical record, and connects them with as la wless, turbulent, and precarious, a state of society in which the arts as among the rudelt tribes of Ameriwere as imperfect, the manners as can savages. .
Scene from Sacontala, or, The Fatal Ring. An Indian Drama.
from the original Sanscrit and Pracrit.
[This performance is said to be tranflated by Sir William Jones. Dushman
ta, a mighty King, diverting himself with hunting, is privaiely married to Sacontala, the guardian of a sacred forest, whom Canna, the preceptor of some holy Anchorites had received as a sacred depolit. Soon after his marriage, the king leaves his bride to defend the Anchorités against certain evil demons that difturbed their retreat, and a considerable time elapses without any tidings of him. Canna is informed by a voice from heaven, “ that Sacontala has received from the king a ray of glory destined to , “ rule the world, as the wood Sami becomes pregnant with mysterious “ fire.” Preparations are then made for her departure from the forest, when the following scene commences.]
Let the queen wear it auspiciously ; SACONTALA, ANUSUYA, PRIYAMVADA.
and may her life be long ! GAUTAMI.
[The wimen look with astonishwierit. DELOVED friend, was your bath Grut. My son, Harita, whence D pleasant ?
came this apparel ? Sac. O! my friends, you are wel. Puup. From the devotion of our come : let us fit awhile together. father Canna.
[They feat themselves. Gaut. What doft thou mean? Anu. Now you must be patient, Pup. Be attentive. The venewhilft I bind on a charm to secure rable lage gave this order: · Bring your happiness.
fresh flowers for Sacontala from the Sac. That is kind.-Much has most beautiful trees;' and suddenly been decided this day : and the plea- the wood nymphs appeared, raising [ure of being thus attended by my their hands, which rivalled new leaves sweet friends, will not foon return. in beauty and softness. Some of them
[Wiping off her tears. wove a lower mantle bright as the Pri. Beloved, it is unbecoming monn, the presage of her felicity; ato weep at a time when you are going nother pressed the juice of Lacha to to be so happy.-[Both damsels brerft itain her feet exquisitely red; the rest into tears as they dress ber.] Your ele- were busied in forming the gayeit organt person deserves richer apparel : naments ; and they eagerly showered it is now decorated with such rude their gists on us. towers as we could procure in this Pri. [Looking at Sacontala.] Thus forest.
it is, that even the bee, whose pelt
is within the hollow trunk, does noCanna's Pupil enters with rich clothes.
mage to the honey of the lotos flowPup. Here is a complete dress. er. Vol. XII. No. 69. Z
Gaut. The nymphs must hare Can. My best beloved, come and bern commissioned by the goodness walk with me round the facrificial of the king's fortune, to predict the fire. [They all advance.] May these accession of trigliter ornaments in lis fires preserve thee ! fires which pring palace. [Sacontala locks mod f. to their appointed stations on the ho
Pup. I must harten to Canna, ly hear:h, and consume the consecrawho is gone to bathe in the Malini, ted wood, while the fresh ,blades of and let him know the signal kindness mysterious Cusa lie scattered around of the wood nymphs. [He gees out. th m! sacramental fires, which de
112. My sweet friend, I lit. le ex- str y sin with the rising fumes of cla. pected so fplendid a dress :--how rified butter !- Sacontala walks with shall I adjust it properly?-[Co sider- folemnity round the hearth.] Now fet ing:] On! my ikill in rainting will out, my darling, on thy auf icious su ply me with some hints; and 1 journey.- [Looking rourid.] Where wil dispose the drapery according to are the attendants, the two Miiras ? art.
Suc. I well know your affection Enter SarnGARAVA and SARADWATA. for bim.'
Buth. Holy face, we are here. CANNA enters meditating.
Car. My fon Sarngarava, ihow Car. [4fide.] This day must Sa- thy filter her way. contala depail: that is resolved : vet Sarn. Come, damsel.my fou' is smitten with angulo. Mv
riz bey all advance. speech is interrupted by a torrent of Can. Hear, O ye trees of this tears, which my realon funprefies and hallowed forest ; ye trees, in which turns inward ; my very fight is dim- the sylvan goddefles have their a. med. Strange, that the aftlict op of a bode; hear, and proclaim, that Sa. forefter, retired from the haunts of contala is going to the place of her men, should be so exceflive!_Ob, wedded lord ; she who drapk not, with what pangs must they, who are though thirsty, before you were waterfather's of families, be afflicted on the ed ; The who cropped not, through afdeparture of a caughier! " ; fection for you, one of your freth
[He waiks round musing, leaves, though the would have been Pri. Now, my Saconrala, you are pieafcd with such an ornament for ber becomingly decorated : put on this locks; the whole chief deliglit was in lower vest, the gift of fylvan goddel. the season when your branches are ses. Sacontala rises and puts on spangled with flowers! [Chorus of the mantle.''
invisible cod 1mpbs.] May her way 'Gaut. My child, ihy spiritual fa. be atteided with profperi:y! May 10ther, whose eyes overflow with tears pitious breezes sprinkle, for her deof joy, stands deliring to embrace light, the odoriferous dut of rich thee. Halten therefore to do him blossoms : May pools of clear water, reverence.
green with the leaves of the lotos, se [Sacontala modefily bow's to him. fresh her as she walks! and may fhady Can. May'st thou be cherished by branches be her defence from the chy husband, as Sirmiththa was che scorching fun-beams! rijhed by Yayati ! May'lt thou bring
[ All lifin with a Smirction. forth a sovereign of the world, as she Sarn. Was that the voice of the brought forth Puru!
Cocila wihing a happy journey to Sa'Gaut. This, my child, is not a contala ?--Or did the nymphs, who mere bencdiction ; it is a boon actuals are allied to the pious inbabi'ants of ly conferred.
these woods, repeat the warblings of
the musical bird, and make its greet- Anil. and Pri. Alas! in whose ings their own ?
càre shall we be left ? Gaut. Daughter, the sylvan god
. [They both weep. defles, who love their kindred her. Can. Tears are vain, Anuluya : mits, have wished you prosperity, and our
to and our Sacontala ought rather to be supare entitled to humble thanks.
ported by your firmness, than weak
ned by your weeping. [All advance. · [Sacontala walks round, bowing to
Saci Father! when yon female the nymphs.
antelope, who now moves slowly from Sac... [Aside to Priyamvada.] De
the weight of the young ones with lighted as I am, O Priyamvada, with
which she is pregnant, shall be delithe thought of seeing again the son of
vered of them, send me, I beg, a kind my lord, yet, on leaving this grove,
message with tidings of her safety.--my early asylum, I am scarce able to
Do not forget. walk. Pri. You lament not alone.
Can. My beloved, I will not for:
j e afiliation of che faren
get it. . Mark the affliction of the foreit itself,
Sac. [Advancing, then stopping.] when the time of your departure ap- Ah! what is it that clings to the proaches !--The female antelope Mir
pe fkirts of my robe, and detains me? browses no more on the collected cu
[She turns round and looks. fa grass : and the pea.hen ceases to
Can. It is thy adopted child, the dance on the lawn : the very plants of 1:..
little fawn, whose mouth, when the the grove, whose pale leaves fall on
Tharp points of Cusa grass wounded it, the ground, lose their strength and
has been so often smeared by thy their beaut;
hand with healing oil of Ingudi, who Sac. Venerable father, suffer me
has been so often fed by thee with a to address this Madhavi creeper,
handful of Syamaka grain, and now whose red blofioms entlame the grove will not leave the footsteps of his pro
Can. My child, I know thy affee- tectress: tion for it.
Sac. Why dost thou weep, tender Sac. [Embracing the plant.] O fawn, for me, who must leave our most radiant of twining plants, receive common dwelling place ?-As thou my embraces, and return them with waft reared by me when thou hadit thy flexible arms : from this day, loft thy mother, who died soon after though removed to a fatal distance, 1 thy birth, so will my folter-father atfall for ever be thine.
tend thee, when we are separated, O beloved father, consider this with anxious care.-Return, poor creeper as myself.
thing, return-we must part. Can. My darling, thy amiable
[She bursis into lears. qualities have gained thee a husband Can. Thy tears, my child, ill suit equal to thyself: such an event has the occasion : we fhall all meet again : been long, for thy fake, the chief ob- be firm : see the direct road before je&t of my heart; and now, since niy thee, and follow it. When the big solicitude for thy marriage is at an tear Jurks beneath thy beautiful eyeend, I will marry thy favourite plant lashes, let thy resolution check its to the bridegroom Amra, who sheds first efforts to disengage itself.-In fragrance bear her.--Proceed, my thy paffage over this earth, where the chiid, on thy journey.
paths are now high, now low, and the Sac. [Approaching the two dam. iřue path feldom diftinguished, the fels.] Sweet friends, let this Mad- traces of thy feet must needs be unes havi creeper be a precious depolit in qual; but virtue will press thee right your hands.
onward. 7. 2
Sarn. It is a sacred rule, holy and to those whom he reveres : thom sage, that a benevolent man Mould he have other wives, be rather an afaccompany a traveller till he meet fectionate hand-maid to them than a with abundance of water; and that rival.-Should he displease thee, let rule you have carefully observed ; we not thy resentment lead thee to diso. are now near the brink of a large bedience. In thy conduct to thy dopool. Give us, therefore, your com- meltics, be rigidly juft and impartial; mands, and return.
and seek not eagerly thy own gratific Car. Let us reft a wbile under cations.-Py such behaviour young the Thade of this Vara tree.-[They women become respectable ; but perall go to the shade.).—What message verse wives are the bane of a family. can I send with propriety to the noble -What thinks Gautami of this lesDushmanta?
fon? A012. [Aside to Saconiala.] My • Gan. It is incomparable :-my beloved friend, every heart in our child, be sure to remember it. afylum is fixed on you alone, and all con. Come, my beloved girl, are afflicted by your departure. give a parting embrace to me and Look; the bird Chacravaca, called to thy tender companions. . by his mate, who is almost hidden by Sac. Must Anusuya and Priyamwater lilies, gives her no answer'; vada return to the hermitage ? but having dropped from his bill the Can. They too, my child, muft fibres "of lotos Italks which he had be fuitably married ; and it would not plucked, gazes on you with inexpres- be proper for them yetto visit the city; fible tenderness.
but Gautami will accompany thee. Can. My son Sarngarava, remem. Sac. [Embracing bina] Remo ber, when thou shalt present Saconta. ved from the bofom of my father, la to the king, to address him thus, in like a young sandal tree, rent from the my name : Considering us hermits hills of Malaya, how thall I exist in a as virtuous, indeed, but rich only in strange foil ? ... devotion, and considering also thy Can. Be not so anxious. When own exalted birth, retain thy love thou shalt be mistress of a family, and for this girl, which arose in thy consort of a king, thou mayeit, in bosom without any interference of her deed, be occasionally perplexed by the kindred ; and look on her among thy intricate affairs which arise from exowives, with the same kindness which berance of wealth, but wilt then think they experience : more than that can- lightly of this transient affliction, ef not be demanded, since particular af- pecially when thou shalt hare a fon fection must depend on the will of (and a fon thou wilt have) bright as heaven.
the rising day-star : who, then, can be Sarn. Your message, venerable immoderately afflicted, when the man, is deeply rooted in my remem- weaker bands of extrinsic relations are brance:
loosened, or even broken? Can. [Locking tenderly at Sacon- Sac. [Falling at his feet.] My fatala.] Now, my darling, thou too ther, I thus humbly declare my venemust be gently admonished.-We, ration for you. who are humble forefters, are yet ac- Can. Excellent girl, may my efquainted with the world which we fort for thy happiness prove succellhave forsaken.
ful! Sern. Nothing can be unknown Sac. [Approaching her true compato the wise.
nions.] Come then, my beloved Can. Hear, my daughter. When friends, embrace me together. thou art settled in the mansion of thy Anu. My friend, if the virtuons husband, show due reverence to him, monarch should not at once recolle&