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Ancient Fortifications in the Highlands of Scotland. great number of men, especially if oc. prevalent, could long remain in a cupied in part by cattle, it is presum- state of barbarism. But, from all the able, that these retreats were formed ideas we can form of the state of Ca. chiefly for the 'ecurity of the women ledonia, at the time when it was neand children of the canton, and of cessary to rear those hill-fortifications, their herds. They could be defend there appears no probability that the ed by a few men, while the rest of inhabitants either lived under such a ahe cribe were ingaged with their e- government as we know to have preDemies in the field.

vailed under the influence of the In the descriprion I have given of Druids, or had any acquaintance with the fortified hill of Dun-Jardel upon those arts which it is certain they Loch-Nefs, I mentioned a Druidical cultivated. Thole buildings muit,

circle upon the fhoulder of the hill a. therefore, have been erected previbour fifty.or sixty feet below the for- ousy to the introduction of the Dru. tification; and binted, that this cir. idical system ; that is to say, in a pecumftance might poslibly afford ground riod of time antecedent to the first for a conjecture with regard to the visitation of this illand by the Celtz date of those ext{aordinary fructures of Gaul. on the tops of hills.

The Druidical circle upon Dun. The religion of the Druids obtain. Jardel lends its aid in support of this ed in Britain long before the period conjecture. If the fortification on the of the Roman iifvasion; and it was funnit had been erected after the a. probably introduced into the island ty, bolition of Diuidism, it seems ex. the first colony of Celtæ or Gauis tremely improbable, that the builders who landed from the continent. If, of it would have neglected to emplog as is generally fupposed, this island the stones of this circle in rearing was actually peopled from Gaul, their fortification, (ftones extremely Druidism must have been the religion well suited to the purpose, and quite of its firft inhabitants. I am dispoted, at hand) when they have been at imtowever, to believe, that this island mense pains to carry up a prodigious vas inhabited of old by a race of men quantity of stones from the very botwho knew nothing of the religion tom of the hill for that work. of the Druids, whose manners and not probable that they would have mode of life were too barbarous to be been restrained by any superstitious is compatible with that system, and whọ, dea of reverence for the monuments in after times, adopted from those of an extinguished religion. For Druids their first ideas of civilization Pruicism, soon after its abolition, and improvement. The Druids, ie funk into utter contenupt

, and the inis well known, were a very enlight. troduction of Christianity rendered ened order of men; and they had the the aucient superstitions impious and addrefs to avail 'themselves of that detestable. That this hill fortification character of wisdom and learning, in was erected in the times of the Druobtaining an absolute centroul, 'not ids, I have already sewn to be exonly in natteis of icligiou, but in the tremely in probable. We mult, therecivil government of tie countries in fore, recur to the only remaining, and which they were efiablished. They the noft natural fuppofition, that it cultivated the mechanic arts, and was reared in times antecedent to the even the sciences of Medicine, Afro- introduction of that religion. And domy, and Geometiy, with confider. this fuppofition carries the date of this able success. In fhort, no nation, a- ftruéture, and consequently of all the mong wliom that fyliem had become relt of the same nature, up to a pe:

It is

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riod of antiquity far beyond all hifto- barbarous, and the condition of life rical record, and connects them with as la vlefs, turbulent, and precarious, a state of society in which the arts as among the rudeit tribes of Ameriwere as imperfect, the manners can savages.


Scene from Sacontala, or, The Fatal Ring. An Indian Drama. Translated

from the original Sanscrit and Pracrit.


[This performance is said to be tranflated by Sir William Jones. Dushman

ta, a mighty Kias, diverting himself with hunting, is privately married to Sacontala, the guardian of a sacred forest, whom Canna, the preceptor of some holy Anchorites had received as a sacred depolit. Soon after his marriage, the king leaves his bride to defend the Anchorités against certain evil demons that disturbed their retreat, and a considerable time elapses without any tidings of him. Canna is informed by a voice from heaven, " that Sacontala has received from the king a ray of glory destined to “ rule the world, as the wood Sami becomes pregnant with mysterious “ fire.” Preparations are then made for her departure from the forest, when the following scene commences.]

Let the queen wear it auspiciously ; SACONTALA, ANUSUYA, PRIYAMVADA.

and may her life be long! GAUTAMI.

[Thecimen bok with astonishwert. ELOVED friend, was your bath Grut. My fun, Harita, whence pleasant?

came this apparel ? Sac. O! my friends, you are wel. Pup. From the devotion of our come : let us fit awhile together. father Canna.

[Tbey feat themselves. Gaut. What doft thou mean? Anub. Now you must be patient, Pup. Be attentive. The venewhilst I bind on a charm to secure table lage gave this order : ' Bring your happiness.

fresh flowers for Sacontala from the Sac. That is kind.-Much has most beautiful trees;' and suddenly been decided this day : and the plea- the wood nymphs appeared, raising lure of being thus attended by my their hands, which rivalled new leaves sweet friends, will not foon return. in beauty and fuftness. Some of them

[Wiping off her tears. wove a lower mantle bright as the Pri. Beloved, it is unbecoming moon, the presage of her felicity; ato weep at a time when you are going nother pressed the juice of Lacha to to be so happy.-[Both damsels burj itain her feet exquilitely red; the rest into tears as they dress ber.] Your ele- were buried in forming the gayet organt person deferves richer apparel : naments; and they eagerly thowered it is now decorated with such rude their gists on us. dowers as we could procure in this foreft.

Pri. [Loking at Sacontala.] Thus it is, that even the bee, whose nett

is within the hollow truok, does noCANNA's Pupil enters with rich clothes,

mage to the honey of the lotos flowPup. Here is a complete dress. er. 2


VOL. XII. No. 69.



Scene from Sacontala ; an Indian Drama. Gaut. The nymphs must have Can. My best beloved, come and bern commissioned by the goodness walk with me round the facrificial of the king's fortune, to predict the fire. They all advance.] May these accession of Lighter ornaments in lis fires preserve thee ! fires which fpring palace. [Sacontala locks mod fo to their appointed stations on the ho.

Pup. I must haften to Canna, ly hear:h, and consume the consecrawho is gone to bathe in the Malini, ted wood, while the fresh ,blades of and lei bim know the signal kindness mysterious Cusa lie scattered around of the wood nymphs. [1'e gees out. th m! facramental fires, which de

41. My sweet friend, I lit. le ex- strı y sin with the rifing fumes of clapected so splendid a dress :-how rified butter !-Sacontala walks witá hall I adjust it properly?-[Co jider. folemnity round ihe hearth.] Now fet ing.] on my skill in rainting will out, my darling, on thy auf icious su ply me with fome hints; and 1 journey. - [Looking round. Where wil. difpofe the drapery according to are ihe aitendants, the two Miiras?

Suc. I well know your affection Enter SarsgaraVA and SaradwATA. for him.

Buth. Holy fage, we are here.
CANNA enters meditating,

Car. My foo Sarngarava, show Cara [ 24fide.] This day muft Sa- thy lifter her way. contala depan : that is resolved : vet Sarn. Come, foul is smitten with angu M. My

[ 7 bey all advance. speech is interrupted by a torrent of

Can. Hear, 0 ye trees of this tears, which my realon suppresses and hallowed foreft ; ye trees, in which turns inward ; my very light is dim- the sylvan goddcfles have their amed. Strange, that the afiliet op of a bode; hear, and proclaim, that Saforefter, retired from the haunts of contala is going to the place of her men, should be so exceflive !—Oh, wedded lord ; she who drank not, with what pangs must they, who are though thirsty, before you were waterfather's of families, be afflicted on the ed; the who cropped not, through afdeparture of a daughter!

fection for you, one of your freth [He wolks round musing, leaves, though the would have been Pri. Now, my Sacontala, you are pleased with such an ornament for ber becomingly decorated: put on this locks; she whole chief delight was in lower velt, the gift of fylvan goddef. the season when your branches are fes. [Sacontala rises and puts on spangled with flowers ! [Chorus of the mantle.

invisible quod nymphs.] May her way Gaut. My child, iny spiritual fa- be attended with prosperity ! May pother, whose eyes overflow with tears pitious breezes sprioble, for berdeof joy, stands defiring to embrace light, the odoriferous dut of rich thee. Halten therefore to do him biosioms : May pools of clear water, reverence.

green with the leaves of the lotos, rei [Sacontala modefily bonus to him. fresh her as she walks! and may flizely Can. May'st thou be cherished by branches be her defence from the ihy husband, as Sirmiththa was che scorching fun-beams! riihed by Yayati ! May'lt thou bring

[ All lifi.n with admiration. forth a sovereign of the world, as the Sarn. Was that the voice of the brought forth Puru!

Cocila wishing a happy journey to SaGaut. This, my child, is not a contala ?-Or did the nymphs, who mere bencdiction ; it is a boon actual- are allied to the pious inbabi'ants of ly conferred

these woods, repeat the warblings of


the nymphs.

very plants of

the musical bird, and make its greet- Anil. and Pri. Alas! in whose ings their own ?

care shall we be left ? Gaut. Daughter, the sylvan god

[They both weep.

Can. Tears are vain, Anusuya : desses, who love their kindred hermits, have wished you prosperity, and our Sacontala ought rather to be supare entitled to humble thanks.

ported by your firmness, than weak[Sacontała walks round, bowing to ned by your weeping: (All advance.

Saci Father! when yon female Sac. [Afide to Priyamvada.] De: antelope, who now moves slowly from lighted as I am, 0 Priyamvada, with the weight of the young ones with

which she is pregnant, shall be delithe thought of seeing again the son of

vered of them, send me, I beg, a kind my lord, yet, on leaving this grove, message with tidings of her safety.-my early asylum, I am scarce able to

Do not forget. walk.

Can. My beloved, I will not for Pri You lament not alone. Mark the afiliation of the foreft itself

, get it. when the time of your departure ap- Ah! what is it ihat clings to the

Sac. (Advancing, then stopping.] proaches !--The female antelope skirts of my robe, and detains me? browses no more on the collected cu

[She turns round and looks. fa grass : and the pea-hen ceases to

Can. It is thy adopted child, the dance on the lawn : the

little fawn, whose mouth, when the the grove, whose pale leaves fall on harp points of Cusa grass wounded it; the ground, lose their strength and has been so often smeared by thy their beaut;

hand with healing oil of Ingudi, who Sac. Venerable father, suffer me to address this Madhavi creeper, handful of Syamaka grain, and now

has been so often fed by thee with a whose red blossoms enflame the grove. will not leave the footsteps of his pro

Can. My child, I know thy affee- tectress: tion for it.

Sac. Why dost thou weep, tender Sac. [Embracing the plant.] O fawn, for me, who must leave our most radiaot of twining plants, receive common dwelling place?-As thou my embraces, and return them with

wast reared by me when thou hadft thy flexible arms : from this day, loft thy mother, who died soon after though removed to a fatal distance, I thy birth, so will my foster-father atshall for ever be thine.

tend thee, when we are separated, O beloved father, consider this with anxious care.—Return, poor Creeper as myself.

thing, return- -We must

part. C#. My darling, thy amiable

[She bursis into sears. qualities have gained thee a husband Can. Thy tears, my child, ill suit equal to thyself: such an event has the occasion : we shall all meet again : been long, for thy fake, the chief ob- be firm : see the direct road before ject of my heart; and now, since 'niy thee, and follow it. When the big solicitude for thy marriage is at an tear Jurks beneath thy beautiful eyeend, I will marry thy favourite plant lathes, let thy resolution check its to the bridegroom Amra, who sheds first efforts to difengage itself.-In fragrance bear her-Proceed, my thy paffage over this earth, where the chiid, on thy journey.

paths are now high, now low, and the Sac. [Approaching the two dam- iřue path feldom distinguished, the fels.] Sweet friends, let this Mad- traces of thy feet must needs be unehavi be a precious deposit in qual ; but virtue will press thee right your hands.





Scene from Sacontala ; an Indian Drama. Sarn. It is a sacred rule, holy and to those whom he reveres : thom sage, that a benevolent man Mould he have other wives, be rather an afaccompany a traveller till he meet fectionate hand-maid to them than a with abundance of water; and that rival.-Should he displease thee, let rule you have carefully observed ; we not thy resentment lead thee to diso. are now near the brink of a large bedience. In thy conduct to thy dopool. Give us, therefore, your com- mestics, be rigidly juft and impartial ; mands, and return.

and seek not eagerly thy own gratific Car. Let us reft a wbile under cations.—Dy such behaviour young the shade of this Vara tree. They women become respectable ; but perall go to the shade. ]—What message verse wives are the bane of a family. can I send with propriety to the noble -What thinks Gautami of this lefDushmanta?

fon? Anu. [Aide to Sacontala.] My Gan. It is incomparable :-my beloved friend, every heart in our child, be sure to remember it. asylum is fixed on you alone, and all Cou. Come, my beloved girl, are afficted by your departure.— give a parting embrace to me and Look; the bird Chacravaca, called to thy tender companions. by his mate, who is almost hidden by Sac. Must Anusuya and Priyanwater lilies, gives her no answer ; vada return to the hermitage ? but having dropped from his bill the Can. They too, my child, muf fibres "of lotos Italks which he had be fuitably married ; and it would not plucked, gazes on you with inexpres- be proper for them yetto visit the city; fible tenderness.

bui Gautami will accompany thee. Can. My son Sarngarava, remem- Sac. [Embracing hina] Rema ber, when thou shalt present Saconta- ved from the bofom of my father, la to the king, to address him thus, in like a young sandal tree, rent from the my name :

Considering us hermits hills of Malaya, how fhall I exist in a as virtuous, indeed, but rich only in strange foil? devotion, and considering also thy Can. Be not so anxious. When own exalted birth, retain thy love thou shalt be mistress of a family, and for this girl, which arose in thy consort of a king, thou mayeit, inbofom without any interference of her deed, be occasionally perplexed by the kindred ; and look on her among thy intricate affairs which arise from exuwives, with the same kindoess which berance of wealth, but wilt then think they experience : more than that can- lightły of this transient affliction, efnot be demanded, since particular af- pecially when thou shalt hare a fon fection must depend on the will of (and a son thou wilt have) bright as heaven.

the rising day-star: who, then, can be Sarn. Your message, venerable immoderately amicted, when the man, is deeply rooted in my remem- weaker bands of extrinsic relations are brance.

loosened, or even broken? Can. [Locking tenderly at Sacon- Sac. [Falling at his feet.] My fatala.] Now, my darling, thou too ther, I thus humbly declare my vene. must be gently admonished.-We, ration for you. who are humble forefters, are yet ac- Can. Excellent girl, may my efquainted with the world which we fort for thy happiness prove successhave forsaken.

ful! Sarn. Nothing can be unknown Sac. [Approaching her two compato the wise.

nions.] Come then, my beloved Can. Hear, my daughter. When friends, embrace me together. thou art settled in the mansion of thy Anu. My friend, if the virtuous husband, Mow due reverence to him, monarch should not at once recolles

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