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the Sultan immediately becomes mo- grandeur of the Ottoman prince, who parch and high priest. The succes- never is required to bend the knee fors of Mahomed, who allumed the to any mortal; while the first prince title of Kalif, or Vicar of the Pro. in Europe, who has only the rank of phet, successively removed their royal deacon in the Roman hierarchy, can Teats from Medina to Couffa, on the only be placed after the dean of the Euphrates, and at last establifted it cardinals in a pontifical ceremony. ? at Bagdat, where it remained many The aigrette is, among the Ortoages. These kaliffs at first affumed mans, the mark of Imperial power; both the pontificate and royalty, ud the sulcan and his children only have til the Turkish sultáns began to find the privilege of wearing it. It is comihow dangerous it was to be subject to posed of many large diamonds sura foreigo pontiff, who poffefsed a fo- mounted with black plumes, of greac vereignty; they dreaded exposing value, and is placed in the middle of themselves to the payınent of eccle- the turban, above the forehead. fiaftical dues; therefore opposed his The sultan has a palace in the Bulls, and prevented the exportation canal of the Black Sea, and another of specie. They would doubtless in the middle of the port. It is ą. without this have seen an army of grand and magnificent fight to see this dervises (pring up, under the name of sovereign and his train pass in bis the company of Mahomet, who would gondolas; the figure of a cock, of have undermined the Imperial autho. folid gold, which is upon the royal rity, aod joined with the Kaliff of gondola, diftinguishes it from the rest Bagdat in the abuse of their ministry. All of them are richly painted and These reasons combined were fuffi. gilt, rowed by ftout boatmen ; they ciently powerful to induce the Sul- pass through the water with a surprize tans to deprive the Kaliffs of their ing celerity, while the artillery of the double authority. They at first res- Seraglio, the arsenal, and the ships, peated them from policy, but by des" by repeated discharges of artillery, grees they assumed the priestly power salute his Highness as he passes. tothemselves, and the esteem for them. The sultan, like the other princes which was supported only by opinions of Europe, has many great officers of

grew weaker, and ai laft disappeared his household, who hold the first rank .. The sultan bow in his joint charac. in the empire; their employments

ters of Kaliff and fupreme Imam, re- are in general similar to those in o. gards the Mufti only as his secretary ther European courts, except the el and interpreter, to explain the Alco- tablishment of the eunuchs, which are ran. From bencé arises the real peculiar to the Asiatic princes.

Account of some extraordinary Structures on the tops of Hills in the Highlands.

By Alexander Fraler Tytler, Esq; (Continued from p. 103.)

D UT those ancient fortifications fible to ascertain the æra iñ, which

D 'present a much more curious those fortifications were constructed, and more interesting object of Specu. some useful light might be thrown up. lation, than those uncertain and in on the ancient history of this country, dced fruitless coniectures as to the and the condition of society in those mode in which they have been rear- remote periods. This I shall now ed. It is evident; that, were it pos. accempt; and, in the course of a short

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disquisition upon that subject, shall “ ribus enim dejectis ubi amplam ciro have occasion to mark the progress of " culum fepierunt, ibi casas ibidem archite&ture in Britain, from its firit “ fibi ponunt, et pecori ftabula conIntroduction into the southern pirts, « dunt, ad uium quidem non longi till it had atrained to considerable " temporis." Strabo Gengr. lib. 4. perfection, and the knowledge of the Of this nature were all the British art of building had extended itself, towns in the southern part of the in some degree, to the remotest quar- island at the time of Cæsar. Such ters of the island.

was the town of Callibe laous, probabAt the time when those fortifica: ly a place of the greatest consideration tions were feared, it is evident that in the island, as being the residence the use of mortar was unknown. As of that chief under whom the whole it must be supposed that the builders of the southern Britons agreed to do exerted the utmost of their architec- nite their forces to oppole the Ro. tural skill (so far as ftrength was con mans at their second descent upon the cerned) in fabricating those structures, coasts. “ Ab his cognoscit non lon. we canno: doubt that; as the country « ge ex loco oppidum Callibelani. a. abounded io linie-Itone, had its use " beffe, filvis paludibusque munitum, been known as a cemeot, it must have“ quo latis magnus hominum pecobeen employed in such works. This « risque nimerus convenerit." Cæs. brings them at once up to a period of de Belio Gail, lib. cap. 21. This optinie prior to the Roman establish- pidum Callebeiani was Verulamium, ments in the t'orthern parts of Bris the present St Albans. (See Cxmtain. The Romans employed mor. den, and Horftey's Britannia Roma. tar in all their buildings, of which na.) London, or the capital of the many remains are at present existing Trinobantes, was then a place of inte. in those parts of the island where they rior note to Verulam. The Romans are known to have formed serile- dignified the latter with the title of a ments. They taught the Britons the municipium, while the former was use of that cement, of which, till then simply an oppidum; and therefore they were ignorant.

strictly correspondent to Cæsar's ge• At the time of Cæsar's invasion of neral descriprion ; a portion of a thick Britain, the inhabitants of the south- wood furrounded with a dirch and ere, and proh bo'y the most civilized rampart. part of the island, lived in huts conc I f such was the appearance of Lon. Atructed with turf, or with the branch- don at the time of the second invasion és of trees. Their towns or villages of the island by Cæfar, which hapwere nothing more than an, inclofed pened fifty-five years before the part of a wood, surrounded by a diich Christian æra, we have certain evia and rampart, within the circle of dence, tiat' the fouthern Britons had which they reared their huts. “ Op. undergone a remarkable change ja pidum vocant Brilandi cum sylvas im. their mode of life, and made a great

peditas vallo a que fosfa munierunt." progreis in refinement and civilization : Cæs, de Bell. Gosti. lib. 5. cap. 21. in the space of 107 years, which elap.

These inclotures or towns were but a led from that time to the great vicfemporary residence, and probably re- tory gained over the Romans by their forted to, ogly when it was necessary Queen Boadicea. At this latter pe. to defend themselves against an ene- riod; Tacitus mentions London as a my. They were lo spacious as to af- fourishing town, which, though not ford fecurity, bown to the inhabitants distified with the title of a Roman themselves ani to their cattle. “Ur. colony, was a place of trade and opu“ bium loco iplis íunt nemora. Arbo. leuce, and a great refort for merch

aots. « Londinum quidem cogno. erected any building's in the island u mento coloniæ non infigne, sed co- which could serve as a model of red? “ pia negociatorum et commeatuum gular architecture. In the fifth year' " maxime celebre." Annal. lib. 14. of the Emperor Nerd happened that cap. 33. The Britons of the sough signal defeat of the Romans by the had, therefore, profired very greatly British Queen Boadicea, occafioned by a short intercourse with the Ro- principally by the revolt, or, as Tamans; and this progress will appear citus terms it, the rebellion of the more remarkable, when it is consider. Trinobanres. One great cause of this ed, that, from the iime of Cæsar's in- revolt had been the evcetion of a magvalion to the reign of Claudius, during nificent temple to the livine Claudius, almolt a complere century, there was which the Britons regarded as an inno Roman army in Britain, nor any sulting monument of the Roman facion or settlement of that people in power and their own 'abject Navery. the illand. The Britons, therefore, “Ad hæc templum divo Claudio had, as yet, enjoyed little more than “ conftitutum, quasi arx æ'ernæ do. the light of a polished and improved “minationis afpiciebalur; delectique people. Amidit the tumult of hosti- “ sacerdotes, specie religionis, omnes lities, there was no opportunity to i- “ fortunas effundebant.” Tacit. Ano mitate the practices, or study the ac. nal. lib. 14. cap. 31. That this temple complishmenis of the people by whom was a structure of great magnitude they were invaded; but they saw e. and solidity, appears from this cirnough to convince them of their own cumstance, that the Romans retreated Signal inferiority in all the arts of to it as their last strong hold, and, cultivated life, and to excite a desire for two days, defended themselves in to imitate them in a subsequent season it against the besieging Britons. “Czeof tranquillity. This they obtained " tera quidem impetu' direpta aut in. by the retreat of the Romans ; and “ censa sunt : Templum in quo mi. profiting to the utmost by those lights " les se conglobaveral, biduo obrelthey had acquired, they niade a more “ sum expugnatumque.” Ibid. cap. sapid advancement or civilization, 32. than perhaps in any after period of The Britons, prosecuting their fuctheir history. Cities were built, har. cesi, attacked, pillage:d, and set fire bours constructed for the accommo- to several of the Roman forts and dation of mercantile Heets, and money garrisons. London and Verulam coined for the niedium of trade. The were destroyed; and, in those two coinage of Cunobeline, the successor places, (a convincing proof of their of Calhilanus, and Sovereign of the magnitude and pop Wation) the BriCali and Trinobantes, from the tons mafficred about 70,000 Roman mints of Colchester, Verulam, and citizens and their allies. But these London, is a proof, not only of an temporary successes were soon checkextensive commerce, but of a very ed by a dreadful defeat of the Britons: considerable advancement in the arts. by Suetonius Paulinus, in which

Ia this interyal, therefore, between 80,000 were left deal, upon the field of the invasion of Cæsar and the reign bartie. From that time, the Romans of Claudius, this period of rapid im- advanced into the internal part of provement, it is probable the Britong the island ; and, finding themselves of the south firtt learned the art of more feebly resist:d, as their power constructing durable buildings with became more known, began now to mortar ; though we do not find from apply themselves to the civilization of any claffic author, that, before the the rude people whom they had subreign of Nero, the Romans had dued. Jalius Agricola, ia the fecond


pear of his coro nand, as Proprætor the second year of Hadrian, A. D.

B ain. A. 1). 79. reduced the in- 120, when that Emperor built his habisans of North Wales, of Che- vallum across the island, between Sol. Shine and of Lancashire, to absolute way trich and the mouth of the Tyne fubiaction, and conquered the isle'of he considered the Roman Province srelesev. Hiving sufficiently evin- as extending no further to the north ced his power, he tried the effect of than that rampart. “ Murum per allaring the natives to an easy fubmis- “ octoginta millia passuum primus Gon, by giving them a taste of the en- “ duxit qui bárbaros Romanosque joyments of a polished people. To. “ dividerei.” Vit. Hadr. Hift. Aug. wards this purp vie, the Romans en- Script. couraged the }} itons to build regular. This interval, therefore, of more towns, allifted them in constructing than thirty years, must have been a tenibles, marke :-places, and commo. period of remarkable improvement to dious dwellings, and taught Chiem the favage Caledonians. Maintaining even the use of the baths and porti- a constant intercourse with the Ro cos, and all the luxuries of the Ro- mans, not diftinguished by extraordiman banquets. To this precise pe.. nary hostilities, and gradually regainriod, we may refer the foundation of ing a country in which they found many of the towns in the west of the recent works of a polished people; England, which are known to have they could not fail to acquire much had a Roman origin, as Lancalter, knowledge in the arts. At the time, Manchester, W'arrington, Ribchefter, therefore, when Adrian built his rama Overborough, Colne, &c.

part, A. D: 120, we know, almost to Artbis ume, therefore, A. D. 79, à certainty, that the inbabitants of the Britons of che north-western paris Scotland, as far to the north as the of England, kad acquired a contider: Grampian mountains, understood and able knowledge of regular architec. practised the art of constructing du. ture. But ail to the north of the table buildings with mortar. The Romao conquests, we must presumę forts or castella erected by Agricola, was in its origiral state of barbarism. which Tacitus says were so trongly Improvement, however, must have conftructed as to resist the utmost ef kept pace with the advances of the forts of the enemy to take them by Romans into the country; and it is storm, were now in the poffeffion of therefore not clifficult to mark its the Caledonians. The Roman castella progress. In die year so, we find were circular, and fumetimes square, Agricola emplo, ed in erecting a chain inclosures, furrou:ded with a strong of forts between the friihs of Clyde wall of stone, hewn into square blocks, and Forth; and in 83, the last year and cemented with mortar: The of his command, he had penetrated to spacc inclosed was sufficient to coo. the foot of the (ramp'an mountains tain various buildings likewise of in the northern paris of Angus. Itone, barracks for the wintet habitaFrom this time, çuring the remainder tion of the troops, granaries for proof the reign of Domitian, and thro' visions, and sometimes baths. The the whole of the l'eigns of Nerva and form of thele caftella may be seen in of Trajan, a period of above thirty the sculptures upon the Trajan cojears, the Romant made no progress lumn, and their construction may be in the island. The northern parts of learnt from Vegetius. The remains the province were ill defended, and of a bath belonging to one of these sbe Calidonians, in that interval, re- castella, pxobably erected by Agrico. covered all that part of Scotland la, were discovered, within these few Which Agricola hid gained; for, io years, at thie village of Dalnoter, be


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reen Glasgow and Dumbarton. The The most northerly Roman Nation, Caledonians had witnessed the build- according to Ptolemy, is the prepared ing of those structures, which were sqaroridor, or castra ala ta, which, in the Teared with the most perfect skill in itinerary of Richard, is termed Promilitary architecture, from materials rotone. This, I think, there is every which the country furnished in abun- reason to believe to have been that dance. They were now in poffeffion fortified promontory,, now called the of the structures themfelves. It is Burgh of Moray. Put any rate, it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude, certain there were se seral Roman stathat they now learnt the art of con, tions in that neighbo prhood, as TucsAtructing regular buildings with stone fis, Varis, and Pto: otone, which is and mortar, and practised is, both for fufficient for our purpose. It is then the purposes of defence and habita- evident, that, in the reign of Antotion; because the contrary supposition minus Pius, and with in a few years of would do violence to all probability. A D. 140, the dai . of this vallum,

The wall of Adrian, which was the Romans had fised præsidia and built in 120, and that of Antoninus built caftella in the rieighbourhood of Pius, built, as Horsley thinks, in 140, Frverness, from which part of Scot. were both constructed solely of turf. land, there was an uminterrupted mi. Bar they were defended by caftella, litary road, as appe:urs by Richard's placed at intervals of various distance, itinerary, to the Land's end in Corn. ccording to the nature of the ground wall. Ar this period, therefore, the The wall of Antoninus ran across fro::a inhabitants of this region of Scotland Dumbarton on Clyde to Cramond must have been acquainted, from the on the frith of Forth, and was pro. practice of the Romans, with the art bably in the precise line of the callel- of building with mortar. And, as la built by Agricola, It was at this the Itructure of these hill-fortifica, period, and under the command of tions demonftrites the ignorance of Lollius Urbicus, the lieutenant of the builders of the use of that cement, Antoninus, that the Romans made the most complete evidence thence atheir farthest advances into the island' rises, that they were reared prior to of Britain. After the erection of this the time above mentioned, that is, anew vallum, which had probably been bove fixteen centuries and a half ateared in the idea, that the country go. to the north of it was hardly worth But how far beyond that period we securing, Urbicus marched to the are to search for the date of those linDorthward, and finding, beyond his gular fortifications, ftill remains in expectation, that the country, especi- doubt. All that we can, with cerally along the fea-coast, was open and tainty, conclude, is, that they belong fertile, he appears to have prosecuted to a period of extreme barbarism. his conquests as far north as Inver. They must have been constructed by a

nefs. For this fact, we want indeed people scarcely removed from the -; the authority of any Roman historian; itate of favages, who lived under no ; but the Geography of Ptolemy, and impresion of fixed or regulated pro

the late discovered itinerary of Rich- perty in land, whose only appropriaard of Cirencester, prove, beyond all ied goods were their cattle, and whose doubt, that there were Roman fta- sole security, in a life of constant detions in the neighbourhood of Inver- predation, was the retreat to ihe fum. pess; and there is no other Roman ge- mits of those hills of difficult access, neral, but Urbicus, who, to the days of which they had ferrified in the best Prolemy, can be fuppofed to have pas- manner they could. As the space in. led the limits of Agricola’s conquests. closed was incapable of containing a


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