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of Asia. To add to this melancholy among them such young persons as light, the heads of the proscribed are have made the greatest progress in exposed on one side, and the carcases their education, and takes them with of executed criminals strewed about him to the Seraglio. It is pretendo the square. A sight which increases ed that none knows so well as the the horror of those subjects who ap- Sultan, those among them who are proach the palace, and who tremble the most able, and who deserve to be for fear that they shall soon add to the preferred. number.
At the bottom of this street is the · The interior part of the Seraglio hospital for those afflicted with the is composed of those edifices which plague, to which such Europeans are formed the palace of the Greek em- carried who are attacked with that perors: the Ottoman princes have en- disorder; there is another for the re. Larged it, as circumstances required, ception of the Greeks. These eftaand to adopt it to their manners. The blishments serve as asylums for such archite&ture of the new work is not Chriftians who do not meet from their good, and very irregular.
relations with that degree of pity and - Oppofite to the Scraglio, on the attention which a muffulman, from other side of the port, is a grand edi the principles he has imbibed, affords face with many domes, some brass 10 his brethren, if God pleases to af. cannon of various calibers without fict them, even at the risk of his own carriages, and ranged on the square life. Beyond this is the burial down to the sea fide, proclaim it to ground of the Christians, which is be the chief arsenal for the artillery, planted with mulberry trees ; this is as the name of it, Top-ana, signifies. made use of as a public walk, to wbich Above the fuburbs of Pera is a ftraight every Sunday a vast crowd of per. and rough street, built in the form of sons of both sexes resort, who often an amphitheatre, which leads up to employ themfelves in such a manner, the top of the hill, on which is the as, rather than in meditating on the Frank's street, called so because the mortality of the human species, may anibaffadors of all the European pow. in time tend to increase it. ers have there fixed their residence; Pera is almost wholly built of many merchants of all countries have wood, at least there are but very there also built some very good few tone houses. The palaces of houses, every one of which have hand- the ambassadors of France and Ve forze kiosks, or belvederes, which af. nice are of the latter number ; those ford then a fine view of the street of the other minifters make a very each way. It is an agreeable fight pretty appearance, being painted in to see the Greek ladies carelessly re. fresco; they are secured from fire clined on their sophas, employed al. by a wall which surrounds the house moft from morning to night in view. and offices. ing the passengers. This little recre. There are many Christian churchation is so agreeable to them, that es in Pera, and divine service is perthey pass half their time in answering formed without restriction, by monks the falates of the different passengers of different orders. The Greeks and who attract their attention either by Armenians have churches according a glance, an inclination of the bead, o cheir various rites, with distinct or a kiss of the hand.
hierarchal etablihroents. About the middle of this street is From Pe.a we go down to the fu. the college for the education of the burbs of Galatca, which is built on a Graod Signior's pages ; he visits rapid declivity, by the side of the this place once a year, letects from port; this quarter is inhabited by
Greeks and Armenians ; there are, walls, and constantly ill treated by however, many Turks residing there. their keepers ; overwhelmed with Here the French merchants and misery, the plague and every evil in those of many other nations have cideot to human nature continually houses and storehouses, fecured by afflicting them, until they srok by des good vaults to preserve their effects grees under the weight of the evils from the ravages of fires. · Galatea laid upon them by these barbarians has some churches and ministers in At one side of the arsenal is the is allo. For a good fee the mussul. residence of the Captain Pacha, dimaos are always ready to grant a to- vided into several little pavilions, all leration to their tributaries.
On the ground floor, and by the waNot far from the custom-houfe of ter side ; they have a pretty appear. the Francks or Europeans, for they ance without, being built regular. have one to themselves, is the quar- ly. ter of the Jews; the exterior of their Two candan placed on a mall houfes proclaims the extreme of mise- platform was part of the cannon fouary, but that is only from policy, their dery established by Baron Tott. This dirty appearance, added to their usual officer did a moft effential service to cringing behaviour, seems constantly the Turks; he gave them the foreft to solicit the Mussulmen not to op- ideas of a regular fortification, press them farther'; they ad as bro. taught them the due proportion and kers and storekeepers for all the Eu- advantage of artillery; his foundery is ropean merchants.
still to be seen with its furnaces, of Near the middle of the port is the which the French officers have lately arsenal, composed of many barracks, made use. in which the guards and workmen are The part of Conftantinople oppolodged; the ammunition, not very fate to this is called the Fanal; it is conliderable, is in some sheds, and a hill, the houses on which being fra materials for the construction of ships tuated on the declivity, afford an a. are never in any great quantity. Disn greeable prospect. Thericheft Greeks order and often a total neglect per- of the empire are fettled there ; the vades the whole. Their docks exhi. princes of Moldavia and Wallachia bit only the aukwardness of the Oto have also their residence there, which toman workmen, in every thing which might be called the palaces of these concerns marine affairs. Ships have princes, altho' clothed with sovereign remained seven years on the stocks, power in the provinces, of which the before they were ready. It is easy Porte entrusts them with the governto conjecture what kind of ihips these ment, were they not, while they are at must be, constructed for the most Constantinople, the Chief among the part with pipe timber, which, from tributaries who bow the neck to the the length of time employed in build- yoke of servitude. ing, remain so long exposed to the The At-Meydan, or the square of air.
horfes, is the most considerable in ConThe bath, which composes part of ftantinople. There is in it an Egyen the arsenal, is employed equally for tain obelisk, on which are some hiero. the confinement of criminals, who are glyphics, and a very fine columo of employed for a time on the friblic porphyry, split in many places, and works, and laves who are deprived secured by hoops of iron. of every hope of liberty. Here the The Turks believe the story that unhappy prisoners of war are confinMahomet II, had plit with a back ed, heaped as it were one upon ano- stroke of his sabre one of the ferther, in theds surrounded by thick pents which form a column, raised in
the middle of this square. It is it seems to make one of the suburos bounded on one side with some hou- to the capital, and has in the environs fes of a bad appearance, and by a fome beautiful mausoleums and superb beautiful mosque on the other, the tombs. The Ottomans regard the peristile of which is a colonade: some Afatic shore as the country of their
extensive gaps occasioned by fire in- forefathers; and if the right of con. • creases the extent of this ground, quest induces them to reside in Eu. which is sometimes used for the a- rope, their fanaticism makes them
musement of the Giritta, which is a wish to deposit their des in Alia; • kind of tilting, and served formerly this desire makes the number of buryfor a horse market.
ing grounds in the neighbourhood of · The Seven Towers, an edifice of Scutari immense. There also, like
immense extent, surrounded by walls . those in the environs of Conftanti!'franked with large towers, is the pri.. nople, serve as places of rendezvous
son so much dreaded by the ministers to the women of all ranks : their pre. : of those powers who happen to have tence for visiting them, is to weep
any contest with the Ottoman Port; over the ashes of their relations. The · this citadel, whose fortifications are quantity of cypress trees planted in
fufficient only to secure prisoners, them, affords a fine shade and an a. commands the sea of Marmora, and greeble freshness. But as the men - extends along its fides. The last fire. have also the same right to resort . in 1782, which consumed near a thither and weep over their deceased
third of Constantinople, destroyed a friends, the fair devotees have fre. number of unfortunate wretches, quent opportunities to comfort them. who were imprisoned in this fortress,: felves with the living for the loss of many buildings in the interior parts the dead. . of which were coosumed by the The stranger who does not go · flames.
there to dry the eyes of the widow, The port of Conftantinople has a observes with regret an infinite numvast. depth of water, the currcats, ber of broken columns, covered with which are constantly scouring it, pre-. inscriptions in gold, on a blue ground. serves it always in good condition ;. They proclaim the ignorance of the vessels of all sizes may anchor here Turks in all ages, who, after having in safety, and even lay a cable on enslaved and desolated Greece, ja. fore. There is not one quay round Jous of the superiority of these nal this port; the approaches to the ter pieces of art over their own bad landing places,' are only narrow taste, have placed over their tombs places, and three barks a breast can some of the most precious reniains of fcarcely lye at the planks placed there ancient marble, les for the sake of to facilitate the embarkation and making their wretched monuments
refpectable, than to insult the memoThe tower of Leander, which has ry of a people who were able to imsome cannon mounted even with the mortalize their existence by such mo. ground, bas within a very fine fpring numents of greatness. of fresh water, although it is situated Such is the capital of the Ottoman on a rock in the middle of the strait; empire, which is daily rising up from fome lanterns are lighted here every its afhes; the population is nearly night to serve as a guide for ships. equal to Paris, and seems for three The city of Scutari, built on the Afia. centuries to have braved the ravages zic shore, oppoble to Conftantinople, of the plague, which is here equally rises in form of an amphitheatre, and conitant and destructive. commands the entrance to the canal;
Df the present reigning Sultan, Selim s Regulations of the Seriglio; of the pre
lumptive Heir, and Mode of Succession in the Ottoman Empire. By the fame. THE death of Sultan Abdul women to enter until they have been
1 Hamet put an end to the cap. physically assured of their sex. tivity of his nephew, Sultan Selim, The manners of this palace, inac. whose acceffion to the empire, it was cessible to the male sex, are lirtle judged, would animate the interior known; and the various relations operation of government, and the Ja- thereof given by some females who nissaries, who founded all their hopes have attained admission with difficul. on the courage and intrepidity of his ty, are not suficiently a tested to incharacter, food forgot their deceased duce us to believe that they have Sulan, whom they had often accused been well informed of the rules pre. of igoorance and weakuess. The served in a place so very extensive, die new Sultan, Selim, at first appointed vided into so many departments, and to the command of the armies his where a profound secrecy reigns ; Graod Vizier Youllif Pacha, who, and where intrigue, ambition, hatred, . from the low condition of a llave to and even treaton, are every day prac. the high admiral, had, by Sultan tised. Abdul Hamet, been raised to the first It is only known, that when a Sul. tation in the empire, and poff:fed tan succeeds to lhe empire; all the bis prioce's entire confidence. You:lif nobles present him with female vir." Picha, in a short tinie, was facri. gio Daves ; this is done with a view ficed to envy, banished in to Bellera- to secure themselves so many patrobia, and his post given to the Pacha nefles : from there, and the females of Vidin, who had often diftinguish- educated in the seraglio from their. ed himself in the last war. . infancy, bis highness feleets fix.vira'
The Turks are seldom favoured with gins, who are called kuduns, or prina light of their sovereign : 11 is only cesies; but the Sultan Abdul Haon a Friday that his highness repairs, met, finding (doubtlets) that this attended by a pompous and magnific number was not sufficient, had instalcent train, to the mosque of Sancia led a fevench. I: may be presumed Sophia, from whence, after having that Sultan Selim will not omit folfinished his devotions, he returns back lowing his uncle's example in that within those walls where many of relpect. Of these kaduns, the first his predeceffors have been often who brings forth a male child has a troubled with the revolt of their Ja- pre-eminence over the others, withnissaries, and have even paid the for- out however acquiring the exclutive feit of their lives for their own inai. title of favourite Sultana. There are tention, or for the exactions of their also many other women in the seraminifters.
glio, whose numbers are only limited . A very numerous guard of Boffan by the will of he Sultan; but gis, distinguished by a large cap made they seldom tring forth any children, of (carlet cloth, and falling down be- owing to the jealousy and intrigues hind, keep watch night and day in of the kaduns, who think they have the courts and round the walls of the an exclusive right to give fucceflora seraglio. A multitude of eunuchs, to the empire. both white and black, form the in- Hiş highness also receives a young terior guard, aud do not permit even virgin every Friday : this facrifice, VOL. XII. No. 69.
continued every week, cannot fail to keeping the prince, who has the right be troublesome to him in an advan- of succession to the empire, thus leced age ; but it is one of the privi- queftered, the Laoilfaries bare often Jeges of the monarchy, and what do deposed the Sulian, and placed on Sultan will omit. If their interview the throne the person thus kept in appears at the end of a certain time captivity not to be attended with any conse. The brother fucceeds the brother, quences, great care is taken to pro- and the nephew ycceeding the uncle, vide husbands for these young girls, acqpires, at a more advanced age, the and there are plenty always ready to inheritance of bis father.' 'Phus Sul, espouse them ; but if the Sultan takeş tan Selim, son of Sultan Muitapha, a particular affection to any of thefe succeeds his uncle Abdul Hamet, and young laves, and wishes to preserve the son of the latier, who, in his tuto, them from the murdering projects of is now contined, will affume the eną their rivals, who would certainly 'en- figos of royalty after the death of Sul. deavour to prevent their bringing tan Selim. This method of fuccef forth any iffye, he gives orders for fion appears very judicious, as it pretheir security, but their children can serves tbe state from those fatal con not claim any title to the imperial sequences which almoft conftantly, succession, provided any of the ká- attend the minority of the foveduns have male children. : " reign.:
The presumptive heir is confined . At the death of a Sultan, the new in a quarter of the seraglio ; he has emperor removes all the kaduns and no women in his power but such as other women belonging to his predes. are past the age of bearing children'; for inco the old feraglio, and rehis mother is confined in the old se. peoples his haram in the usual mansaglio, for fear that her wilhes to ex- ner; all those who have not had any alt her son to the throne before his children, or whofe children are dead, time, should produce any intrigues are soon married to the lords, who that might bring on a revolt or a re- look on it as a great honour to be volution; she is permitted to see her permitted to espouse the widow of son only twice a year, at the two their master. .. feafts of the great and little Beyrani, The custom of the Ottomans is io when the Sultan carries him to the inveft the new Sultan, when proclaimold feraglio'; the one goes to view ed; with a sword; he is then furthe nursery of his pleasures, for there rounded with 'Janissaries, of which the young Circaffians, Georgians, and he becomes one, and his aime jo. others, who are bought in their infancy fcribed, is carried at the head of the from those who bring them to Con. first legion of that militia; he takes an Itantinople reside; and the other to oath to preserve their privileges, and enjoy for a few hours, the embraces of promises to all orders of the empire her who gave him birth ; after which to rule over them with justice. the young prince forrowfully returns . It must be confeffed that this cere. through the streets, casts a few glan: mong is much more suited to a noble ces on the attendants who surround and warlike nation, than those used þim, beholds only his tyrant and his in the inauguration of the sovereigns guards, and doubtless lighs for the of Europe, who receive those marks moment in which the death of him of their fubjccts obedience on their who holds him in slavery' shalt brinig knees, bending their heads before the those who now keep him in caprivity prelaté who crowns them. It is true, proftrate at his feet. '
that by being invefted with the dig· Notwitla standing this precaution in nities of Kalif and supreme Imam, .
: :. . the