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ferie, although that of them selues strovs gluttony. Like as both the they cannot be wanted, and so in Græcians and Romanes had in dethat case are not indifferent ; as like- teltation the very name of Philoxenus, waies in-cace they be not vsed with for his filthie wilhe of a Crane-craig. moderation, declyning fo to the ex. And therefore was that sentence vsed tremity whiche is vice ; yet the qua- aniongst them against these ariificiall litie and forme of ysing them, may false appetites, optimum condimentum smell of vertue or vice, and be great faries. But be warre with vling ex. furtherers to any of them.

cesse of meate and drink; and chiefie To beginne then at the things ne. be warre of drunkennefle, which is a cessary; one of the publiekest indif- beastlie vice, namelie in a king : but ferent actions of a king, and that speciallię be warre with it, because maniest, especially ftrangers, will nar- it is one of those vices that increaseth yowlie take heede to, is his man- with age. In the forme of your ner of refcction at his table, and his meate eating, be neither unciuill; behaviour thereat. Therefore, as like a grosse Cynicke;, nor affectatlie kings vse oft to eate publicklie, it is mignarde, like á dantie dame ; but meere and honorable that ye also doe cate in a manlie, rounde, and honest fo, as well to eschewe the opinion fashion. It is so wảies comelie to that ye loue not to haunt companie, dispatche affaires, or to be pensive at whiche is one of the marks of a ty. meate : but keepe then an open and rant; as likewise, that your delight cheerefull countenance, causing to to eate priuatlie, be not thought to be reade pleasant histories vnto you, that for private, fatisfying of your glut. profite may be mixed wish pleasure: . tonie : whiche ye would be ashamed and when ye are not disposed, enterfhould be publicklie seene. Let your taine pleasant, quicke, bat honeft table be honourablie serued; but discourses.

serue your appetite with fewe dishes, And because meate proucketh as young Cyrus did : whiche both is sleeping, be also moderate in your holesommelt, and freeft from the Deepe; for it goeth muche by vse : vice of delicacie, whiche is a degree and reinember that if your whole life of gluttonie. And vse mofte to eate were deuided in foure parts, three of of reasonablie-groffe, and common- them would be found to be consum. meates; aswell for making your bo- ed on meate, drink, fleese, and vonedy strong and durable for trauell at cessarie occupations. all occasions, either in peace or in But albeit ordinarie.times would warre : as that ye may be the bart. commonlie be kept in meate and lier receaued by your meane subjects Neepe; yet vse your selfe some-times in their houses, when their cheere so, that any time in the foure and may suffice you: whiche otherwaies twenty houres may be alike to you would be imputed to you for pride for any of them ; that thereby your and daintineffe, and breede coldenesse diet may be accommodate to your af. and dilda:ne in them. Let all your fairs, and not your affairslio your foode be simple, without composition diet : not therefore vsing your felfe or fauces ; whicbe are more like to ouer great softnesse and delicacie medicines then meate. The vsing of in your sleepe, more then in your them was coupted amongft the aun. meate ; and speciallie in-case ye haue cient Romans a filthie vice of deli. ado with the warres. cacie ; because they ferue only for Let not your Chalmer be throng pleasing of ti e taste, and not for fad and common in the time of your reit, tisfying of the neceslity of pature ; afwell for comelinesse, as for eschew.. abhorring Apicius their owne citizen,, ing of carrying repoits out of ihe for his vice of delicacie and mon- fame. Let them that haue the cre.

dite to ferue in your Chalmer, be truf- their first institution by God; whiche tie and secrete ; for a king will hade was for three causes : first to hide need to vse secrecie in many thinges: our nakednesss and shame; next and but yet behaue your felfe so in your consequentlie, to make vs more comegreatest secrets, as ye neede not be lie; and thirdlie, to préserue vs from alhamed at the mercate cronic. But the injuries of heate and colde. If specially see that those of your Chal- to hide our nakednes and shamefull mer be of a sounde fame, and without parts, then these natur 11 parts orblemishe.

dained to be hid, should not be reTake no heede to any of your prefented by any vr-decent furmes in dreames: for all prophecies, visions, the cloaches: and if they should helpe and prophetick dreames are accom- our comlines, they should not then, plined and ceased in Chrift. And by their painted preened fashion, therfore take no heede to freets serue for bailes to filthie lecherie ; as either in dreames, or any other things: false haire and fairding does amongst for that errour proceedeth of igno. vnchafte wemen : and if they should rance, and is unworthy of a Chrif. præserue vs from the injuries of heat tian ; who should be assured, Omnia and colde, men should not, like fenseeffe pura puris, as Paule faieth ; all lese stones, contemne God, in lighte daies and meates being alike to Chrif- lying the seasons; glorying to contians.

quere honour on heate and colde. Next followeth to speake of ray. And although it be praise-worthy and ment, the on-putting whereof is the necessarie in a Prince, to be patiens ordinary action that followeth next to algoris Eu afius, when he fhili haue Deepe. Be allo moderate in your adoe with warres vpon the fieldes; rayment; neither ouer superfluous, yet I thinke it meeter that ye goe {ike a debofaed waifter ; nor yet ouer both clo:hed and armed, then naked base, like a miserable wretche ; not to the battell ; except you would artificiallie trimmed and decked, like make you light for away running: a Courtizane ; nor yet ouer fuggish- and yet for cowards, medus addit alas, ly clothed like a country-clowne; And shortlie, in your cloathes keepe nor yet ouer grauelie, like a minifter. a proportion, aswell with the feasons But in your garments be proper, of the yeare, as of your age : in the cleanlie, comelie and honest: wear fashions of them being carelesse, vsing ing your cloathes in a carelesse, yet them according to the common forme comelie forme : keeping in them a of the time, some-times richelier, . middle forme, inter Togatos & Pa. fome-times meanlier clothed as occaludatos ; betwixt the grauitie of the lion ferueth, without keeping any one, and lightneffe of the other. precise rule therein. For if your

Thereby to signifie, that by your cale minde be found occupied vpon them, ling ye are mixed of both the profes- it will be thought idle otherwaies, sions : Togatus, as a judge making and ye shall be accompted in the and pronouncing the lawe; paludatus, nomber of one of these compti iuvenes; by the power of the sword: as your which will make your spirit and office is likewise mixed, betwixt the judgement to be lesse thought of. Ecclesiasticall and ciuille state. For But speciallie eschewe to be effoe nie a king is not meré laicus, as both the nate in your clothes, io perfuming, Papistes and Anabaptiftes would haue preening, or suche like: and faile him ; to the whiche error also the neuer in time of warres to be gal Puritanes incline ouer-farre. But to liardest and braueft, both in cloathes returne to the purpose of garments, and countenance. And make not a ebey ought to be vsed according to fool of your felfe in disguysing or



wearing long haire or nailes ; whiche fpeake to the eies of the auditour. Ig are' but excrements of nature, and both your speaking aod your gesture, bewraie suche misusers of them, to vše a naturall and plaine forme, nor be either of a vindictiue, or a vaine fairded with artifice : for (as the light naturall. Especiallie, make no French-men say (Rien contre-faidh vowes in suche vaine and outward fon; but eschewe all affectate formes thinges, as concerne either meate orin both. cloaches.

In your language be plaine, bo• Let your selfe and all your Court neft, naturall, comelie, cleane, short, weare no ordinarie armour with your and sentencious : eschewing both the cloathes, but fuche as is knightlie, aod extremities, aswell in not vfing any honourable : I meane rapier- wordes, rusticall corrupt leide, as booke-lanand daggers. For tuilyesome wea- guage, pen and inke-borne tearmes, pons in the Courte, betokens confu- and least of all mignarde and effæmi. son in the countrie. And therefore nate tearmes. But let the greatest bang the not onclie from your Courte, parie of your eloquence cor.lift in a ali uaccrous offensive weapons, for- naturail, cleare, and sensible forme of bidden by the lawes; as ghones and the deliuerie of your minde, builded Luche sike (whereof I fpake alreadie) euer spon certaine and good groundes, but also all trailerous defensive armes tempering it with grauitie, quickgesie; as secretes, plate-fceues, and suche or merinckle, according to the sublike vnseene ainour. For, besides ject, and occasion of the time ; not that the wearers thereof, may be præ- taunting in Theology, nor alleadging suppoled to haue a secrete euill in- and prøphaning the Scripture in teniion, they want both the vses that drinking purpoles, as ouer manie doe. derenfiue armour is ordained for : Vse also the like forme in your whiche is, to be able to holde out gesture ; neither looking filelie, like a violence, and by their outwarde stupide pedant; nor vnseiledlie, with glaunling in their enemies eies, to an vncouih morgue, like a Itrike a terrour in their harts. Where ouer Cavalier : but let your behavior by the contrarie, they can serue for be naturall, graue, and according to neither ; being not onely vnable to the fashion of the countrie. Be not relift, but dangerous for fhors, and ouer sparing in your courtesies ; for giuing no outwalide showe against that will be imputed to in-civility and the enemie :. being onelie ordained; arrogancie: nor yet ouer prodigal for betraying vnder trufte ; whereof in jowking or nodding at euery step; honeit men should be ashamed 10 for that forme of being populare, be.

beare the outwarde badge, not resemn- commeth better afpiring Ablaloms, · bling the thing ihey are not. . And then lawfull Kings : framing euer for answere against there arguments, your gesture according to your preI know done but the olde Scottes fa. lent actions: looking grauelie and thion: whiche if it be wrong, is no with a majestie when ye fit in judgemore to be allowed for auncientcelte, ment, or giues audience iv Emballa: then the olde Masse is, wbiche als dours; homely, when ye are in prin so our forefathers vsed... .. date with your owne fervantes ; mire

The next shing tha: ye haue to lie, when ye are at any paitine or take heede to, is your speaking and merrie discourse; and let your courie language ; whereunto I joyne your tenance fmell of courage and magnagesture, since action is one of the nimitie when ye are at the warres, cheefest qualities, that is required in And remember (1 say ouer apaine) an oratour : for as the tongue fpeaketh to be paine and fenfible in your ianto the eares, so doth the geature guage : for beldes that it is the


ongues office, to be the messenger heate, wherewith they were written, of the mind; it may be thought a coole at leasure ; and then as an vopoint of imbecillitie of spirite in a couch judge and cenfur, reuihing them King, to speake obscurelie ; muche ouer againe, before ihey be published, more vntrulie : as if he Itoode awe of quia nefiit vox niillu reurti. any in vttering his thoughts.

If ye would write worthelie, choose Remember also, to put a difference subjectes worthie of you, that be not betwixt your forine of language in full of vanitie, but of vertue; eichew. reasoning, and your pronouncing of ing obscuritie, and delighting euer to sentences, or dec'aratour of your wil be plaine and feasible. And if ye in judgement, or anie other waies in write in verse, remember that it is the points of your ofice. For in the not the principall parte of a poeme to former case, ye must realon pleasant. rime right, and flowe well with many lie and pacienilie, not like a king, but prettie wordes : but the chiefe conlike a priuate man and a icholer; O mendation of a poeme is, that wiien therwaies, your impacience of contra- the verse shall be shaken fundrie in diction will be intrepreted to be for prose, it shall be founde so riche in Jacke of reason on your parte. Where quick inventions, and poeticke floures, io che pointes of your office, ye should and in faire and pertinent compariripelie aduise indeede, before ye giue fons; as it shall retaine the luitre of forth your sentence; but fra it be gi- a poeme, although in prose. And I uen forth, the suffering of any con- would also aduite you to write in your tradiction, diminisheth the Majestie owne language, for there is nothing of your authoritie, and maketh the left to be faide in Grecke and Latine processes endlesse. The like forme alreadie ; and ynewe of poore {chola would also be obserued by all your lers would matche .ou in these lan-, inferiour judges and Magistrates. guages; and besides that, it belt be.

Nowe as to your writing, whiche commeth a King to purifie and make is nothing else, but a forme of en-re- famous his owne tongue, wherein he giftrate speeche ; vse a plaine, shorte, may goe before all his subjects; as but statelie stile, both in your procla- it seiteth him well to doe in all ho. mations and misiues, especiallie to neft and lawfull things. forraine princes. And if your en And amongst all vndeceffarie gine fpurre you to write any workes, thinges that are lawfull and expedicyther in verse or in profe; I cannot ent, I thinke exercises of the bodie but allowe you to practise it : but moste commendable to be vsed by a take no longsome workes in hande, young priace, in suche honest games for distracting you from your calling. or pastimes, as may further ability and

Flatter not your selfe in your la. maintaine health. For albeit I graunt boures, but before they be set forth, it to be most requisite for a King to let them first b. priuilie censured by exercise bis engine, whiche furtlie Some of the best filled men in that with idlenesse will rouste and become craft, that in these workes ye medle blunt; yet certainly bodily exercises with. And because your writes will and games are verie commendable remaine as true pictures of your aswell for baonishing of idlenefle (the winde, to all posterities; let them be mother of all vice) as for making his free of all un-comelinefle aod vn- bodie able and durable for travell, honestie : and according to Horace his whiche is very neceflarie for a King: counsell

But from this count I debarre all Nomur:que preinantur in annum. rough and violent exercises, as the I meane both your verse and your foor-ball; meeter for laming, then prose; letting first that fury and making able the vsers thereof; ąs


likewise such tumbling trickes as one- 'ought euer præciselie to keepe ; re. ly serue for Comedians a d Balladines, membring that these games are but to win their breade with. But the ordayned for you, in enabling you for exercises that I would have you to your office, tor the whiche ye are or. vse (although but moderatlie, nor dained. making a craft of them) are running, And as for fitting house paftimes, leaping, wrastling, fencing, dauncing, where-wilh men by driving time, and playing at the caiiche or tennis, fpurre a free and fast ynough ruoning archery, palle maille, and suche bike horse (as the proucrbe is) although other faire and plealant field gīmes. they are not profilable for the exercise And the honorableft and molt com- either of minde or bodie, yet can I mendable games that ye can yle, are not virerlie condemne them; since on horse-backe; for it becomimith a they may at times fupply the roome, prince best of anie man, to be a faire whiche being empty, would be patent and good horse-man. Vie therefore to pernicious idlenes quia nihil poteft to ride and danton great and coura- elle vacuue. I will not thertore asgious horses, that I may say of you, gree with the curiosity of some learn. ae Philip laide of great Alexander his ed men in our age, in forbidding carts, sonne. Maridovíz 'ore xwes. And speci- dice, and other suche like games of allie vse suche games on horse-back, hazard; although otherwaies surely I as may teache you to handle your reuerence them as notable and god. armes thereon ; suche as the tilt, the lie men. For they are deceaued ring, and love-ryding for handling of therein, in founding their argument your swurde.

vpon a mistaken grounde ; whiche is, I cannot omit heere the hunting, that the playing at fucbe games, is a namelie with running houodes, whiche kinde of c::sting of lot, and therfore is the most honourable and noblest vn-lawtull; wherin they deceave themforte thereof; for it is a theeuilhe felues. For the casting of lot was forme of hunting to shoote with vsed for triall of the trueth in any obgunnes and bowes; aod grey-hound scure thing, that otherwaies could hunting is not so martiall a game. not be gotten cleared, and therfore But becaus I would not be thoght a was a forte of prophecie ; where by a partiall praiser of this sport, I remit the contrarie, no-man goeth to apie you to Xenophon, an olde and famous of these plaies, to clear any obscure writer, who had no mind of flatter- trueth, but onelie to gage so muche ing you or me in this purpose : and of his owne money, as he . pleaseth, who also setteth downe a faire patern, vpon the bazarde of the running of for the education of a yong king, va- the cartes or dice, as well as he would der the supposed name of Cyrus. doe vpon the speede of a horse or a

As for hawking I condemne it not, dog, or any suche like gaigeour. but I must praise it more sparinglie, And so, if they be vn-lawfull, all because it neither resembleth the gaigeours vpon vncertainties must like. warres so neere as hunting doth, in waies be condemned. Not that theremaking a man hardie, and skilfullie by I take the defence of vaine car. ridden in all grounds ; and is more ters and dicers, that waste their mo. incertaine and subject to mischances; yen and their time (wheref fewe conand (whiche is worst of all) is there. lider the pretiousnesse) vpon prodigall through an extreame ftirres vp of pal- and continuall playing ; no, I would Gons. But in vsing either of these rather allowe it to be discharged, games obserue that moderation, that where foche corruption cannot be elye slip not there with the houres ap- chewed. But opelie I cannot conpointed for your affaires, whiche ye demne you at some times, when ye


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