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Wight lead ore, which is blended this species, formed into large cothrough the body and composition of lumns, upon the south side of Arthur's the tone, that this would be a very Seat, near Edinburgh, of a fine upicurious and beautiful ftone when po- form texture, and a good black colour, lithed. .

and capable of receiving a very high Sixthly, Balalts, of which there is a polith. This stone would be peculia very great variety of the grey kinds in arly fit for all sorts of ornaments 2: many parts of Scotland, and some of bout sepulchral monuments. It will them are capable of the brightest po- polish to a bright and beautiful black; lift. There is a good black stone of which will be unfading.

Of the Origin and Formation of Coalt.

I BELIEVE it is out of my power, discovery, conversed with several

and out of the power of any other gentlemen who have made the same man in the world, to produce a more obfervation ; but, for any thing I clear, compleat, and decisive proof know to the contrary, I was the first of the universal deluge, than our.pit that ever attempted to account for coal; and also, of the wisdom and be the phenomenon, by having recourse névolence of the Supreme Being, in to the universal deluge. over-ruling the events and operations Let us take a cursory view of the of nature, and bringing about the coals already discovered in Britain, in good and emolument of man by that order to give us some idea of the extraordinary revolution.

quantity of this very useful mineral It appears to me evident and past fewel. 2 doubt, that timber was the origin What a vast number of seams or and principal matter of which cual strata of coal are there between Hadwas composed; and if we allow the dington and Edinburgh !-between origin of coal to be timber, it is iin. Edinburgh and Stirling in the pollible to give any rational account tires of Fife and Clackmannan !in of the form and situation of the strata the shires of Lanark, Renfrew, Dum. of coal, without admitting the doc- fries, and Ayr, in Scotland! What trine of the deluge to be true. That an iinmense number in the shires of coal was composed of timber, is in Cumberland, Northumberland, Duru fome measure evident to our senses. ham, Nottingham, Stafford, Salop, I have seen the grain and figure of and all the other coal countries io timber so diftin&tly in the strata of England and Wales and yet, what Coal, as to be certain that it really had is this small island in comparison of been timber, and that it really was the rest of the habitable parts of this when I saw it, partly imperfect coal, globe ? - But a speck. Nevertheless, and partly destroyed or spoiled tim- it may juftly be called a fortunate ber; and it was this observation and island. It is so wholesome and tem. discovery that firft excited me to ea- perate, and so pleatifully stored with quire and search out the true origin all necessaries and conveniencies, for of coal. I am not the only person the employment and maintenance of that has been the appearance of tim- multitudes of people in' a focial and bet in coal I have, since my first commercial Atate, that perhaps Do

iMand * Frore the samples

ifland nor nation under heaven is in thoughts, gives 'no small support to every respect so well furnished, and that opinion. Let us reflect, that so highly favoured. ,

Dalmatia, and the islands in the neighGreat Britain is a great word in bourhood of that country, are directthe mouth of a Briton, yet it is but a ly in the run of the high tides, (upon fpot when we compare it with the rest the supposition of the chaotic ftate of the world. What a vast quantity of the earth I ingift upon at the de. of coal may we then suppose to be luge,) which at least gives the sugo

deposited in all parts of the superfi: gestion a greater air of probability. ·cies of the globe. The quantity For we may juftly suppose, that all must be immense. "At the same time such substances would be carried it must be allowed, that all parts of somewhat westward by the high tides the globe are not so plentifully of such a deluge, before they would ftored with this fewel as Britain. settle with other matter, and be lodThere is almost none in Britain itself, ged in strata. Allow me for once to the north of the Ochil Hills. There to beg the question, where I cannot is, ab yet, but little discovered in Ire- avowedly lay claim to it by proving land, and Nill less in proportion in the fact; and let us suppose, that onmany extensive northern regions.- ly a considerable part of Alia, and

There are extensive tracts of granite, perhaps a very small part of Africa, and other socks not commonly asso- were inhabited before the deluge ; and ciated with coal, in many parts of in that case, by far the greatest part the globe, where none is to be ex. of the earth lay waste, and of copse. pected; but after all these deductions, quence, all the uninhabited parts of the quantity to be found all over the the earth would be entirely covered globe must be immense.

with the tallest and most luxuriant It may be properly asked, where I growth of timber imaginable; and, am to find timber enough to produce at least, one half of the inhabited all this coal? This may at first light countries would be in the same con. appear to same absurd and impossible: dition. America is a sufficient proof However, it does not appear to me that the uninhabited and thinly inhain that light ; and I hope to give a bited parts of the antediluvian earth fatisfactory account of the matter to would be so covered with timber. every impartial enquirer before I Let us examine how much tall quit this point of investigation. timber will grow upon a square mile

I have good reason to believe, of good foil, when sheltered by tall -- {contrary to the opinion of many,) timber on all hands : Again, how

that there was but a small part of the much will grow upon a thousand antediluvian earth inhabited; but as square miles, and so on, over the I cannot prove those reasons by indif- greatest part of the dry land all round putable facts, I, will not inçift upon the globe; and in this view of the jhem, but will leave it as a fuppofi. subject, we shall find, that the origia tion. It was a small part of Asia, nal sources of the coal correspond and perhaps a very little, of Africa, with the quantity of it in the world. that I suppose to have been inhabited I will here beg leave to propose a1 efore the flood; and the modern nother probable source of coal. I siscovery of human bones in the body believe I may call it a real one, and of the strata, and blended in the com- that is the antediluvian peat-bog. position of the solid rocks in the . I have really seen itrata of coal country of Dalmatia, and in several that have all imaginable marks of beof the islands in the Mediterranean ing composed or formed of that comSea to the westward of Alla, jo, my bustible substance. The colour, quaties, and form in the stratum, the bands or strata of ironstone in the manner of burning, the ashes, and coal metals, are from two to five or everything else relating to these fix inches; but notwithstanding their coals, look like peat. I have seen being so thin, they are nevertheless dried black peats nearly as hardas regular strata as the coals themThese coals exhibit no perfect and selves, and spread as far every way regular form and grain in working, as any of their concomitant strata. like other coals, but break into mis- Now, every intelligent unprejudi. Mapen glebes, like peat clods broken ced naturalist, who has taken any noby water; and I certainly know that tice of the order and disposition of the peat clods are kept together by the several strata in a.coal field, must acfibrous roots, and are not foon diffol- knowledge with me, that those feve. ved and mixt with water. The roof rat ftrata were fpread out, and formed or upper fide of one of these strata of in the order we find them, by fuccoal is not level or plain like other ceflive tides, or by fimilar streams of coals, but very unequal; and a stra. water, bringing the matter and depotum of clay, which is immediately a- fiting it in regular strata. The order buve it, has filled up all the inequali- in which they are placed, stratum fa. ties of the upper side of the coal; and per ftratum, promiscuously, in respect when the coal is taken down from to the laws of gravitation ; the heavy, it, the clay roof appears with a rough, the light, and those of medium ponunequal, imbofled surface.

derosity, being all blended together, One of these fingular coals is situ- . without the lealt regard to gravitation, ated at Breich in Liolithgow. fhire, makes it evident to a demonstration, in Scotland the property of Sir Wil that they were deposed in the order liam Auguftus Cunningham Bart. we find them by successive streams of

There are other strata of coal of water. Any other way of account. this quality and description in Scot ing for this deposition, must be uomeland, but I only point out this one, chanical and imperfect, and will not because I examined it more minuiely agree with the phenomena of nature, than any other.

The bands of ironstone in the coalThe other coal metals, or the stra- fields are commonly found in those ta which accompany coal, are as clear black and grey argillaceous strata 3 proof of the universal deluge as called till or blaes, which generally the coal itself, or near y fo. Many of accompany coal; and we frequently these have a small quantity of the coat. fiod two or three or more, thin strabetween their folds and lamina, and ta of ironstone in one thick stratum in small pets within the folid parts of of blaes, which is the name given by the strata, and these concomitants of Scots colliers to these : argillaceous the coal are all as regularly stratified coal-tills. But it should be observed, as any other class or affemblage of that all the ironítone of the coal. strata whatsoever. There is one a- . fields is nor stratified, nor found remong these besides the coal, which gular and continuous in the manner deserves particular notice, and that is of any regular strata. We often find the ironstone. The iron stones of the and work ironítone in nodules, balls, coal-fields are disposed in regular · and glebes, which are deposited protrata, and there are in some coal miscuouily without any regular order, a great number of strata of ironstone. · in pretty thick and generally soft These strata of ironstone are general- ftrata of the cal-till or bleas. This ly thin, few of them being a football ironstone is very commonly found thick, and some of them not above an in fost argillaceous strata, of various inch. The medium thickņels of the colours besides the black, as whic

ing ith, ash-coloured, and various shades eness of the strata ; and in fome beds of grey.

of till, the glebes of iron have eri. · These glebes and balls of iron are dent marks of the Attata from which found in this manner blended in the they were broken remaining. argillaceous •ftrata, of all sizes, from. The : richeft and pureft ironstone the bigness of walnuts, up to -maffes of the coal-fields is generally of a of a hundred pounds weight. The fine: texture, commonly rising in small balls are found in less or greater angular masses from the stratum, fra. quaotities in different strata of blaes ; gile, and easily broke into small anand frequently in less and greater gular masses of different figures-; and quantities in different parts of the we find the pureft and richeft ball fanie ftrarum.

iron in exceeding small maffes, ine This -ball ironstone is always of bedded in the trata of coal-till, of the fame quality as the regular Iraia various colours. On the contrary, of irooftone found in the same coal. ftrata of inferior quality have a coarse fields; and the balls and glebes, grain and texture, are more ftrong and always appear water-rounded, being · cohesive, and rise in larger glebes in cither found in smooth roundith balls working it from the Itratam. Some of various fizes, or else in flattich of the inferior kinds, when the stra. glebes with obtufe angles or smooth ta of irooftone are not above three sounded edges. Now the situation, or four ioches thick, rife in broad order and figure of this ball ironstone, flat cakes or glebes; and I have fres is another proof of succesive tides in quently seen them in as broad and the formation of the strata. This -Hat masses lodged in the coal tills, glebous ironstone was first of all form. with only the edges or sharp. angles ed io regular strata of various degrees a little worn off. Such glebes of of thickness; but before induration ironstone as have been broken off was compleated, a ítream tide, ac- from thinner or thicker trata, ftill

companied by a strong wind, has retain evident marks and characters splowed up and corn off part of the of their stratified state, as the various fuperficies of the strata of ironstone masses and fragments clearly discover and others already formed; the frag- the bed of the stone, having only the ments of which ttrata, when torn off, afperiries and sharp angles worn off. were easily 'rounded by rolling and I have endeavoured to explain this 'attrition in the water, beforethey were phenomenon with some degree of

perfectly indurated; and these frag- perfpicuity and precision ; because I
ments were afterwards depofited by think it deserves attention, being a
fucceeding tides in the soft argillace clear and convincing proof of the
ous strata already mentioned; which formation of the strata, by fucceffire
ftrata of coal-tills, holding glebes of tides or streams of water in mo.
ironstone, and such other strata as are tion.
found above them, must have been observed before, that the various
formed later than the regular strata strata found in coal-fields, are as
of ironstope from whence these glebes finely itratified, as regularly spread
were toro off. That they were torn out, and as equally thick in conii-
off from the superficies of regular nuation, as any class or atemblage
strata, is evident, troin the glebes and of strata whatever ; and I will now
balls being of the same colour, quali. observe, that the coalitfelf is likewise
ty, and texture, as the Itrata, even to as fairly stratified, and as regular, as
the nicest exactress when compa ed, any of its concomitant Itrata. Many
and from the thickness of the glebous beds of coal are so finely stratified,
wasses corresponding with the thick that they really are of a laminated

structure,

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Aructures the plates or different la- wood, and especially with pines, or mina being thin and splitting regular, fir wood. Tar is extracted from fir ly in leaves of equal thickness, the wood; and it is remarkable, that of whole breadth of the largelt mailes; late years it has been discovered that and I have frequently seen several a species of tar can be extracted from scams or beds of distinct kinds or de coal, which is procured in great anominations, and of different quali- bundance by a sort of distillation. I ties of coal, lying regularly, stratum cannot heip thinking that this known fuper ftratum, in one individual thick fact is a good collateral proof of bed of coal, such as splint coal, or the antediluvian timber being the ofone coal, parrot, or channel cual, rigin of coal. This mineral tar has and various mixtures of the roch a ferid, disagreeable smell, which, no coals of different and distinct grains doubt, is caused by its being combinand textures, all of them regularly ed with vitriolic and other heteroge. disposed one above another in the neous particles. fame individual stratum of coal; be. The coal from which tbis tar is low ground, without any stone or till, extracted being in a mineralized state; or other heterogeneous matter inter-' and mixed with various heterogene posed between them. Now, this is matters, we cannot expect this pitchy a clear proof of the agency of water extract to be as simple and pure as in a gently Aowing motion. If these: the resins of timber, but they are northern regions were not inhabited, really of the fame quality. they would soon be overgrown with.'

of a King's Behaviour in Indifferent Things.

By King James VI*.

TT is a true olde saying, That a viour of a man, haue a certaine bold.
1 king is as one set on a stage, ing and dependence, either vpon ver.
whose smallest actions and gestures; tue or vice, according as they are
all the people gazinglie doe beholde; vsed or ruled ; for there is not a mida
and therefore althogh a king be des betwixt them, no more than bed
neuer fo præcise in the discharging twixt their rewards, heauen and
of his office, the people, who feeth hell.
but the outward part, will euer judge · Be care full then, my Sonne, to
of the substance; by the circumllanto frame all your indifferent actions
Ces; and according to the outwarde and outward behauiour, as they may
appearance, if his behaviour be light serue for the furtherance and forth-
or diffolute, will conceiue præ.oecu-, setting of your inward vertuous dir.
pied conceits of the kings in ward in- pofitioni
tention : wbiche although with time, The whole indifferent actions of a
the tryar of all trueth, it will eva-. man, I deuide in two fortes : in
Difhe, by the evidence of the con: his behautour in things necessary, as
trarie effe&ts, yet interim patitur in- ' foode, sleeping, rayment, speaking,
fius; and prejudged conceits w:1), in writing, and gesture ; and in things
the meane time, breede contempt, the not necessarie, though conuenient and
mother of rebellion and diforder. Jawfull, as pastimes or exercises, and
And belides that, it is certaine that vling of companie for recreation.
all the indifferent actions and beha- i As to the indifferent things neces.

Vol. XII. No. 68. Q . ."
• Frond his Maiesties inftrvations to his deareft gunne, Henry the Prince.

farie,

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