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of its being an operation of art. I have been much more conspicuous examined the fides of it, where it is than on a hill incomparably smaller. cut ioto the rock, to see if there were. That the materials which compose any marks of a tool. A labourer, the hill of Craig-Phadrick, as well as who attended me with a mattock, or all other hills, of which the stone is quarryman's pick, declared his opi- of a similar nature, have originally nion, that, in many places, there were been under water, I have not the marks of an instrument similar to what smallest doubt. The compound apbe bad in his hard; but the rock bee pearance of the rock, which is evi. ing composed of many rounded peb- . den:ly a mass of water-worn pebbles, bles, and when broken presenting a of various size, Dature, and colour, surface, in which the beds of those sticking in a bed of clay, leaves no pebbles have often an appearance like room to doubt of its origin. But what is made by the Itroke of a tool, whether those hills, which consist of I lay licle weight upon that circum- such compound materials, have been fance. The form alone of this road, forcibly raised up from the bottom of as I have already faid, was suificient. the water, by some convulsion of na. ly convincing to me of its being an ture, or forined by a gradual alluvio, operation of art.

or deposition of materials under a From the nature of the stone itself, mass of water which has now deserto of which this hill is formed, and ed them, (as sand-banks are formed from that compound appearance of in the sea) is what we have no grounds water-worn pebbles, sticking in a ce- for determining with certainty, and mening mass, it has been conjectu. few to found even a probable conjec: red, that these pebbles, together with ture : Since, with regard to this parthe bed in which they are lodged, ticular hill, there never has been å had been forced up from the bottom section made across any part of it, of the sea, by internal fire struggling from which the component strata for a vent, which it afterwards ob- might be perceived, or the disposition tained at the summit. With regard in which they lie. All that I ain to the nature of the stone of this hill, at present concerned to shew, is, that; I shall here observe only, that this from the superficial or external apo compound appearance in the rock at pearance of this hill, there is no rea. Craig.Phadrick, affords no more pre- son for supposing that it ever contain: sumption of this particular hill being ed intestine fire. forced up by fire from the bottom of The stone, of which the whole of the sea, than it does of all the sure this hill, and most of the neighboure rounding hills for many miles having ing hills are composed, is a mixed the fame origin. The greatest part mass of round water-worn pieces of of the hills wnich bound Loch-Ness, different coloured granite, greyish or both on the north and south, are speckled quartz, and the common composed of the faine materials, or at white quartz. This compound stone, least con:ain large strata of the stone which is well known to miners, has, I have meotioned. Yet none of those from its appearance; been terned hilis that I have seen, or on enquiry plum-p:edding stone. Those who have have ever heard of, exhibit the smal- entertained the notion of Craig-Phad. left appearance of the effects of fire rick's being an extinguished volcano, though, being infinitely higher than have maintained, that this compound Craig-Phadrick, and consequently de- ftone is of the nature of the volcanic manding a much greater force to raise tufas.' This, however, will be acthem up, had the fire been the agent, knowledged to be a mistake, by all its effects on them would probably who have examined and compared VOL. XII. No. 68.


the two substances. The rolcanic ceous and unvitrifiable stone others tufas are all composed of materials of stones of which a part had been in which have undergone a change by fusion, while the reft remained in its fire ; the plum-pudding itone has un- natural state. Thiefe circumstances, dergone no fuch change. Sir Wilc of themselves, are fufficient to distin. bian Hamilton describes tufa to be a guish this substance from volcanic lafoti Itone, composed of pumice, aihes, va, which is an uniform homogeneous and burnt mättur, irs colour ofien tin- mass, of which every part has been in ged with grey, green, and yellow. It a state of furion. Neither has this is formed, says he, by water making pitrified substance the appearance of op these materials into a fort of clay, those scoriæ thrown up from volcanos, which afterwards hardens. The plum- which are probably the scum of the pudding stone, on the contrary, con- lava, or such parts of the materials as tains no burnt materials. Its compo- either never were fusible, or have lost nent parts, fo far from being already their fulibility and principle of inburnt, when exposed to fire, undergo flanimability : For the burot substance a total change, and the whole stone on the top of Craig-Pliadrick is rasuffers an imperfect vitrification. Up- ther a mixture of fusible with unfusi. on the whole surface of this biri, and ble substances ; many parts appearing anidst all the decached fragmenis, to have been in the most perfect saboth of the natural stone and of the fons while others have remained in vitrified matter, there is not, so far as their natural state. I could observe, any thing that bears Buithe circumstance wbich, in my the appearance of a pumice stone. apprehension, evinces, in the most fa. The burnt matter, indeed, is open full tisíactory manner, that those appearof small holes or honey-combed; but ances of the effect of fire on the sumit still retains a glaffy appearance, and mit of this hill, are not the operation a confiderable weight, both which of nature, but of art, is the regular circumstances sufficiently distinguish order and disponiion of those materiit from pumice. Bafultes are, I be. als, the form of the ground, and the lieve, constantly found, in some form various traces of skill and contrivance or another, upon all volcanic hills; which are yet plainly discernible, bet neither on the rock of Craig- though considerably defaced, either Phadrick, nor on any of the neigh- by external violence, or by the obli. bouring bills, is there, so far as I could terating haud of time. To proceed observe, the smallelt appearance of regularly in examining those appeara that kind.

ances of artificial contrivance, I rew The vitrified matter on the fum. ::!rn to that winding road I before mit of this rock is, therefore, the on- mentioned, which is evidently cut ly circunstance which positively vin. through the rock for the purpose of dicates the effect of fe ; and this I ga:ning an easy ascert from the level Thali now proceed to examine. ridge to the summit, which would o

The Society have already had be therwise have been imprafticable. fore them specimens of this burnt or In mounting up by this road, and vitrified matter. I hall, therefore, towards the middle of the ascent, fuppose, that they are sufficiently ac- there appears a small platform overquainted with its appearance. It will hanging the road, upon the righe be recollected, that in no.e of the hard, and inclining, by a very gentle specimens which were produced, was declivity, to the edge of the rock. there any thing like a coral fusion of Upon this platform, and on the very

the materials. Some parts of the edge and extremity of it, are placed ..maks seemed to be portions of argilla- four enormous stones, which have


beca evidently guided by art into that upon the north side, where, for about position ; as it is impossible, supposing seventy yards, the rampart is formed them to have rolled down, that they only of dry stones and earth. The ever could have rested in that situa- probable reason of this I shall aftere tion. The posture of these Itones wards mention. It is sufficient just leaves no doubt as to the purpose they now to observe, that the strong natuwere intended to serve. Upon an ac ral defence that was afforded on this larm of danger, the strength of a very fide, by the extrene it-epnels of the few men was fufficient to raisc these e. rock, which is here alınost perpendi Dormous stones so as to destroy their cular, superseded the necessity of balance, and project them into the hol. much artificial opera:ion, there being low road, which they would entirely little hazard that an assault would ever block un, and thus either prevent all be attempted on this quarter. ' access, or render the pass so difficult Every where else this cutward wall as to be with ease defended by a few appears completely vitrified; and ac against any number of assailants. the east fide, where the hill is more Some other large stones are likewise acceslible, and the declivity more placed on an eminence to the left of gradual, there is a prodigious mound the road, evidently to serve a similar of vitrified matier, extending itself to purpose with those on the right, and the thickness of above forty feet. At to block up or defend a hollow chan- the south-east corner, and adjoining nel, by which an cent might have to this immense mound, is an outbeen attempted, by following the wao work, confifting of two femi-circulus ving direction of the natural furrows vitrified walls, with a narrow puss cut of the hill.

through them in the middle. Tris On arriving at the summit of the appears to hare been another, and hill by the winding road, and a few perhaps the principai entry to the fort. feet below the rampart which crowns It was neceffary that there should be the top of the hill, there appears an two entries ; one from the level ridge outward wall surrounding the whole, which joins this hill on the west io which approaches on the sides of the that chain of which it forms the exhill fo near to the upper rampart, as tremity, the other from the low cours to leave only a fossé or trench of ten try to the east. The entry to the or twelve feet in width between them; weft was defended in the manner alunless at the west extremily, where ready described ; that towards the this outward wall extends iiself to a eaft did not admit of a defence of the greater dittance from the inner ram same kind, but was secured by three part, and forms a level platform, of ramparıs; and the pass through the an oblong and somewhat semi-circu. femi circular out-work was niade so far shape, about forty yards in length, narro:v as to be easily defended, or aod fifteen at its greatest breadth, even blocked up with stones and earth, This outward wail is in many places upon the Nortest notice of danger. fo low, as to be almost level with the We come irow to the inner wall rock, though, in other places, it sises furrounding the summit of this hill, to the height of two or three feet; and indoling a level space, of the but even where it is lowelt, the marks form of an oblong square, about fer of it may be traced by a line of vitri- venty-five yards in length and thirty fied matter sticking fist to the rock, in breadth, rounded, like the outwaru all along nearly of the same bread:h, wall, at each of the ends. This io. which, in most places, is about nine Der wall is nearly of the same thickfeet. The remains of this wall are ness with the outward one, and is of Irongly viuified, unless in one place çonfiderable height. There is some



appearance that it has been armed up with rubbish to within a yard of with four baitions or turrets; as, at the surface. regular distances, the wall enlarges Such are the appearances on the itself confiderably in thickness, in a summit of Craig-Phadrick, which excircular figure, like the foundation of hibit, in my opinion, such evident a small tower. Of this, however, the and unambiguous traces of artificial traces are so imperfect, that I will not operation, that I cannot conceive a take upon me to say whether they difference of opinion to have arisen may not be entirely an accidental ir. concerning their origin, but from too regularity. - In the same light I was inattentive and hasty a survey of them, at first disposed to have considered a joined to a partiality for those hyposinail circle, confifting of a number of theses, extremely fafhionable at presmall tumuli of earth, with a stone sent, which ascribe a vast variety of placed in the centre, which I suppo- natural appearances to the operation fed might have been nothing more of ancient volcanos. than an accidental appearance, till Ofthose fortified hills mentioned by Jately, that, from the description of Mr Williams, I had likewise an opsome ancico: fortifications of a similar portunity of examining two others, kind in Ircland, I find there are, in the hill of Dun-Evan in the county many of them, circles of (mall tumuli, of Nairn, and the Castle-hill of Fin. , like what I have mentioned, which haven in the county of Angus. are supposed to have marked the place Another fortified hill, which is not fet apart for the chief, as the pretoris among those enuingrated by Mr Wil24m in the camps of the Romans. liams, I have likewise vilited, and

But within this inner space, there have examined with particular atten. ' are orher niarks of artificial operation, tion. This is Dun-Jardel, a very high which are lefs ambiguous. There hill, which rises in a beautiful, irre, appears, on the east lide, a portion of gular, conic figure, on the south Gde the internal space, which is feparated of Loch-Ness, about two miles to the from the rest by two ranges of stones eastward of the fall of Fyers. strongly fixed in the ground, in the Immediately oppoçte to Dun.Jar. form of a rectangular parallelogram. del, on the north side of Loch-Ness, This feparation is immediately discer- is another' conical hill called Duns nible by the eye, from this circum. Sgrebin, on the summit of which, as stance, that the whole of the inclosed I was informed by a gentleman who summi has been molt carefully clear: resides in that neighbourhood, there ed from stones, of which there is not are similar remains of a fortificatian, one to be seen, unless those that form composed of dry stone, like those on this division, and the single stone in Dun-Evan and Dun - Jardel. Mr the middle of the circle of turnuli a. Williams mentions a Imall fortified bove nientioned. What has been the hill near Fort-Augustus, called Tor. design of this separated space, is dif- Dun, which is plainly discernible ficult to conje&ture. It might, per- from Dun- Jardel. Dun-Jardel is dif. haps, have marked the residence of tinctly seen from Sgrebin ; and from those of a higher rank, or served as the situation of the country, this latt a temple for the purposes of devo. is, in all probability, seen from Craig.

Phadrick Craig-Phadrick is plainly Towards the east end of the large discernible from Knockfarril, and area on the summit, are the vestiges Dun-Evan and Castle-Finlay (a forof a well, about six feet in diameter, tified bill in the same neighbourhood) which has probably been dug deep from Craig. Phadrick. Thus, there into the rock, though it is now filled is a chain of seven fortified hills, com



manding a very large tract of country “ with walls of stone cast up instead over which an alarm could be com- " of earth, yet without any mortar. municated with the utmost celerity; “ Two of these may be seen at Farand I think it is not improbable, that, “ moyle in the county of Longford.” upon a minute survey of the moun. The authors of the ancient and mo. tainous country, it would appear, that dern state of the county of Down, there have been, in some former pe- describe particularly five of those fose riod, chains of communication of this tified mounts, which are but a few, kind through many of the regions in out of a vast many in that single the northern parts of the island. county. On the Rath at Crown

Nor were fortified places of this bridge near Newry, there is at the kind peculiar to the northern parts of west end of the level area, and about Britain. The Fion. Daines Barring fifty feet below it, a square platform, ton, in a memou printed in volume such as we have described at the west VI. of the Archæ logia, affirms, that end of the fortification on Craigthere are many such structures of Phadrick. The tradition is, that dry stone upon the tops of bills in this platform at Crown-bridge, was Wales, and particularly in Merioneth- the arena where two competitors defhire. ln Dr Burlase's History of cided, in single combat, the disputed Cornwall, we are informed, that there right to the Crown of Ireland. Wright, are the remains of similar structures in his Lowtiiana, or introduction to in that country. Some of these the the antiquities of Irelaod, describes author has defèribed under the name and gives plans of many such fortin. of Hill-castles.

ed mounts, all of which are surround1:1 Ireland, the remains of suched by ramparts: and most of them fortifications on the tops of hills have at the extremities strong outare yet much more frequent than in works below the level of the fort this country.

itself. One of these, which is calHarris, in his republication of Sir led Green Mount, near Castle-Bel. James Ware's Antiquities of Ire. lingham, appears from the engraving land, in treating of what are called in Mr Wright's book, to bear a near Danes raths or Danes forts, in that resemblance in its plan to Craig-Phadcountry, describes precisely such for- rick. tifications or Itructures, as those on None of those remains of building the summits of the hills we have upon the hills in Ireland, so far as is mentioned, viz. conical mounts ter- taken notice of in the descriptions of minating in an oblong level area, and them I have mentioned, exhibit any surrounded with the remains of strong marks of vitrification. - Three of the ramparts. The very general tradi: fortifications I have enumerated ja Lion, of attributing thefe fortifications, the neighbourhood of Inverness, are both in Ireland and in this country, likewise crowned with dry stone structo the Danes, I shall afterwards thew tures, without any appearance of the to be quite erroneous. In a collec- effects of fire; and I am inclined to fion of miscellaneous essays towards believe, that, upon an accurate survey a natural history of Ireland, published of those extraordinary works, the by Dr Molyneux, Dr Gerard Boate, number of those that show marks of and others, there is an accurate des- vitrification will be inconsiderable, cription given of those structures. when compared with those that have " Moit of those in Ireland, says Dr not been at all affected with fire. I Molyneux, “ are surrounded only by am led, from this circumstance, to qui earthen ramparts. Some, though form an opinion different from that " but a few, are encompassed sound of Mr Williams, and of such as he.


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