Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century


Ape to Apollo is the first book to follow the development in the eighteenth century of the idea of race as it shaped and was shaped by the idea of aesthetics. Twelve full-color illustrations and sixty-five black-and-white illustrations from publications and artists of the day allow the reader to see eighteenth-century concepts of race translated into images. Human "varieties" are marked in such illustrations by exaggerated differences, with emphases on variations from the European ideal and on the characteristics that allegedly divided the races. In surveying the idea of human variety before "race" was introduced by Linneaus as a scientific category, David Bindman considers the work of many German and British thinkers, including J. F. Blumenbach, Georg and Johann Reinhold Forster, and Immanuel Kant, as well as Georges Louis Leclerc Buffon and Pieter Camper. Bindman believes that such representations, and the theories that supported them, helped give rise to the racism of the modern era. He writes, "It may be objected that some features of modern racism predate the Enlightenment, and already existed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; certainly there was deep prejudice, but that, I would argue, is not the same as racism, which must have as a foundation a theory of race to justify the exercise of prejudice."


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Human Variety Before Race
Constructing the Savage The Beauty of Morality and the Morality
The Climate of the Soul
Winckelmann The Physiognomy of the Soul
Defining and Denying Race
Versions of Race Kants Racial Theory
Blumenbach Measuring the Skull Pieter Camper

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Om forfatteren (2002)

David Bindman is Durning-Lawrence Professor of the History of Art at University College London. He is the author of several books on William Hogarth and William Blake, the British response to the French Revolution, and on the sculptors Roubiliac and Flaxman.

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