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and flat; the eyes small and deep in the head and sometimes separated by a distance of four inches; the cheek bones are very high; the lower part of the face narrow; the chin long and projecting; the teeth of an enormous size and separated; the eye brows thick and large; the face fat; the hair black, and the complexion of an olive color. They have little beard and short legs. Of this variety, the Calmuks are the most ugly.

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15. Hindoos. The Hindoo variety comprehends the inhabitants of the southern parts of Asia, and of the isles south of Asia. Their bodies are slender, the hair straight and black; the nose aqualine. In the northern parts of India, the color of the skin is olive, but in the southern parts, quite black. They come to maturity at an earlier age than the natives of cooler climates. The female Hindoos are wrinkled at thirty years of age. These people are cowardly and effeminate.

16. Negroes. The inhabitants of the interior of Africa are black, with a smooth soft skin; the hair is short and woolly; the eyes, of a deep hazle; the nose flat and short; the lips thick and tumid; and the teeth, of an ivory whiteness. The body of the negroes is generally well formed and of full size, but the legs are often bent outwards, and the heel projects farther than that of Europeans.

17. Europeans. The most distinguished variety of men comprehends most of the inhabitants of Europe, the Georgians and Circassians in Asia, and the Turks; together with the descendants of Europeans in America. In the middle region of Europe and Asia, the inhabitants are of a clear white complexion; along the shores of the Mediterranean, their color has a shade of olive. This race of men are characterized by the size and symmetry of the body, the strength of the limbs, the vigor of the understanding, and by their improvements in science and the arts.



18. Natives of America. The sixth variety of the human race comprehends all the natives or aborigin

als of America, except the Esquimaux. These are probably descendants from the Asiatics, as they greatly resemble the present inhabitants of the northern Chinese. Their bodies are straight, well made and of a good size; their skin, of a copper color; their hair straight and black; their beards thin; their noses flat; their cheek bones high, and their eyes small.

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1. Who created the world and mankind? What was the name of mankind and the first man?

2. How was the first woman made, and what was her name?

3. What was the first employment of man?

4. What was the age of the first generations of men? 5. How were the inhabitants of the earth destroyed, and why? Who were preserved from destruction?how and why?

6. How many sons had Noah? Which was the eld

est? and what sign was given that men should not be again destroyed?

7. How, when and why were men dispersed ?'

8. How was the earth divided?

9, 10. Who were the descendants of Japheth? What countries did they settle?

11. Who were the first inhabitants of Britain?

12. What are the principal varieties of the human race? 13. Describe the Lapland race.

14. Describe the Tartars.

15. Describe the Hindoos.

16. Describe the negroes of Africa.

17. Describe the Europeans.

18. Describe the aboriginals of America.



19. State of Ancient Germany. For three thousand years after the dispersion of men, the inhabitants of the north of Europe continued in a rude uncivilized state. They are described by Roman authors as men of enormous stature, tall and somewhat fleshy, of a fair complexion, with blue eyes and a fierce countenance, which struck terror into their enemies. They were robust, being inured to cold and hardships, with little clothing in winter, and scarcely any in summer. To harden their bodies, they were accustomed to plunge into cold water, every morning as soon as they rose from sleep. In battle, their first onset was impetuous and almost irresistible, but their strength and ardor were soon exhausted.

20. Food. The rude inhabitants of Europe subsisted at first on the fruits of forest trees, particularly acorns, and on the flesh of wild beasts, fish and fowls. As they advanced in population, they betook them

selves to the raising of cattle. These constituted their principal means of subsistence, and their wealth. As they had no money, cattle were used in payments and in trade instead of money; and hence fee, which originally signified cattle, came to signify money.

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21. Manner of eating. Contrary to the custom of the Eastern nations who reclined at the table, the rude nations of Europe took their meals sitting, either on mats of straw or on skins, each with a separate table, which was a board, either on legs or placed on the knees. Hence our use of board for table, and for diet, to this day. Their drink was chiefly beer or hydromel made from the honey of the forest. Their dishes were a pot or pitcher of baked earth, horns, or human skulls of prisoners taken in


22. Clothing. The rude nations of Europe wore very little clothing, even in winter, and for the most part none at all. A Scythian, who was without clothing, when the snow was falling, was asked by

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