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Phoenicum, et magno miseræ dilectus amore;
Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque jugârat
Ominibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat
Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnes.
Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychæum
Impius ante aras, atque auri cæcus amore,
Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum
Germanæ ; factumque diu celavit, et ægram,
Multa malus simulans, vanâ spe lusit amantem.
Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago
Conjugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris,



Huet suggests auri for agri. But Virgil was thinking of his own times and country, and therefore applies what suited those to another land and earlier age. 344. Misera. "On the part of his unhappy spouse." Misera is here the genitive. There is no need whatever of making it the dative, by a Hellenism, for a misera. The fact is, that misera depends upon amore, not upon dilectus. 345. Intactam. "Previously unwedded." Equivalent to virginem.-Primis ominibus. "With the first omens," i. e. auspices. A part for the whole, the auspices forming so important a feature in the nuptial rites. See Juv. Sat. x. 336.

346-352. Regna. "The sovereignty." 347. Scelere ante alios, &c. Instead of the ablative, aliis omnibus, we have the accusative with ante by a Greek construction. This is done when a much wider range than ordinary is intended to be expressed. 348. Quos inter medius, &c. "Between these two there arose fierce enmity."-Ille Sychoum impius, &c. Construe, Ille impius, atque cæcus amore auri, securus amorum germanæ, clam superat ferro Sychæum incautum ante aras. He was impius, because he slew Sychæus before the very altars. 349. Aras. Altars were either square or round. 350. Securus amorum germanæ. "Regardless of the deep love of his sister (for her husband)," i. e. regardless of any violent manifestions of grief which her love for Sychæus might prompt her to exhibit. So En. vii. 304. Securi pelagi atque mei. Observe the force of the plural amorum. 351. Et ægram, multa, &c. The meaning is, that with deliberate wickedness, he invented many tales by which to account for the absence of Sychæus, and thus inspired Dido with the vain hope of again beholding her husband.

353-356. Ipsa sed, &c. Construe, sed ipsa imago inhumati conjugis venit (illi, sc. Didoni) in somnis, &c.—Inhumati. "Unburied," i. e. lying deprived of the rites of burial. The corpse of Sychæus had been conveyed away by the assassin immediately after the deed, and left unburied in some secret spot. This denial of the rites of sepulture increased, according to the ideas of the ancients, the atrocity of the affair. Hence, too, the appearance of the ghost of Sychæus to Dido, it being the common belief that the spirits of the departed were unquiet, and wandered about, until they obtained the rites of interment, See Hor. Carm. i. 29. 23. seqq. 354. Ora modis attollens, &c. "Lifting up a visage wondrous pale." Literally, "lifting up features pale in

Crudeles aras, trajectaque pectora ferro
Nudavit, cæcumque domus scelus omne retexit.
Tum celerare fugam patriâque excedere suadet,
Auxiliumque viæ, veteres tellure recludit
Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri.
His commota, fugam Dido sociosque parabat
Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni,
Aut metus acer erat: naves, quæ forte paratæ,
Corripiunt, onerantque auro. Portantur avari
Pygmalionis opes pelago: dux fœmina facti.
Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernes

Monia, surgentemque novæ Carthaginis arcem;




wonderful ways." Attollens, as here employed, denotes the apparition's slowly rising up on the view of the dreaming Dido. 355. Crudeles aras, &c. "Disclosed to her the cruel altars, and his bosom pierced by the sword," i. e. showed her in her dreams the altars before which he had been cruelly murdered. 356. Cæcumque domus, &c. "And unfolded to her view all the secret guilt of her relative." Literally, "all the hidden wickedness of the family." Domus here stands for cognati, i. e. fratris.

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358-364. Auxiliumque viæ, &c. And, as aid for her journey, discovers to her ancient treasures in the earth." More freely, "and to aid her on her way," &c. 359. Ignotum argenti, &c. "An unknown sum of silver and gold." Literally, "an unknown weight," according to the early way of speaking, when the precious metals were weighed, and a regular coinage had not as yet been introduced. The term ignotum means that Dido knew nothing of these treasures until they were revealed to her. Sychæus had concealed them, not through avarice, but in order to keep them from the rapacity of Pygmalion. 361. Conveniunt, quibus, &c. Supply omnes before quibus. The expression odium crudele, like the Greek pioоç ánηvés, properly means the hatred felt by a cruel mind. Here, however, crudele, like sævus, atrox, and similar terms elsewhere, is poetically used for magnus or ingens. So, again, metus acer is here the same as metus vehemens, and refers to a spirit not only influenced by fear, but also in some degree exasperated by harsh treatment. So Heyne. Others, but less properly, understand odium crudele tyranni to be an hypallage for crudelis tyranni. 362. Naves, quæ forte parata, corripiunt. seize on some ships that happened to be ready." 364. Observe the force of the expression in Pygmalionis opes, not treasures belonging to him, but which he had so deeply and wickedly coveted. It has been suggested, however, and the fact that the famed cup was among them (ver. 729) seems to confirm the suggestion, that the treasures which Dido carried off actually belonged to Pygmalion. Tacitus (Ann. xvi. 1.) relates a curious story respecting a pretended discovery of these treasures in the reign of Nero.-Dux fœmina facti. Supply est.


365-371. Ubi nunc cernes. Burmann defends cernes in this passage, and is followed by Heyne. Wagner, on the other hand, gives cernis, the reading of the Medicean MS., and of many editions, which he

Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam,
Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo.
Sed vos qui tandem, quibus aut venistis ab oris,
Quove tenetis iter? Quærenti talibus ille
Suspirans, imoque trahens a pectore vocem :
O Dea! si primâ repetens ab origine pergam,
Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laborum,
Ante diem clauso componet vesper Olympo.
Nos Trojâ antiquâ, si vestras forte per aures
Trojæ nomen iit, diversa per æquora vectos,
Forte suâ Libycis tempestas appulit oris.

Sum pius Æneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates
Classe veho mecum, famâ super æthera notus.
Italiam quæro patriam et genus ab Jove summo.





makes equivalent here to cernere licet, or cernere potes. We have preferred, however, the ordinary reading, cernes, although Wagner insists that nunc cernes is not correct Latinity for "thou wilt presently perceive." See on ver. 338. 367. Mercatique solum. Supply sunt. According to the common story, Dido, when she came to Africa, purchased of the natives as much ground as could be encompassed by a bull's hide. After making this agreement, she cut the hide into small strips, and enclosed in this way a large extent of territory. Here she built a citadel, which she called Byrsa, from ẞúpoa, a hide," in allusion to the nature of the transaction. This whole story, however, is a mere fable of the Greeks. The name of the Carthaginian citadel was derived from, or, rather, was the same with, the Punic term Basra, meaning "a fortification," or "a citadel." The Greeks would seem to have softened down Basra or Bosra into Búpoa. 368. Tergo. Put for tergore. So Tacit. Ann. xv. 44, Ferarum tergis contecti. On the other hand, we have tergus for tergum in Æn. ix. 764. 369. Sed vos qui tandem? "But who, pray, are ye?" 370. Talibus. Supply verbis.-Ille. Agreeing with respondit understood.

372-379. Pergam. Supply exponere, or narrare. 373. Vacet. Supply tibi. 374. Ante diem clauso, &c. A beautiful image. According to the popular belief, the sun-god, when his daily course was ended, retired to repose. In the language of poetry, Vesper leads him to his rest, and the gates of heaven are closed until the return of another day. Ante is equivalent to antequam narrationem meam finiam. For a literal translation, however, it may be rendered by "sooner," or "first." 375. Nos Trojâ antiquâ, &c. Construe, tempestas, forte suâ, appulit nos, vectos antiquâ Trojâ (si forte nomen Trojæ iit per vestras aures), per diversa æquora Libycis oris.-Vestras per aures iit. Equivalent to vestras pervenit ad aures. 377. Forte suâ. "By its own chance," i. e. the chance that usually accompanies a storm. 378. Sum pius Æneas. See above, on ver. 10.-Penates. By the Penates are here meant the secret, tutelary divinities of Troy. 379. Famâ super æthera notus. So Ulysses in Od. x. 20. μɛu kλéog ovρavov iкEL 380-384. Italiam quæro patriam, &c. "I seek Italy, my (true)

Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus æquor,
Matre deâ monstrante viam, data fata secutus:
Vix septem, convulsæ undis Euroque, supersunt.
Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyæ deserta peragro,
Europâ atqua Asia pulsus. Nec plura querentem
Passa Venus, medio sic interfata dolore est :

Quisquis es, haud, credo, invisus cœlestibus auras
Vitales carpis, Tyriam qui adveneris urbem.
Perge modo, atque hinc te reginæ ad limina perfer.
Namque tibi reduces socios, classemque relatam
Nuntio, et in tutum versis aquilonibus actam,
Ni frustra augurium vani docuere parentes.



native country, and the early home of my race that sprang from supreme Jove." Genus is here equivalent to proavorum sedes, and the whole passage alludes to an early legend, which made Dardanus, who was the son of Jupiter and Electra, and the founder of the Trojan line, to have come originally from Italy. According to the tradition here referred to, Dardanus came first from Corythus in Etruria to Samothrace, and passed thence into Asia Minor, where he settled, and became the stem-father of the Trojan race. The descent of Æneas from this early monarch was as follows: 1. Dardanus (son of Jove); 2. Erichthonius; 3. Tros; 4. Assaracus; 5. Capys; 6. Anchises; 7. Æneas. Hence the hero speaks of Italy as his true native land, and of his lineage as sprung from Jove. Compare En. ii. 620; vii. 122. We have adopted in the text the punctuation of Wagner, who removes the semicolon which the common editions have after patriam, and inserts et before genus. If we follow the old pointing, the meaning will be "my lineage is from supreme Jove;" an allusion to his origin, which is brought in very abruptly and awkwardly. 381. Denis. By poetic usage for decem.-Conscendi. "I embarked on." The more usual phrase is conscendere naves.- Phrygium æquor. The sea that washes the immediate shores of Troas and Phrygia Minor. 382. Data fata secutus. "Having followed the destinies vouchsafed me," i. e. from on high, through the medium of oracles, &c. The proper expression is oraculum dare, or oracula data. Here, however, fata stands, in reality, for oracula. Compare the expression fata Sibyllina," Sibylline oracles" or 66 predictions." 383. Convulsa. "Shattered." 384. Ignotus. "Unknown in this land where I at present am." 385-392. Nec plura querentem, &c. The more usual construction would be the infinitive queri. 386. Medio dolore. See ver. 374. 387. Quisquis es, haud credo, &c. "Whoever thou art, thou dost not, I am sure," &c., i. e. thou must certainly be a favourite of heaven, since thou hast been allowed to come to the fair city of Carthage and behold its grandeur and beauty; or rather, to find your companions safe there. Observe the force of the relative with the subjunctive. The phrase is equivalent to cum adveneris.—Auras vitales. Virgil always uses aura in the plural, to denote the atmosphere or air which we breathe. So Lucret. iii. 406, and elsewhere. 392. Vani. The word may here mean "deceiving themselves" into the belief that they were versed in


Aspice bis senos lætantes agmine cycnos,
Etheriâ quos lapsa plagâ Jovis ales aperto
Turbabat colo; nunc terras ordine longo
Aut capere, aut captas jam despectare videntur;
Ut reduces illi ludunt stridentibus alis,
Et cœtu cinxere solum, cantusque dedere,
Haud aliter puppesque tuæ, pubesque tuorum
Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit ostia velo.
Perge modo, et, qua te ducit via, dirige gressum.



the art of divination, and could impart it to their child; or it may simply mean "misguiding." Compare Æn. ii. 80.

393-394. Aspice bis senos, &c. She shows him a flock of twelve swans, from whose movements she foretells unto him that the twelve missing ships have come, or are now coming, in safety to land; and she selects this bird, because it was sacred to her, and was also of good omen for those who traversed the sea, from its never dipping under water. Hence, an old poet, quoted by Servius, says:

"Cycnus in auguriis nautis gratissimus ales.

Hunc optant semper, quia nunquam mergitur aquâ.”

394. Etheria quos lapsa, &c. "Whom the bird of Jove, having glided from the ethereal regions, was (a moment ago) driving in confusion through the open sky."-Jovis ales. The eagle.-Aperto. Because extending widely for the flights of the feathered race.

395-400. Nunc terras ordine longo, &c. "Now, in a long train, they seem either to be occupying the ground, or to look down upon it already occupied. Even as they, returning, sport with loud-flapping pinions, and have (now) encompassed the ground with their band, and given forth notes (of joy), so thy vessels, and the youth of thy people," &c. The meaning of this passage has been much contested. Some make captas equivalent to capiendas; others explain reduces by "returning to the skies." All, however, without exception, read polum instead of solum. This last is a conjecture of Burmann's, which we have ventured to adopt on account of its singular neatness. The key to the whole explanation of the omen is to be found in the application that is made of it to the missing ships of Æneas; and attention to this circumstance would have saved many of the commentators much trouble. The omen, moreover, it must be remembered, does not appear to Æneas under one aspect, but in three different points of view. Venus first points to the twelve swans moving along in a straight line (agmine). A moment after, and while she is still speaking, they begin to sink slowly to earth; and when the goddess utters the words nunc terras ordine longo, &c. a part of them have already alighted (capere terras videntur); the remainder are looking down at those who have alighted (captas jam terras despectare videntur), and are preparing to follow their example. The next moment all are seated on the ground, clustering together (cœtu cinxere solum), and expressing by their notes the joy they feel at their escape (cantus dedere). So with the twelve ships of Æneas. The storm that scattered them is the eagle from onhigh having escaped from this, and shaped their course slowly towards

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