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Detrudunt naves scopulo; levat ipse tridenti,
Et vastas aperit syrtes, et temperat æquor;
Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas.
Ac veluti magno in populo quum sæpe coorta est
Seditio, sævitque animis ignobile vulgus,
Jamque faces et saxa volant; furor arma ministrat :
Tum, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem
Conspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant;
Ille regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet:
Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, æquora postquam
Prospiciens genitor, coloque invectus aperto,
Flectit equos, curruque volans dat lora secundo.
Defessi Æneadæ, quæ proxima, litora cursu
Contendunt petere, et Libyæ vertuntur ad oras.
Est in secessu longo locus: insula portum
Efficit objectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto





force of ad in adnixus. 145. Ipse. Referring to Neptune. 1 Vastas aperit syrtes. 66 Opens the vast sand-banks," i. e. make passage for the ships through the banks of sand in which they had be imbedded by the fury of the waves. See above, ver. 108, 112.

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148-156. Ac veluti, &c. A much-admired simile, in which Neptu stilling the waves, is compared to a man of piety and worth calming, the respect which his presence involuntarily causes, the angry billows an excited multitude. 149. Sævit animis. Some supply irá, h without necessity. 150. Faces. "Firebrands."-Furor arma min trat. Virgil has here under his eyes a Roman mob. No citizen w allowed to appear at the Comitia, or even in the city itself, with ar of any kind. Hence the poet, in describing such a tumult, sa "Their fury supplies them with arms.' The faces and saxa take t place of haste and gladii. 151. Pietate gravem ac meritis. great influence by his piety and merits;" i. e. by his piety towards gods and his services to the state. More literally, "of great weight character)." 153. Ille. The common reading is iste, which Wagn very properly rejects, and substitutes ille. Iste is the pronoun of t second person; i. e. of the person to whom one is speaking, as iste lib "that book of yours." 155. Coloque invectus aperto. "And bor over the deep beneath a serene sky.' 156. Curru. The old dative currui.


157-158. Quæ proxima, &c. 66 "Strive to reach in their course t shores that are nearest.' 99 158. Vertuntur. 66 Turn themselves Taken with a middle meaning, and equivalent to se vertunt.

159-161. Insula portum, &c. "An island forms a secure harbo by the opposition of its sides (to the outer waters)." This islan according to the description of the poet, faced the inlet, thus maki the latter a secure station for ships, by keeping off the waters of t outer sea. 160. Quibus omnis ab alto, &c. Against which eve wave from the deep is broken, and divides itself into receding curves The reference is to the curvature of the broken waves after they ha


Frangitur, inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos:
Hinc atque hinc vasta rupes, geminique minantur
In cœlum scopuli, quorum sub vertice late
Equora tuta silent: tum silvis scena coruscis
Desuper, horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbrâ:
Fronte sub adversâ scopulis pendentibus antrum ;
Intus aquæ dulces, vivoque sedilia saxo;

Nympharum domus. Hic fessas non vincula naves
Ulla tenent; unco non alligat ancora morsu.
Huc septem Æneas collectis navibus omni



been dashed back by some intervening obstacle. Thus Heyne remarks, "Sinuoso flexu fluctus recedunt; solent enim fluctus allisi longo tractu retrorsum acti dissolvi." The common interpretation of this passage makes the water, after the wave has been broken, wash around into the cove. This, however, would hardly form a very secure harbour.

162-165. Hinc atque hinc, &c. "On this side and on that are vast rocks, and twin-like cliffs threaten towards the sky," i. e. raise their threatening heads towards the sky. The poet is now describing the mouth of the inlet, on either side of which are vast beds of rock terminating in lofty cliffs. 163. Quorum sub vertice, &c. "At the base of which the waters far and wide lie safe and silent." Literally, "beneath the summit of (each of) which." The high cliffs keep off the wind. 164. Tum silvis scena coruscis, &c. "Then again, crowning the high grounds, is a wall of foliage, formed of waving (light-admitting) forests, while a grove, dark with gloomy shade, hangs threatening over." Desuper has here the force of supra, “above," "on the high grounds." With scena supply est: and so with antrum in ver. 166. The term scena, as here employed, forms a theatrical image. In the ancient theatres, the scena was the wall which closed the stage from behind, and which represented a suitable background. Before theatres were erected, the place of this wall was supplied by trees and foliage. Now in Virgil's picture, the background on high is formed of forests, which, as they wave in the wind, allow glimpses of sunlight to penetrate through their branches, for such is the true meaning of corusca here. This line of woods the poet terms scena, comparing it thus with the wall, either of foliage or of stone, that closed the ancient stage. Hence we have ventured to render, or rather paraphrase, scena by " a wall of foliage." The passage, however, is a difficult one, and hardly any two commentators agree about the meaning of it.

166-169. Fronte sub adversá. "Beneath the brow (of the heights) as it faces on the view." We are now supposed to be looking towards the bottom or innermost part of the inlet. Here, beneath the brow of the heights, over which the atrum nemus impends, a cave is seen, facing the view, or full in front. 167. Vivoque sedilia saxo. "And seats of living rock," i. e. natural rock, formed, not by art, but by the hand of nature. 168. Nympharum domus. Compare Hom. Od. xii. 318.Vincula. 66 Cables." 169. Unco morsu. "With its crooked fluke." The anchor used by the ancients was for the most part made of iron, and its form resembled that of the modern anchor.

170-179. Septem. The fleet originally consisted of twenty. (Com

Ex numero subit; ac, magno telluris amore
Egressi, optatâ potiuntur Troës arenâ,
Et sale tabentes artus in litore ponunt.
Ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achates,
Suscepitque ignem foliis, atque arida circum
Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite flammam.
Tum Cererem corruptam undis, Cerealiaque arma,
Expediunt fessi rerum; frugesque receptas
Et torrere parant flammis, et frangere saxo.

Æneas scopulum interea conscendit, et omnem
Prospectum late pelago petit; Anthea si quem
Jactatum vento videat, Phrygiasque biremes,
Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caïci.
Navem in conspectu nullam; tres litore cervos
Prospicit errantes; hos tota armenta sequuntur




pare ver. 381.) Of these, three preserved from the rocks, three from the quicksands, and this one in which Æneas himself was embarked, make up the number in the text. Of the others, one had sunk (ver. 117). The arrival of the remaining twelve is announced by Venus (ver. 399) 173. Sale tabentes artus. "Their limbs drenched with brine." Tabentes, literally, carries with it the additional idea of limbs more or less enfeebled by long exposure to the action of the water. Compare Liv. xxi. 36. 176. Rapuitque in fomite flammam. "And by a rapid motion kindled a flame amid the fostering fuel." Wagner thinks that the poet alludes here to the mode practised among shepherds at the present day, who, after receiving the fire in the pith of a dry fungous stalk, kindle this into a flame by a rapid vibratory motion. 177. Tum Cererem corruptam undis, &c. "Then, exhausted by their hardships, they bring out the grain damaged by the waters," &c. Ceres here used for corn, as Bacchus, in ver. 215, for wine. Arma is a general term for the implements of any art. Georg. i. 160. Agrestibus arma. By Cerealia arma are here denoted those that were necessary for converting grain into meal, and then into bread. 178. Fessi rerum. Supply adversarum. As in ver. 204. 462. and elsewhere.-Receptas. Recovered from the waves." 179. Torrere. Previous to grinding corn, observes Valpy, it was commonly scorched by our own ancestors: hence the term bran, from brennen, to burn; i. e. the burned part. Before the invention of mills, when reducing the grain to meal was a domestic manufacture, this operation was facilitated by scorching slightly the grain, as in semi-barbarous countries is still the practice; it is afterwards pounded, or ground, between two stones, one fixed, the other revolving. Hence frangere saxo. See also Georg. i. 267.


181-197. Anthea si quem, &c. "If he may see any Antheus," &c. i. e. any one answering the description of Antheus; any ship like that of Antheus. 183. Celsis in puppibus, &c. The shields and other armour were commonly placed in the stern. See En. x. 80. 184. Navem in conspectu nullam. Supply aspicit, or videt. 185. Tota armenta. "Whole herds." There were three leaders, each followed

A tergo, et longum per valles pascitur agmen.
Constitit hic, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas
Corripuit, fidus quæ tela gerebat Achates;
Ductoresque ipsos primum, capita alta ferentes
Cornibus arboreis, sternit, tum vulgus; et omnem
Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam.
Nec prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victor
Corpora fundat humi, et numerum cum navibus æquet.
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes.
Vina bonus quæ deinde cadis onerârat Acestes
Litore Trinacrio, dederatque abeuntibus heros,
Dividit, et dictis morentia pectora mulcet :

O socii (neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum),
O passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem.
Vos et Scyllæam rabiem penitusque sonantes
Accêstis scopulos; vos et Cyclopia saxa
Experti. Revocate animos, mostumque timorem
Mittite forsan et hæc olim meminisse juvabit.
Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum,

190. Vulgus.




by a herd. "The common herd."-Et omnem miscet, &c. "And pursuing with his shafts, scatters the whole crowd in confusion throughout the leafy groves." 193. Et numerum cum navibus, &c. He slays seven, one for each ship. 196. Trinacrio. The Trojan fleet had been driven into Drepanum in Sicily. (Compare Æn. iii. 707.) A tradition existed, that in this neighbourhood, Ægestus, a Trojan, whom Virgil names Acestes, had established himself. Æneas was received by him a second time. (Compare Æn. v. 36. seqq.) The order is, Deinde dividit vina que bonus, &c. Observe, too, that vina onerare cadis is an inverted construction for vinis onerare cados.

198-207. O socii, &c. It has been observed, that, although it may be difficult to determine which of the two poets copied the other, there are no less than ten particulars in which this address of Æneas closely resembles that of Teucer in Hor. Carm. i. 7. 30. seqq. The passage, however, is in imitation of Hom. Od. xii. 208. seqq.-Ante malorum. A Greek construction, Tν πрiv как@v. 200. Penitus sonantes scopulos. "The rocks resounding far within," i. e. the rocks within whose deep caverns is heard the roaring of the waters. (Consult notes on Æn. iii. 424. seqq. and Index.) 201. Accéstis. Contracted from accessistis. So Æn. iv. 606. extinxem for extinxissem; vi. 57. direxti for direxisti. 202. Experti. Supply estis.-Vos et Cyclopia saxa, &c. "You have also made trial of the rocks of the Cyclopes," i. e. you, too, know the rocky shore where dwell the cruel Cyclopes. (Compare En. iii. 569. 617. &c.) 203. Hæc. "The present things." Hæc refers, not to the "Scyllæam rabiem," nor the "Cyclopia saxa," but to their present unhappy condition. Compare the lines of Euripides, Alc. du Toi σωθέντα μνησθῆναι πόνων, κ.τ.λ., translated in Cic. Fin. ii. 32. 204. Per tot discrimina rerum, "Through so many hazardous con

Tendimus in Latium; sedes ubi fata quietas
Ostendunt. Illic fas regna resurgere Trojæ.
Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.

Talia voce refert; curisque ingentibus æger
Spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem.
Illi se prædæ accingunt dapibusque futuris:
Tergora deripiunt costis, et viscera nudant;
Pars in frusta secant, verubusque trementia figunt ;
Litore ëna locant alii, flammasque ministrant.
Tum victu revocant vires; fusique per herbam
Implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque ferinæ.
Postquam exemta fames epulis, mensæque remotæ,




junctures." Literally, "through so many hazards of affairs." 205. Tendimus in Latium. "We stretch our course towards Latium."

With tendimus supply cursum. 206. Ostendunt. "Point out to us," i. e. through the medium of oracles and auguries.-Fas.. "It is the decree of heaven." 207. Durate. 66 Endure," persevere." En. viii. 577. Quemvis durare laborem.


208-209. Curisque ingentibus æger, &c. "And, sick at heart with mighty cares, assumes an appearance of hope in his look, keeps down deep sorrow in his breast." More literally, "feigns hope in his look." Æneas is afraid of discouraging his followers if he show any signs of despondency. 209. Altum corde dolorem. For alto corde, " deep in his heart;" the epithet being poetically transposed to dolorem.

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210-215. Illi. "They, on the other hand." Referring to his followers. Accingunt se. Prepare themselves." Literally," they gird themselves." The poet speaks here according to the customs of his own countrymen. When the Romans wished to engage in any active work, they girded the toga more closely around them, and by this means drew it up more, so as to prevent its interfering with the feet. The same practice of girding up the loins prevailed among the Jews, and is frequently mentioned in scripture. 211. Tergora deripiunt, &c. "They tear away the hide from the ribs, and lay bare the flesh beneath." Servius rightly explains viscera in this passage by "Quicquid sub corio est." In other words, it is equivalent to carnes. So En. v. 103. vi. 253. viii. 180. 212. Pars in frusta secant, &c. An imitation of the Homeric Μίστυλλόν τ ̓ ἄρα τ ̓ ἄλλα, καὶ ἀμφ ̓ ὀβελοῖσιν ἔπειραν. (Il. i. 465.)-Trementia. "Still quivering." 213. Aëna. "Brazen caldrons." In the heroic times flesh was not prepared for food by boiling; these caldrons were merely intended to contain warm water for ablution before partaking of the banquet. This would be in accordance with regular custom. Compare En. vi. 218. seq. 215. Implentur veteris Bacchi, &c. "They satisfy themselves with old wine and fat venison." Implentur is here joined with the genitive by a Greek construction. Verbs of filling, &c., in Greek take a genitive case. See Matt. Gr. Gr. § 330.-Ferina. Literally, "the flesh of wild animals." Supply


216-222. Postquam exemta fames, &c. Another imitation of Homer: αὐτὰρ, ἐπεὶ πόσιος καὶ ἐδητύος ἐξ ἔρον ἕντο. (ΙΙ. i. 469.) As regards

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