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Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque procellis
Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus.
Insequitur clamorque virûm, stridorque rudentum.
Eripiunt subito nubes cœlumque diemque
Teucrorum ex oculis; ponto nox incubat atra.
Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus æther;
Præsentemque viris intentant omnia mortem.
Extemplo Æneæ solvuntur frigore membra ;
Ingemit, et, duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,
Talia voce refert: O terque quaterque beati,
Quîs ante ora patrum, Trojæ sub moenibus altis,
Contigit oppetere! O Danaûm fortissime gentis,

85

96

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pare ver. 89. The image in the text is derived from the downward and constantly-acting pressure of some heavy body upon another. 85. Ruunt. "Upturn." Observe the active usage of ruo in this passage, and the employment of the same verb as a neuter in v. 83.-Creber procellis. "Frequent," or "abounding in rain-squalls." Procella, says Servius, in his comments on this passage, est vis venti cum pluviâ. Milton has imitated this passage in P. R. iv. 4. Nor slept the winds Within their stony cave, but rushed abroad From the four hinges of the world. Though only three of the cardinal points are here mentioned, the north wind, which was that required to drive the fleet on the shores of Africa, is introduced at ver. 102. A storm seems to have been so common a subject for poetical description, that Juvenal ridiculed the exaggerations of his fellow-bards in Sat. xii. 22. Omnia fiunt Talia, tam graviter, si quando Poetica surgit tempestas.

87-93. Stridor rudentum. "The whistling of the cordage." It is the rudentum sibilus of Pacuvius, as cited by Servius. 89. Incubat. "Sits brooding." Incubare is here employed, not incumbere, since less of action is indicated. 90. Poli. "The whole heavens." Properly, the two poles. Observe the force of the single term poli in the plural number, as referring to the heavens on all sides.-Ignibus. "Lightnings;" as in ver. 42. 91. Viris. Æneas and his followers. 92. Solvuntur frigore. "Are relaxed with chilling terror."-Duplices palmas. "Both his bands." Generally considered as equivalent to ambas manus. The reference is to what the Latins termed the supina manus (Æn. iii. 177), and the Greeks, vπriάoμaтa xɛρõv. (Æsch. P. V. 1041.)— Virgil here represents his hero as influenced by fear, but it was the fear of perishing by shipwreck, and, what was still more dreadful, of being thus deprived of the rites of sepulture. See on ver. 353. Sighs and tears were not deemed unworthy of an ancient hero. Compare Hom. Il. xx. 27. Od. v. 297. Moreover the tears of Æneas were always, as Dryden observes, on laudable occasions.

94-101. Refert. "He utters." 95. Quis contigit. "Unto whom it happened." Contingit generally carries with it the idea of good fortune. Quis is for quibus. 96. Oppetere is here put for mortem oppetere. Compare, as regards the commencement of this passage, the language of the Odyssey (v. 306), τρισμάκαρες Δαναοὶ καὶ τετράκις οἳ τότ' ὄλοντο Τροίῃ ἐν εὐρείῃ.0 Danaim fortissime, &c.

Æneas

Tydide, mene Iliacis occumbere campis

Non potuisse, tuâque animam hanc effundere dextrâ!
Sævus ubi acidæ telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens
Sarpedon; ubi tot Simoïs correpta sub undis
Scuta virûm galeasque et fortia corpora volvit.
Talia jactanti stridens Aquilone procella
Velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera tollit:
Franguntur remi; tum prora avertit, et undis

100

Dat latus: insequitur cumulo præruptus aquæ mons. 105
Hi summo in fluctu pendent; his unda dehiscens
Terram inter fluctus aperit; furit æstus arenis.

styles Diomed here the bravest of the Greeks, since, having engaged with him in conflict, he was only saved from death by the intervention of his mother Venus. (Il. v. 239. seqq.)-Mene occumbere non potuisse! "That I could not have fallen!" The accusative with the infinitive is here employed absolutely, to denote strong emotion. There is no need whatever, therefore, of supplying oportuit, as some do, or anything equivalent. Compare note on verse 37. 99. Savus. This epithet frequently signifies no more than brave, valiant, as deivòs or άπηvýs, in Homer.-Jacet. "Lies slain." The mind of the hero is occupied merely with the idea of Hector's death, and his thoughts carry him back to the moment when the latter still remained on the battlefield, and had not as yet received the rites of sepulture. Achilles is called Eacides, as having been the grandson of Eacus.-Ingens, "vast of size," is here a translation of Tελúpios. 100. Correpta sub undis. "Carried away beneath the waters."

102-107. Talia jactanti. "To him," or, "while he was earnestly uttering such things." Heyne makes jactanti the same here as the simple dicenti, while Wunderlich considers it equivalent, rather, to vociferanti. Neither opinion seems correct. The term in question would appear to carry with it the idea of an impassioned manner and of bitter complaint.-Stridens Aquilone procella, &c. "A blast roaring from the north, coming full in front, strikes the sail." The blast came in the direction of the prow, or right a-head. Heyne renders adversa by a prorâ irruens. 104. Franguntur remi. The oars on both sides are carried away by the vast billows which now come against the head of the vessel in the direction of the wind.-Tum prora avertit. Supply sese.-Et undis dat latus. The vessel is now broadside to the wind, the prow having swung around. 105. Insequitur cumulo, &c. "A mountain of water, burst asunder in its progress, follows thereupon in one heap.” Hom. Od. iii. 290. κύματα ἶσα ὄρεσσι. 106. Hi. "These."-His. "Unto those." Heyne makes this passage refer merely to the ship of Æneas, which, while pitching amid the waves, would have one part, the prow, for example, raised on high along with those of the mariners who kept clinging to it, while the other portion, or the stern, would be in a downward direction. Wunderlich, Wagner, and other commentators, however, apply the words to the crews of different vessels of the fleet, some elevated on high, others far down, with the waves towering above them. This latter is the more correct opinion. 107. Terram aperit. "Discloses the bottom." Poetically

Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet:
Saxa, vocant Itali mediis quæ in fluctibus Aras,
Dorsum immane mari summo. Tres Eurus ab alto
In brevia et syrtes urguet, miserabile visu!
Illiditque vadis, atque aggere cingit arenæ.
Unam, quæ Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten,
Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus
In puppim ferit: excutitur pronusque magister
Volvitur in caput: ast illam ter fluctus ibidem

Torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat æquore vertex.
Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto ;

Arma virûm, tabulæque, et Troïa gaza per undas.

110

115

said, of course. The meaning is, that they could fancy they almost saw the bottom amid the yawning billows.-Furit astus arenis. "The boiling waters rage with intermingled sand," i. e. are mixed with sand washed up from the bottom. Wunderlich, however, makes arenis equivalent here to in fundo maris, and refers to Ovid, Met. xi. 499. But the ordinary interpretation is decidedly preferable.

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108-117. Tres. Three ships." Supply naves.-Abreptas torquet. For abripit et torquet, " Forces away and whirls." Torquet is equivalent to torquens impellit. 109. Saxa vocant, Itali, &c. To be taken in the following order: Saxa, in mediis fluctibus, quæ Itali vocant Aras. The reference is supposed to be to two small rocky islands, called Ægimuri, lying in the sea over against Carthage, and at no great distance from it. The origin of the name ara, given to them by the Italians, is not easy to ascertain. It arose, probably, from their resemblance to the top of an altar, as they appeared just above the waves (summo mari). Servius, however, says that they were so termed because the Romans and Carthaginians made a treaty there. But Heyne thinks that he confounds the Ægimuri with the Ægates Insulæ, off Lilybæum in Sicily. The same critic also regards the entire line as spurious. 110. Dorsum immane. "A vast ridge." 111. In brevia 7 et syrtes. "Upon shoals and quicksands." Servius regards this as a hendiadys for in brevia syrtium. There is no allusion here to the Syrtes of ancient geography: the reference is a general one. Lycios. The Lycians were among the allies of the Trojans, coming not, however, from Lycia properly so called, but from a part of Troas, around Zelea, inhabited by Lycian colonists. After their leader, Pandarus, had been slain by Diomede, they followed the fortunes of Æneas. 114. Ipsius ante oculos. "Before the eyes of Æneas himself."Ingens a vertice pontus. "A vast ocean-wave from above." A vertice is here equivalent to desuper. 115. Magister. "The helmsman." 116. Ast illam, &c. The order is, Ast fluctus circum agens illam torquet ter ibidem.

113.

118-123. Rari. "A few here and there."-Gurgite vasto. According to etymologists, gurges, in its primitive meaning, has always reference to the roar of waters. 119. Arma. Shields, for example, as Heyne remarks, made of osiers and covered over with skins, and hence capable of floating on the waters.-Tabula. "Planks."-Gaza. A word of Persian origin, signifying treasures-Per undas. Supply

C

Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatæ,
Et quâ vectus Abas, et quâ grandævus Aletes,
Vicit hiems; laxis laterum compagibus omnes
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt.
Interea, magno misceri murmure pontum,
Emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus, et imis
Stagna refusa vadis. Graviter commotus, et alto
Prospiciens, summâ placidum caput extulit undâ.
Disjectam Æneæ toto videt æquore classem,
Fluctibus oppressos Troas cœlique ruinâ :
Nec latuere doli fratrem Junonis et iræ.

Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat; dehinc talia fatur :
Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri?

Jam cœlum terramque meo sine numine, Venti,
Miscere, et tantas audetis tollere moles?

120

125

130

apparent, from the previous clause. Compare En. viii. 339. Liv. i. 34. 120. Jam vilidam, &c. "Now the storm has conquered the stout ship of Ilioneus," &c. The nature of this conquest is explained immediately after by laxis laterum compagibus, &c. 121. Et quâ. That is, navem quâ. 123. Imbrem. Put for aquam maris, in which usage Virgil follows Ennius and Lucretius, and in which succeeding poets, Statius for example, imitate Virgil. See Lucret. i. 716. Stat. Theb. iii. 250.-Inimicum. For exitiosum, “fatal."

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125-130. Emissam. Supply esse; and also with refusa.—Et imis stagna refusa vadis. "And the deep calm waters to have been thrown upward from the lowest depths." By stagna (literally, standing waters") are here meant the depths of ocean, that remain undisturbed except in the most violent storms. 126. Alto prospiciens. Looking forth from the deep.' Prospicio conveys the idea of looking far into the distance. 127. Placidum caput. "His placid head.' There is no contradiction between this and the graviter commotus, since Neptune, though incensed against the winds, was peaceful and benignant towards the Trojans. Besides this, the placidum caput was an habitual characteristic of the sea-god. Compare Sil. Ital. vii. 254, seqq. 129. Cœli ruinâ. A strong, but singular expression. The reference appears to be to the rushing down of the rain and wind, or, in other words, to the violent warfare of the elements, as if the heavens themselves were descending. 130. Nec latuere doli, &c. The cause of all this immediately suggested itself to the god of the sea, namely, the wish of Juno to satiate her hatred against the Trojans, an opinion in which he was fully confirmed by the knowledge of her artful character.-Fratrem. Neptune and Juno were both children of Saturn.

132-136. Tantane vos generis, &c. "Has so presumptuous a reliance on your race possessed you?" i. e. do you dare to act so presumptuous a part through reliance on your origin? The Winds, according to Hesiod (Theog. 378), were the offspring of Astræus, one of the Titans, and Aurora. 133. Meo sine numine. "Without my authority." 134. Miscere. "To throw into confusion."-Tantas tollere

Quos ego-sed motos præstat componere fluctus.
Post mihi non simili pœnâ commissa luetis.
Maturate fugam, regique hæc dicite vestro :
Non illi imperium pelagi, sævumque tridentem,
Sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet ille immania saxa,
Vestras, Eure, domos: illâ se jactet in aulâ
Eolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet.
Sic ait, et dicto citius tumida æquora placat;
Collectasque fugat nubes, solemque reducit.
Cymothoë simul et Triton adnixus acuto

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135

140

moles. "To raise such mountain-waves." Heyne makes tantas moles equivalent merely to tantam rerum perturbationem, so great confusion." Wunderlich, however, with whom Wagner agrees, understands with moles the genitive aquarum, which is certainly more spirited. 135. Quos ego-! "Whom I-!" The sentence is abruptly broken off, and the sea-god checks his wrath. Grammarians term this an aposiopēsis, and make ulciscar to be understood. Nothing, however, is in fact understood. The god was going to say, "Whom I will severely punish," but stops short, and leaves the sentence unfinished, deeming it better to turn his attention to the checking of the tempest. 136. Post mihi non simili, &c. "Ye shall on the next occasion expiate your offences to me by a different punishment." More literally, "Ye shall after (this)," &c. Post is used here adverbially. The god means that a repetition of the offence will be noticed by him in a very different manner. Heyne connects post with commissa, "your offences hereafter committed."

137-140. Regi vestro. "Unto that king of yours," i. e. Æolus. 138. Non illi imperium pelagi, &c. Neptune was a god of the first class, and possessed absolute authority over his watery realms, being as independent there as Jove was in his own dominions of the sky. This empire of Ocean had fallen to his share, the world having been divided in this way between the three brothers, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto. Eolus, therefore, an inferior deity, was wrong in acting as he had done. His control over the winds was regulated by fixed laws (certo fœdere), and he was to let loose the winds only when ordered (jussus) so to do. See vv. 62, 63. 139. Sorte datum. Supply esse. The division above mentioned was by lot. See Hom. Il. xv. 190.-Immania saxa. Referring to the rocky island of Æolia. 140. Vestras. "Of you and your fellow-winds." Observe the use of vestras, the plural possessive; not tuas, which would have meant the abode of Eurus alone.

142-147. Dicto citius. "More quickly than what was said," i. e. before he had finished speaking. Not, as Servius says, equivalent to citius quam dici potest, but to antequam orationem finiisset. 144. Cymothoë. One of the Nereides.-Triton. A sea deity, son of Neptune and Amphitrite. His lower extremities were those of a fish.-Adnixus. "Having exerted each their powerful endeavours." Under the masculine form, this term applies to both Cymothoë and Triton. According to the old punctuation, namely a comma after Cymothoë, and another after adnixus, this latter term referred merely to Triton. Observe the

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