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Divico ita cum Cæsare egit : si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetiis faceret, in eam partem ituros atque ibi futuros Helvetios, ubi eos Cæsar constituisset atque esse voluisset : sin bello persequi perseveraret, reminisceretur et veteris incommodi populi Romani et pristinæ virtutis Helvetiorum. Quòd improvisò unum pagum adortus esset, cum hi, qui flumen transissent, suis auxilium ferre non possent, ne ob eam rem aut suæ magnopere virtuti tribueret, aut ipsos despiceret : se ita a patribus majoribusque suis didicisse, ut magis virtute, quam dolo contenderent aut insidiis niterentur.

His Cæsar ita respondit : Eò sibi minus dubitationis dari, quòd eas res, quas legati Helvetii commemorassent, memoria teneret, atque eo graviùs ferre, quo minus merito populi Romani accidissent.

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Quòd si veteris contumeliæ oblivisci vellet, num etiam recentium injuriarum, quòd eo invito iter per provinciam per vim temptassent, quòd Æduos, quòd Ambarros, quòd Allobrogas vexassent, memoriam deponere posse ?

Fama est aram esse in vestibulo templi Laciniæ Junonis, cujus cinerem nullo unquam moveri vento.

L. Aurunculeius compluresque tribuni militum et primorum ordinum centuriones nihil temere agendum, neque ex hibernis injussu Cæsaris discedendum existimabant; quantasvis magnas etiam copias Germanorum sustineri posse munitis hibernis docebant; rem esse testimonio, quòd primum hostium impetum, multis ultro vulneribus illatis, fortissime sustinuerint; re frumentaria non premi; interea et ex proximis hibernis, et a Cæsare conventura subsidia ; postremo, quid esse levius aut turpius, quam auctore hoste de summis rebus capere consilium ?


Page 51. Flagitare is Historical Inf. Quotidie flagitare, ‘kept daily de.

manding'; Æduos, ‘from the Ædui'; frumentum, 'the corn.' N.B.- Double Acc. with Vbs. of asking, &c.


Flammas imitante pyropo, 'with bronze flashing like flame'

(literally, ‘imitating flames').



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Sublime, directed upwards. Cælumque tueri jussit, 'and bade

(him) gaze upon the sky.' Tueri and tollere are Comp. to
jussit, which has as its Dir. Obj. hominem (or eum) under-
stood. Et erectosvultus, “and hold his face upturned to the

Erectos is Comp. to tollere.
Transgressi is Pf. Part. Act. of transgredior, and is an Adjunct

to the Subj. equites. Pralium commiserunt, 'engaged in battle

(literally, “joined battle').
Agit grates, ‘returns thanks. See note on Part I. Sec. 6, 1.

Extendi, “to stretch out' (literally, “to be extended').
Geneva is Subj. and extremum oppidum Comp. Finibus is Dat.

of Reference, Adjunct to proximum.
Dilata parte is Abl. Abs. Dilata is Pf. Part. Pass. of

52. Titan, 'sun’; Phæbe, 'moon.' Nova agrees. with cornua.

Flumen est Arar-est is a complete Predicate.
Tentata-supply sunt. Recidendum is Comp. to est understood.

Ne pars sincera trahatur, ‘lest the sound part be affected.'
Certiores is Comp. to facti sunt.
Venatu fessa, ‘(when) weary with hunting.'

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52. Hoc proelio 'nuntiato is Abl. Abs. Domum is an Adverbial

Adjunct to reverti, denoting Place whither.
Utque, &c.—Take thus : utque dua Zona secant cælum dextra

(farte), totidemque sinistra parte, &c. After quinta supply
Zona. Illis, 'than they. Illis is Abl. of Standard of Com-

parison, Adjunct to ardentior. Erant hæ, &c. “There existed, as to the carrying on of war,

those difficulties which,' &c. Notice that in English a Relative cannot usually be so far separated from its Antecedent as it may in Latin, because our Relatives have no inflexions for Case (excepting 'who'), Number, or Gender, so that they do not indicate their Antecedents so clearly as Latin Relatives do. If in this sentence we were to take difficultates before belli, then, though the Latin is perfectly clear, the English translation would convey the impression that the word war' was the Antecedent to 'which.' Let the pupil notice this carefully, as it is a most important point in English Composition.

Echo erat adhuc corpus, non vox, et tamen garrula, ' (though) garrulous,' non habebat alium usum oris, of (her) mouth,'

quam nunc habet. Bello Helvetiorum confecto, 'the war with the Helvetii being

finished.' Helvetiorum is Objective Gen., Adjunct to bello.
Gratulatum, 'to congratulate (him).' Gratulatum is Supine in
ит, which is commonly used after a verb of motion, to denote

the purpose of the action.
Repugnare and mittere are Historical Infinitives.
Luminibus, eyes.'
Inde, ‘of these'; 'bina, 'two (at a time)'; suis vicibus, in

their own turns.

Rogatum-Supine in um, denoting 'purpose.' 53. Ut ea pluris sit, ‘that this is of more value.'

Tityre-See note on Part I. Sec. 2, 30. Silvestrem musam

meditaris, are practising your woodland strain.' Fortunate senex-See note on Part I. Sec. 2, 30.

Captabis, ‘you will enjoy’; frigus opacum, “the cool shade.' i Ut ædificium, &c., 'As the same (person) who constructed a

building most easily destroys (it), so the same nature which
cemented together (the body of) man,' &c. Notice that ædifi-
cium and hominem are Dir. Obj. to destruit and dissolvit respec-
tively, whereas we in English make them Dir. Obj. to the Verbs
in the subordinate sentences, and supply Personal Pronouns as

Dir. Obj. to the Verbs in the principal sentences.
Sunt nobis, 'we have' (literally, there are to us '). See note

on Part I. Sec. II, 4. Molles, mealy,' i.c. when roasted.
Pressi lactis, ‘of cheese' (literally, ‘of pressed milk ').


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Page 53. Quæ mihi, &c., 'which has increased my desire for conversation,

(and) has taken away (that) for eating and drinking' (literally,

drink and food'). Sermonis, potionis, cibi, are Obj. Gen. Summa culmina, “the chimneys' (literally, the highest (parts

of the) roofs '). Escam is Comp. to appellat. Malo me petit, 'pelts me with an apple.' Se cupit ante videri,

' wishes to be seen first' (literally, 'wishes that she,' &c.). Cui qui pareat, 'Seeing that he who follows its teachings'

(literally, 'obeys it'). See note on Part I. Sec. 12, 6. N.B. Mille meæ agnæ, 'a thousand lambs of mine.' Quid est enim, "For what else is (it) to war with the gods after

the manner of the giants, but to fight against nature? Better, 'For what else is fighting against nature, but warring with the

gods,' &c. Virgo, i.e. Justice, who left the earth in the iron age. Celo

alto, “from high Heaven.' In prose this would have been

e cælo allo.

Pristini roboris is Partitive Gen. Adjunct to aliquid. 54. Et me, 'me too. Phoho, 'for Phoebus,' sua munera sunt semper

apud me. Suave, 'sweetly,' the Neuter Adjective being used

for the Advb., as is common in the poets. Amplissimum magistratum gerunt, 'fill the highest (offices

of) magistracy.' Nos—fugimus, 'I am banished from my native fields.' Lentus, ' at ease.' Formosam resonare Amaryllida, “to resound

(with the name of) the beautiful Amaryllis.' Amaryllida is a

kind of Cognate Acc., Advb. Adjunct to resonare. Mihi-potuit, ‘I, indeed, never could be persuaded (literally, 'it

never could be persuaded to me, indeed'). The Subj. to potuit

is animos-emori. See note to Part I. Sec. 11, 8. Ipsæ, ipsi, ipsa, are all to be translated, ‘very.' Magno opere, 'greatly.' These two words are often written in

one (magnopere). Lupus (est) triste, &c. Imbres (sunt triste), &c. Venti (sunt

triste), &c. Mihi ira Amaryllidis (sunt triste). Remissi, “unfettered.' Certent ululæ, let owls contend'; sit Tityrus, 'let Tityrus be.'

Before Orpheus in silvis supply sit, “let him be’; as also before

Arion. See note on Part I. Sec. 8, 10.
Mihique amicissimos, 'and my dearest friends' (literally, 'and

most friendly to me').
Mala, ' quinces.' Cana agrees with mala.
Non gravis, 'otherwise than burdensome.'


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Page 54. Ab Jove-Musæ, 'from Jove (is my) beginning, O Muses.'

Better, 'with Jove I begin,' &c. Colit terras, “takes care of (all) lands.' Illi-cura, "he cares for my songs' (literally, 'to him my songs (are) for a care'). Cure is Dat. of purpose,

or Predicative Dat., Comp. to sunt understood. Sic se res habet, thus the case stands.' Despectus tibi sum tibi is Dat. of the agent. Qui sim is a

Ncun sentence (indirect question), Dir. Obj. to quæris. Pecoris, 'in cattle’; lactis, in milk.' Pecoris and lactis are Gen. of Reference, Adjuncts to dives and abundans respectively. The last line in full would be: Non quæris quam deves sim pecoris nivei, quam lactis sim abundans. Qui sim, quam dives (sim) pecoris nivei, quam lactis (sim) abundans, may be regarded

as three Dir. Obj. to the quieris expressed. 55. Ædui (veniebant) questum (Supine denoting purpose). Incustoditæ, &c. Take thus : boves memorantur processisse

incustodita in Pylios agros. Natus Maia Atlantide, 'the son (literally, ‘he born ') of Maia

the daughter of Atlas' ; videt has, et occultat abactas silvis,
'drives them away and hides them in the woods' (literally,
hides them, driven away, in the woods'). Maia is Abl. of
origin, Advb. Adjunct to natus, which is Pf. Part, of nascor.

The son of Maia was Mercury.
Erat, 'there was’; planities magna, &c. Satis grandis, of

good size.'
Lente ire, 'walking slowly'(literally, 'walk,' &c.).
Instructam, is Comp. to habuit.
Tempora, 'the length.' Inæquales, uncertain,' i.e. with
respect to weather. Exegit, &c. 'divided the year into four

Spatiis is Abl. of means (' by means of four
seasons ').
Pandrose is Voc.
Septimo--intermitteret, 'on the seventh day that he kept up

a continuous march' (literally, when he did not leave off

marching '). Medias cingentia terras, surrounding the lands in their

midst.' 56. After tertiam supply ii, as Antecedent to qui. Inter se, 'from

each other' (literally, ‘between themselves'). Cristis et auro, ‘by its golden crest' (literally, ‘its crest and

gold'). Quem coactum habebat, 'which he had collected' (literally,

'which he had, having been collected '). Qui videant, ‘to see, (literally, 'who should see'); quas in partes, “in what direction' (literally, “into what parts').




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