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23. Mentionem habere, 'to make mention.' With manumissi

supply sunt. Milites is Comp. to facti sunt. 24. Regem is Comp. to constituerat. 26. Id quod, 'a thing which.' Difficillimum is Comp. to putatur.

Secundam fortunam, ‘prosperity.' 27. Collatum est, 'centred' (literally, was brought together ').

Corinthium is Comp. to appellatum est. 28. Maxumum, pulcherrumum, other forms of maximum, pulcher





N.B.—The most common form of Noun-Sentence in English is a Noun-Sentence introduced by the Conjunction that,' expressed or understood. The corresponding form in Latin is a Noun-Phrase, with the verb in the Infin., and, consequently, the subject in the Acc. In construing such a Phrase, turn the Lat. Acc. into the English Nom., preceded by `that,' and the Lat. Inf. into the Eng. Indic. or Subjunc., according to the requirement of the Sentence. 1. L stands for Lucium. The Noun-phrase L. Attiliumsapientem

is Dir. Obj. to scimus. 2. Nuntiatum est, ‘(it) was announced.' The real Subj. is majus

bellum imminere. 3. A suis, 'by his (men).' Castra, see note on Sec. 7, par. 8. 4. Esse, that there was ’; nullum aditum, 'no access'; ad Nervios,

'to the Nervii'; mercatoribus, 'for merchants.' Translate : that merchants had no access to the Nervii.' This kind of Dat., when found with sum, is commonly called Dat. of Possession. It may however be regarded as a Dat. of Reference, the phrase above really meaning, that no access to the N.

existed with reference to merchants.' 5. Compertum ego habeo, 'I have found out'; milites (Vocative),

soldiers.' The Dir. Obj. to habeo is verba: -addere ; compertum

is Comp., and agrees with the Dir. Obj. 7. Idem, 'that the same thing.' 8. Cyro-potuit, “Cyrus never could be persuaded' (literally, 'it

never could be persuaded to Cyrus'). Animos emori is Subj. to, potuit, though taken last. N.B.-Latin verbs that do not govern a Dir. Obj. can only be used impersonally in the Pass. This,

however, is not the case in English. 10. Constat, “it is well known.' This word comes first, though its

Subj. is Pompeium nobis amicissimum esse. II. Pausaniam-societatem, is in App. with opinio, but is not to

be taken till after opinio manebat.

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12. Responsum est, “it was replied.' Nunquaminterfici is Subj.

to responsum est, and imperatoreminterfici is Subj. to placuisse. Thus the longer phrase is equivalent to a Noun in Nom., and the

shorter to a Noun in Acc., being Subj. to an Infinitive. 13. Mihi-constabat, “to me revolving many things in my mind)

it was clear.' 15. After videbat supply fore, that it would be,' periculosum populo

Romano magnam multitudinem Germanorum venire (“should

come') in Galliam. 17. Sibi conciliari, “should be won over to himself.' 18. Neque enim, 'nor indeed.' 20. Rem familiarem, ' (all) private property.' 21. Dixerit quispiam, ‘some one may say.' The Pres, or Pf. Subj.

in a Principal Sentence often denotes a mere assumption: ‘Suppose some one should say.' After fortasse dixerit quispiam take

thus : senectutem videri tolerabiliorem tibi propter, &c. 22. Visum est, it seemed (good).' Valeri is a contraction for

Valerii. 23. After me supply esse jucundum, 'agreeable.' 24. Dicebat, 'used to say.'

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I. Ubi invenias ? where would


find?' 5. Quæ oppugnaret, 'to attack.' So in ii, qui deligant, "to

select'; 18, qui tractarent, 'to manage'; 20, qui præsint, 'to

preside over. A Relative sentence often expresses a purpose. The Rel. and

the Verb may then be translated by the English Inf., which com

monly expresses a purpose, though the Latin Inf. never does. 6. Usurpet, cherish.' Quos-viderit, though he never saw them.' N.B.-A Latin Relative sentence with Verb in Subj. is often best

rendered in English by an Adverb-sentence of cause, condition,

purpose, consequence, concession (as here). 7. Qui cogitasset, 'equals Adverb-sentence of cause, inasmuch as

he had thought.' Officia præstabat, 'performed the duties.' 8. Cum, 'both'; tum, 'and. Cui-pateret, ‘that he had not access

to him (Miltiades) '(literally, to whom access to him did not lie open'). Cuipateret is equal to an Adverb-sentence of con

sequence. 9. Quam-consequatur, 'seeing that immortality follows (it).' This

sentence equals an Abverb-sentence of cause. 10. Quæ se defenderet, ‘that had to defend itself.'


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12. Qui dedidissent, because they had surrendered.' This sen

tence equals an Adverb-sentence of cause. 13. Pro sano, 'as a man of sense' (literally, “as a sound man'); qui

neglexisset, seeing that he had disregarded' (this sentence equals Adverb-sentence of cause) ; præsentis imperium, 'his commands when present' (literally, the commands of him

(Cæsar) present'). 14. Inhumana, “unfriendly to man’; que soleat, seeing that she is

wont' (this sentence equals Adverb-sentence of cause); eisque -consulere, 'and to consult their best interests' (literally,

to consult for them in the best way '). 16. Certior factus est, 'was informed' (literally, 'was made more

certain '). 17. Rem-angusto, that matters were in a critical position.' 19. Qui-providisset, ‘inasmuch as he had foreseen nothing.' (This

sentence equals Adverb-sentence of cause). Trepidare disa ponere, 'was alarmed, rushed hither and thither, and stationed the cohorts. Trepidare, concursare, disponere are historical Inf. (so-called because chiefly used in history), and must be rendered by English Indic. See Table of Analysis, under head Pre

dicate. 21. Qui continuisset, “though he had kept' (equals Adverb-sentence

of concession). Per-dies, during all the preceding days.' N.B.—This Cicero was a soldier, not the great orator.



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1. Tridui iter, "a three days' march.' 3. Rei-causa, ‘for the sake of (procuring) provisions and the other

supplies of war.' 4. Instituto suo, 'according to his design.' 5. Take thus : facimus multa causa ('for the sake ') amicorum, quæ

nunquam faceremus nostra causa (' for our own sake'). 6. Alterum consulatum, ‘(his) second consulship.' Pontifex maximus, use the Latin words themselves here. Ei

sacerdotio præfuit, “presided over the priesthood.' Ei sacerdotio is Dat. of Reference, Adv. adjunct to prafuit, which is a

complete Pred. 7. Novem dierum iter, "a nine days' journey’; expedito, 'for a

man without encumbrance.' 8. Sæpius, oftener.' The Neuter of the Comparative Adj. is used

for the Comparative Adv. ; the Superlative Adv. has the same stem as the Superlative Adj., but it ends in e.

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13. Premant, let them prune.' The Pres. Subj. in a Principal

Sentence is often used to express a command or a wish, 15. Munitis castris (Abl. Abs.), 'having fortified the camp'

(literally, the camp having been fortified '). After reliquas

repeat legiones. 16. Rectius, 'better.' Altum urgendo, by keeping out at sea;'

premendo litus iniquum, 'by hugging the dangerous shore.' 18. Dulce, 'sweetly. A Neuter Adj. is sometimes used as

Adverb. 19. Solvitur, ‘is melting away.' Favoni is a contraction of Favonii. 20. Marathonia et Salaminia, 'those of Marathon and Salamis.'

Each of these Adj. agrees with victoria understood. 21. L. stands for Lucium. After occisum, pulsum, missum, supply

fuisse. 22. Nolite existimare, ‘do not think.' 23. Exstincta est, ‘killed herself' (literally, 'was killed '). 24. Ti, stands for Tiberius. Occupare regnum, 'to assume kingly

power.' Regnavit, ‘he ruled as a king.' 28. Artibus, 'means.' 29. Reduxit, ‘brought back,''kept back.' 30. Maxume, old form of maxime. 34. Imminente Luna, 'while the moon hangs overhead' (literally

“the moon hanging over '). An Abl. Abs. is often best con

strued by an Adv.-sentence. 35. Insciente Cæsare, without Cæsar's knowledge' (literally,

• Cæsar being ignorant '). 36. Desperatis omnibus rebus, despairing of every thing'

(literally, “all things being despaired of'). 37. Comitiis habitis, the comitia having been held.'

N.B.—The assembly of the Romans for electing magistrates &c.

was called comitia. 38. Take thus : Igitur anno primo, expulsis regibus, Lucius Junius

Brutus et Tarquinius Collatinus fuerunt consules. 39. Fuere qui dicerent, there were (some) who said.' Oratione

habita, “having delivered (his) speech' (literally, his speech having been delivered ').

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4. Qui-accusarent, 'to accuse Themistocles in his absence'

(literally, ‘being absent'). 5. Qui gratias agerent, 'to return thanks.' See Note on

Sec. VI., par. I.

9. Ad ludos spectandos, 'to see the games.' 11. Qui docerent, 'to inform.' 13. C. primus duxit, C. was the first who brought ' [literally, ‘C.

brought (being) the first (who did so ')]. 18. Jugurtha is Voc. 20. For literal construing take thus : Deferunt in forum corpus Lucretice

elatum domo. After this trans. They carry out the corpse of L. from home, and bear it to the Forum.' Elatum is Pf. Part.

Pass, from effero. 21. Plagitium aut facinus ' (some) shameful or daring crime.' 23. Ad regnandum, 'to reign’ (literally, 'for reigning '). 27. Notice the preposition with Thracia, not being the name of a

town or small island. 31. Hostes, 'public enemies.' 34. After negavit supply se. Negavit se mansurum, ‘said that he

would not remain.' 35. Agebat, 'pushed. After altera supply agebat causam. 37. Maxuma-minuma, see Note on Sec. XIII. par. 30. 38. Militiæ domique, 'in the field and at home,' meaning in times of

war and of peace. The words militiæ, domi, foris, belli, humi, rure or ruri ; domum, rus, foras ; domo, rure, are used according to the rules for names of towns and small islands.


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1. Accedebat quod, '(to this) was added that,' &c. Galli-dole.

bant is Subj. to accedebat. Trans. : 'In addition to this, the

Gauls,' &c. 2. Translate as in last sent. 4. Magno opere, 'greatly.' Often written magnopere (Adv.). 5. Hoc, ‘in this.' 7. Velim, “I should wish.' The Pres. Subj. in a principal sentence

often equals a modest assertion, the Pf. Subj. one more modest still. Thus, in English, ''I should say' is more modest than

'I say'; 'I should have said ' is more modest still. 9. Posset, 'could (do).' 10. Take thus : Non videtur alienum docere ('to' state') quale

præmium hujus victoria ('for this victory') tributum sit

Miltiadi. 12. Sanciatur, see Note on Sec. XIII. par. 13.

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