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9. Loca comes from locus, which makes in Pl. loci and loca. 11. Triplicem aciem instruxit, 'drew up his army in three lines

(literally, “a triple line of battle'; or, drew up his army triple').

Perhaps triplicem should be looked upon as Comp. 14. Prosperas res, prosperity.' Consecuta est, from consequor. 22. Nacti sunt, from nanciscor. 23. Cepērunt, from capio. 24. Graves poenas dedit, suffered a heavy punishment.' Pænas

means, satisfaction, so that dare pænas is, 'to give satisfaction,' i.e., 'to suffer punishment'; sumere pænas is, éto take

satisfaction,' i.e., 'to inflict punishment.' 26. Prostravit, from prosterno. 30. Cæsar is Vocative. N.B.-As a Voc. or an Interj. is not gram

matically connected with any other word or words, it must be omitted in analysing. Postume and Phidyle are likewise Voc.

SECTION IV.

3. Longum est, 'it would be tedious' (literally, 'it is tedious ').

N.B.-Enumerare prælia is Subj. to est. 4. Frumenta and erant must both be construed as Sing. 6. Bene dicere is Subj. to est. So in 8, 22, 23, the Infs. are the

Subj. 9. Essent perferendi, 'would have to be borne' (literally 'would

be,' &c.). 10. The Subj. is nos understood, with which omnes agrees. 16. Hasdrubal is Subj., and illustris agrees with Comp. adolescens. 22. The enclitic ně, joined to melius, is an interrogative particle, and

is used when a question is asked simply for information, and without the expectation of either 'Yes' or 'No' for an answer. Nonne (See 23) is used when the answer Yes' is expected.

Num, when 'No' is expected. 24. In this and the following sentences the predication seems to be

made by the mere juxtaposition of Subj. and Comp. In construing we must supply is, are, or some other part of verb

to be, 25. Tros Anchisiade is Voc. 26. Omnia præclara is Subj. 27. Modo—modo, 'now-now,' or 'sometimes--sometimes. After

oculi take thus : incessus ( fuit) modo citus, modo tardus. Fædi,

'blood-shot.' 28. Semper exspectanda is Comp.

SECTION V.

Indic. Pres. of some of the verbs : 2, obliviscor ; 5, negligo ; 6, adsuesco;

II, impello ; 18, cogo ; 29, disco. 1. “Hannibal knew (how) to conquer.' II, Dolores, troubles.' 16. Here, as also in 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, the Inf, used as Obj. or Comp.

has itself an Obj. or a Comp., which last agrees with the Subj. of the finite verb.

SECTION VI.

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Indic. Pres. of verbs : 2, ago ; 7, decerno ; 20, affero (ad-fero);

21, jungo ; 23, concedo ; 25, do ; 28, decerno. 1. '(I) owe great thanks to old age.' Habere gratiam is, 'to owe

thanks'; agere gratias, “to give, or return, thanks.' 2. Gratias egit- :-see last Note. 5. Gratias egi--see Note 1. 10. Omnibus-injecit, 'struck the greatest fear into all. Omnibus

is Ind. Obj. 13. Ornat, 'equips'; tradit, “hands (it) over.' 16. With dati supply sunt. 19. Take thus: comparat suam (senectutem) senectuti equi fortis et victoris. 21. Take thus : iterum copia Gallorum junxerunt se Tuscis, &c.

N.B. -An Adv. adjunct to the Pred. may be taken wherever it

best suits the sense, as there is no fixed place in which it must regularly come. This arises from the fact that Adv. Adjuncts to the Pred. do not usually modify the Verb only, but are at

tached, through the Verb, to the whole sentence. 22. Nemo mortalium, 'no man' (literally, no one of mortals,'

mortalium being Partitive Gen.); paruit, has obeyed'; lubidini et usui, ‘passion and interest.' Translate : 'No man has (ever) followed at the same time (the dictates of) passion and (of)

interest.' 24. Græce scriptum, 'written in Greek'-adjunct to commentarium. 25. Sua tempestivitas, 'its own seasonable quality or property'; data

est cuique parti, “to each period.' Cuique comes from quisque. 28. Bellum inferre, 'to make war.' 29. Sacerdos, '(I) a priest'; Musarum canto virginibus puerisque,

'to maidens and youths ; ' carmina non prius audita,
heard before.'

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SECTION VII.

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3. Extrema ætas.(complement), the last part of the age' (literally,

'the age at its last part'). 7. Suos (milites), ‘his (men).' 8. Castris, 'camp.' Castrum is 'a fort ’; castra (the pl.), 'a camp.' 12. Quousque, ' how long'; tandem, 'I pray'; patiemini hæc, for

tissumi viri (vocative). Fortissumi is another form of fortissimi. 13. Adulantem, 'one who flatters' (literally, ' (one) flattering'). 14. Ab-spectaculi, ‘from so foul a spectacle' (literally, from such

foulness of a spectacle '). Avertere is Ind. Pf. Pl. 3rd. 17. Alteri,' some;alteri, 'others.' Se receperunt, retreated' (literally,

took themselves back'). Se contulerunt, 'betook themselves.' 18. Vestra, 'your (affairs).' 19. In eam sententiam, 'in support of that opinion' (literally,

into that opinion'). 23. Prælium committant, 'engage in battle.'

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SECTION VIII.

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1. Dubias-res, 'uncertainties and hardships.' 2. Linquenda (est), 'must be left.' N.B.- When there are two

or more Subj. in Latin, the Verb is put in the Sing., if all the

Subjects are regarded collectively as one whole. 5. Take thus : repente glorians cæpit polliceri, &c. Cæpi has little

more than the tenses derived from the Ind. Pf., cæpi, ca peram, cæpero, cæperim, cæpissem, cæpisse. Like cæpi are memini, i remember; odi, I hate. Cæpi has also Part. cæptus, cæpturus. Memini has Imper. memento, mementote; but no Part. Odi has Part. osurus. When cæpi has for its Comp. a Pass. Inf. it may

be used in the Pass. Voice, as, urbs ædificari capta est. 6. Est in this sentence is a complete Pred., and therefore has no Comp.

Take thus : Est, ‘(There) is,' etiam placida ac lenis senectus

ætatis actæ quiete et pure et eleganter. 7. Consulares omnes, all those of consular rank ;' i.e., those

who had held the office of consul. Ferunt, 'extol.' 8. Bonus et ignavus, “the energetic man and the indolent man.' 10. “Let the circumstances, the occasion, let (your) dangers, (your)

necessity, let the magnificent spoils of war urge you on.' The Subj. Pres. in a principal sentence often expresses a command or a wish.

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13. Tranquillæ res omnes (sunt) tutæ. 15. Artes, 'qualities.' 16. Virûm is for virorum. 18. Distinguish between populus, f., 'a poplar,' and populus, m.,

people.' 19. Apud illos, 'with them.' 22. Quam pæne vidimus, 'how nearly have I seen,' or did I sec.' 24. Vastus animus, ‘his insatiable spirit.'

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SECTION IX.

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1. Meminerunt, see note on par. 5, Sec. 8. Memini and odi have in

the Perfect the meaning of the Present, so that meminerunt

means, “they remember. Curant, 'they care (to remember).' 2. Idem is Dir. Obj. to feci. Senex is in App. to qui. 3. Est is a complete Pred., '(there) is.' 8. Illud is Comp. to est. 9. Concupivit, ‘has (ever) desired.' 10. Discedendi potestatem fecit, 'gave (literally, 'made') an

opportunity of departing.' 14. Take thus : probo adolescentem in quo (est, 'there is '), senile

aliquid, something of the old man.' Thé est understood and

the est expressed are both complete Pred. 15. After insula supply est. Triquetra is Comp. 16. Appelluntur comes from appello, appuli, not appellavi. After

appelluntur supply spectat, then take ad orientem solem ; with

inferior repeat angulus. N.B. - When two or more co-ordinate sentences have a common

element or adjunct, this is usually expressed in one of the sentences only, and understood in the rest, which are then called

contracted sentences. 18. Præfecerat-Asiæ, ‘Perdiccas had given to Eumenes the rule of

that part of Asia’ (literally, “had placed Eumenes over that part

of A.'); illum unum, him alone." 19. Ab-est, we have spoken before' (literally, 'it has been spoken

· (by us) before '). 21. 'I, for my part, am transported with the desire of seeing your

fathers,' &c. Equidem equals ego quidem. 23. Operæ-est, “it is worth your while' (literally, it is a reward

of your trouble'). Visere templa Deorum is Subj. to est, and operæ pretium is Comp. Take thus ; est (' it is') opere pretium visere, &c. Majores, ancestors ;' so minores

, descendants.' Religiosissumi, another form of religiosissimi. 24. Naves solvit, 'weighs anchor' (literally, 'loosens the ships ).

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25. Fuerunt, '(there) were'-complete Pred. 28. Valerius ille, that (distinguished),' Val. ; fataliter mortuus est,

'died a natural death.' After sicut supply luxerant. 29. Quarum ex injuria, 'from the injury to whom.' Quarum is

Objective Gen. . Inferebant se, 'rushed' (literally, 'bore them

selves '). 31. Literal construing : What of time is given to each one for living,

with that he ought to be content.' Translate : ‘Each one ought

to be content with the time that is given him for living.' 33. M. stands for Manius. 35. Q. stands for Quinto ; M. for Marcus. Conciliârat, ‘had brought

Cum-conjunctissime, 'with whom (M. Cicero) he (Atticus) lived in the closest friendship’ (literally, 'most unitedly'). In this sentence, as is often the case, it is best to make conciliârat Pass., when eas nuptias will become Nom., and M. Cicero Abl. with Prep. a. Then translate : "and this marriage had been brought about by Marcus Cicero.' N.B. This M. Cicero was the great Roman orator.

about.'

SECTION X.

3. Ducuntur, 'are considered.' Hæc omnia is Subj. ; grata is

Comp. 4. Miseros is Comp. to dicis. Quem is used as an Adjective,

agreeing with locum,quem locum, what place.' See note on

Sec. 3, par. 9. 5. Prædam sceleris sui is Comp. to fecit. 6. Quæ is Dir. Obj. to vocant, and mapalia is Comp. Agrestium,

who dwell in the country. Mapalia-construe this by the word mapalia, as it is here intended to give the very name by

which the Numidians called these dwellings. 8. Persequi, ‘set forth.' Rerum rusticarum, ‘of country life.' 9. Partorum, is Pf. Part. Pass. of pario. Ante partorum bonorum,

‘of good things previously acquired.' 11. Consuevit, 'is wont'; efficere, 'to cause ; maritimos æstus maxi

mos, “the highest tides at sea' (literally, 'maritime tides '). 12. Take thus : Ambitio subegit multos mortales fieri falsos. 15. Omnes tuos, "all your (friends).' 18. Haud habuit, ‘by no means kept'; occultum is Comp., 'hidden,'

'concealed. 19. Ducebat, considered ’; eam, 'that'; præclaram victoriam is Comp. 20. Bona atque honesta, is Comp. to permansit. 22. Inscribitur, ‘is entitled.' Æconomicus is Comp.

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