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period in its growth; and when the persecutions finally came, they were powerless to extirpate a faith which had permeated the entire empire. The persecutions themselves were political rather than religious in their nature. Oftentimes they were due to the caprice or depravity of the emperor or his advisors, often to purely political considerations; and their results were rather to strengthen than to weaken the Church. Men were led to ask themselves what power it could be which gave the martyrs such firmness under the most fearful tortures; and inquiry made them converts. Thus the Church grew in numbers and in strength until finally it became the state religion, and found in the Roman empire a potent instrument for the propagation of its beliefs.

The art and music of the early Church also owed much to Rome, for although she originated nothing in those lines, she performed an inestimable service in preserving the sculpture, painting, and music of the Greeks. The influence of GræcoRoman art on the early Christian art is very marked. In the crude paintings of the catacombs we see the familiar personages and legends of the old mythology used to illustrate biblical story Hermes bearing a goat on his shoulder, an old Greek type, appears as the good shepherd; Arion and the dolphin, as Jonah and the whale. Orpheus charming the wild beasts by his divine music readily represents Daniel in the den of lions; while Odysseus bound to the mast, in order to escape the allurements of the Sirens, depicts the Church triumphantly passing through the temptations of the world.

The Roman music, too, which was borrowed from the Greek, had an important influence on that of the early Church; while a survey of the patristic literature shows the immense value of the Latin language as a means of spreading the faith.

In conclusion it may be said that in the growth of the Roman empire from its cradle on the Palatine Hill we trace the rise of a means of fostering and perpetuating the Christian religion, such as could not have been devised by the wisest human counsels, such as we are forced to believe must have been planned by an all-wise and far-seeing Providence from the foundation of the world.





Delivered April 3, 1893.

JOHN I, 1-10.

The question upon which you have asked me to speak might be considered in either of two ways. One form of treatment calls for a historical survey of the centuries which have passed since the teachings of Jesus began to exert a positive influence upon the social and political character of the Western world; the other form of treatment, which is analytic rather than historical, inquires respecting the real nature of the influence which the teachings of Jesus exert, and endeavors to measure the extent to which they are now potent, to discover the agencies which oppose their full efficiency, and to learn how a consistent disciple to the Great Master should conduct himself as a member of political and industrial society in our nineteenth century I have chosen to follow the second of the methods suggested, partly because in this manner I shall be able to avoid many questions that are in dispute among students of religious history, and partly becouse I am sure an inquiry into Christian conduct will be of greater assistance to those who are earnestly endeavoring to follow the law of Christ through the intricate relations of modern life, than any historical survey of the Gesta Christi of the past.

The first reflection that presents itself comes in the form of an inquiry. Is it true that the rule of Christian living is more

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