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subject the state to the domination of the few He was teaching growth, free and natural progress, room for thought. Against the tightening bands of modern life which were ever forcing into a compacter whole the elements of the state, he could make little headway But through Jefferson came the demand for wholesome, natural development of the parts. Individuality is not contrary to, but the mere obverse side of democracy By working for a natural state, which would suffer the natural progress of man, he was demanding that our country put itself into harmony with the forces of God and the teachings of Christ.

But we ought not to

In studying the history of the United States we are wont to limit ourselves to changes in its law. We are content with watching what we call its political life. forget that only a minute fraction of the life of a people is shown by its laws and its outward changes of government. The broad sweeping stream of society whirls on, making its own channels with little deference to the rigid sluice-ways of artificial law In numberless ways the social life of the community finds expression without the aid of statute or constitution. A thorough study of American history would show in its fulness this onward surge of American life, and in it all we would see, I am sure, the forceful presence of Christianity American materialism has an ugly sound, but it signifies in essence that the American man has been wresting her secrets from nature, that daily he is making her serve him, that he is coming to a mastery of his environment that will enable him to master himself; and in the complete freedom which comes from a mastery of self is the perfect liberty of Christ. American materialism means the continuous discovery of truth, and this is progressive Christianity

American materialism has unified and diver

sified the national life and has given the greatest impetus yet seen in the history of the world toward that broad foundation for the unity of mankind which is the forerunner of the kingdom of God. The force of commerce is not of evil-if it is we are in the hand of Satan. Trade has opened the arteries of the continent and the life-blood of the nation sweeps from sea to sea. Trade has bound the nations together in a sympathetic life, which is Christian in its breadth. Compare it with the selfish life of the ancient world, and you will realize that humanity is engaged on a nobler field. The Jews may have no dealings with the Samaritans, but the intelligent Christian calls no man unclean.

The study of American history furnishes poor food for pessimism. The end of the ninteenth century sees a truer national life, a deeper sense of public justice, a more profound faith in man and his destiny under God. He who studies the life of the nation in its tottering infancy will not quail at the sight of the dangers which surround its manhood. Nothing is more evident to the student than the strength, the manliness, the tone of the American public. I do not close my eyes to abuses in office, to the presence of brazen-faced wrong in the marts of trade. But the steady throb of America's heart is sending through her veins a strong flood of pure live-giving blood. She will cast off the curse of ignorance and of vice that will endeavor to to throttle her, and will give ever freer expression to the common will and public conscience.




At the period in

entire civilized world,

Delivered April 30, 1893.

which the life of the Savior falls, the from the Atlantic to the Persian Gulf, from the Rhine to the deserts of Africa, owned the sway of Rome. This circumstance in itself, the union of the nations under one head, with one official language, was favorable to the spread of the new faith; for there was but one government to contend with, and communication between remote parts of the earth was rendered easy

But we have additional reason for congratulating ourselves, that the universal conqueror, to which the other nations had one after the other succumbed, was none other than Rome. What the result would have been if the various peoples of antiquity had been able to follow out their development in their own way, without coming into conflict with each other, can only be a matter of conjecture; but an examination of the records of history leads us to the conclusion that if it was inevitable that one nation should conquer and absorb the rest, we have reason to rejoice that the victory fell to a people who were able to make such good use of it.

The Greeks, with their eager desire for knowledge and love of the beautiful, may rouse our sympathies and win our hearts; but Greece never advanced beyond the idea of the

city as the unit of polity, and besides her great men showed their weakness and lack of self-control when in the possession of unrestrained power Themistocles, Pausanias, and Alexander illustrate this national failing, and the speedy dismemberment of the great Macedonian's empire after the death of its founder, shows how unfitted the Greek was by nature for universal dominion. Even had it been possible for some one of the Greek cities to gain and to maintain supremacy over the rest of the world, we cannot feel that such a sovereignty would have benefited mankind. To judge by the conduct of Athens as head of the Confederacy of Delos, it would have meant the aggrandizement of the capital at the expense of the rest of the empire.

Very different was the policy of Rome; from the Tagus to Palmyra the remains of roads, bridges, aqueducts, theatres and temples testify to her efforts to bind together the heterogeneous elements of her empire, and to improve and advance her provinces.

Nor does the history of Rome's great rival across the Mediterranean lead us to wish that the result of Zama had been different, and that 'the sordid race of Tyre' had taken the place of the Romans as lords of the earth. Indeed, from the point of view of the best interests of mankind, there is no nation whose defeat and conquest by Rome should cause us regret; the very weaknesses which cut short the careers of her rivals made their success undesirable.

Not that the Romans were perfect; faults they had in abundance, but their national characteristics eminently fitted them for their great mission, to unite and closely bind together the nations under one head, and so prepare the way for the spread of the new faith.

Let us consider briefly the origin and early history of this great people, to determine, if possible, what its national characteristics were, and how they favored the perpetuation of the Christian religion.

The beginnings of Ronie were small. The seven hills beside the Tiber appear to have been originally the rallyingplace of the lowlanders against their highland neighbors, in that contest so often repeated in the history of the world. Sorrounded from the first by hostile and powerful peoples, more advanced than itself in most lines of human activity, the little settlement seemed very unlikely to be the cradle of a mighty empire; but the very difficulties of the situation favored the future greatness of the race.

As we may infer from the legends of early Rome, which, though not history, have been made by modern research to throw much light on the prehistoric period, the seven hills. were originally occupied by several different communities. This fact is an important one to bear in mind in tracing the development of the commonwealth; from its origin the Roman state consisted of an amalgamation of different communities, and the principle of association formed the foundation of its greatness, and influenced the development of its institutions.

Situated on a navigable river, within easy reach of the sea, yet far enough away to be safe from the pirates who in those early days infested the Mediterranean, the new city grew rapidly By the commercial enterprise of the inhabitants, it had attained considerable wealth and importance in very early times, as is shown by the surviving monuments of the regal period, which are constructed on too grand a scale to have been the work of the citizens of an insignificant town.

Encompassed as they were by hostile nations, composed in

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