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whom he raised to the peerage and chancellorship, produced more hatred than terror. Notwithstanding this, if he had not pursued with impolitic haste his grand design of restoring popery, it is probable all desire of resistance to his arbitrary conduct would have died away; but his eagerness providentially excited all the zeal of the great body of Protestants, and brought their united force into action. The king hoped to lull their apprehensions by his delusive declaration in favour of liberty of conscience; but they soon perceived that this was only intended to operate in favour of Catholics. He next attacked the established church, and appointed a commission, which cited before it every clergyman whose actions had offended the court. The rights of the Universities were iuvaded, and, in particular, a mandate was issued to Magdalen college, Oxford, commanding them to elect as their president, a person who had shown a disposition to become a Catholic.

He next published a declaration of indulgences in matters of religion, which the clergy were commanded to read in all the churches throughout the kingdom, Seven of the bishops met, and drew up a very loyal petition against this royal ordinance; for which they were committed to the Tower, prosecuted for sedition, and brought to trial; but were acquitted, and hailed as the saviours of their country. The general rejoicing on this occasion extended to the regiments encamped on Hounslow-Heath, and indeed to almost the whole army. James had already sent an embassy to Rome, in order to reconcile his kingdom to the Holy See; and the birth of a son and heir at this time supported his confidence: but so unpopular was he become, that a general persuasion prevailed of its being a supposititious child, wbich was intended to be obtruded on the nation.

The dangers which now threatened the liberties and religion of the country, produced an union of parties; and many of the nobility and gentry concurred in an application to the Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the United Provinces, and the king's own son-in-law, for assistance. William listened to the prayer of their petitions, and, with great secrecy, prepared a fleet and army for the invasion of England. James at length became sensible of his errors, and would gladly have retraced his steps, but all confidence between him and his people was destroyed; so that his concessions were justly regarded as the tokens of fear, not as the evidences of contrition. The Prince of Orange landed, and the royal army began to desert by whole companies, and even in entire regiments; till the bigoted monarch, forsaken by his subjects, and opposed by the very man who had married his daughter, found it best to retire. Even his favourite daughter, Anne, afterwards the celebrated Queen of England, who was then married to George, Prince of Denmark, joined the invaders; which so affected hiin, that when the news was brought, he exclaimed, in an agony of grief, “God help me! my own children have forsaken me.”

In 1688, he fled to France, and was received with the greatest hospitality by the French king, Louis XIV. who enabled him to recover almost the whole of Ireland, in the following year, where the Catholics possessed the chief power. The city of Londonderry, however, declared against him, and sustained a most memorable siege by the combined Irish and French army, commanded by the King in person, from December 7, 1688, to July 31, 1689; on which latter day it was relieved by the arrival of some provision ships from England, when the garrison had been reduced to a handful of men, principally through famine; all articles of life having been expended, so that the inhabitants had been obliged to subsist on the horses of the troops, while any remained ; and afterwards on dogs, cats, rats, mice, &c. all of which had failed before the arrival of the British ships !

The siege being raised, King James drew off his forces, and was finally met by the English army, commanded by King William, on the banks of the river Boyne, near Drogheda, on the morning of July 1, 1690. After a short conflict, the Irish army was totally routed :--All Ireland was soon after reduced; and James, who was the first to leave the field, effected his escape to France.

Só infatuated was this man, notwithstanding he had been driven from the throne on account of his endeavours to subvert Protestantism, that when he held a parliament in Dublin, he there renewed the most violent measures against the Protestants; which demonstrated, that neither his disposition, nor the principles upon which he meant to govern, had undergone any radical change. All his other attempts to recover the English crown miserably failed; and he spent the latter years of his life in the devotional practices of the Romish church, at St. Germain's; dying there in 1701, aged 68 years.

His son James, commonly called the Pretender, died at Rome in 1766: Charles-Edward, who invaded Scotland in 1745, and who was routed by the Duke of Cumberland, in the famous battle on Culloden Moor, died in 1788; while Henry-Benedict, cardinal of York, who was for some years supported by the munificence of this country, died in 1806, and was the last surviving branch of the ancient and celebrated Stuart family.

In the eleventh year of William III. and Mary II. eldest daughter of King James II. the House of Commons, (as no hope of the king's having issue to succeed remained, and in order to prevent the Roman Catholic branches of the house of Stuart from inheriting the crown,) came, notwithstanding the protest of the Duchess of Savoy, that she was next in the order of succession to the Princess Anne, to the following resolution: "That, for the preserving the peace and happiness of this kingdom, and the security of the Protestant religion, by law established, it is absolutely necessary, a further declaration be made of the limitation and succession of the crown, in the Protestant line, after His Majesty, and the Princess, and the heirs of their bodies respectively. And, that further provision be first made for security of the rights and liberties of the people.”There is little doubt that William's great friendship for Ernest-Augustus, the Elector of Hanover, husband of Sophia, Countess Palatine, grand-daughter of James I. of which we have already treated in our notice of that prince, led to that happy measure, which has, in all probability, for ever precluded a Papist from swaying the sceptre of these realms.

The resolution of the Commons led to the Act of Settlement ; for an abstract of which the reader is referred to the following chapter.

Anne, the second daughter of James II. ascended the throne, at the death of William III. in 1702, The splendour and importance of her reign were more owing to the circumstances of the times, and to her ministers and favourites, than to any talents or exertion of her own; as she was of a meek and timid disposition, and surrendered herself chiefly to the direction of others. The brilliant victories of the celebrated Duke of Marlborough, and the important union with Scotland, were greatly overcast by the disgraceful peace of Utrecht, and the violent contention of parties. The deceitfulness of grandeur, as a criterion of happiness, was remarkably verified in her person. While signal success attended her arms abroad, agriculture, commerce, manufactures, and literature, advanced at home; every thing concurred to distinguish her reign as the most propitious and brilliant in our annals. But when we follow this princess into private life, we are struck with the distinction between external

grandeur and personal felicity. She was the last sovereign of the house of Stuart; and her latter days were imbittered by the jealousies of her people, the turbulence of faction, and the contentions and outrage of a distracted cabinet.

She survived a family of eighteen children; among whom was the Duke of Gloucester, who was destined by the act of settlement to succeed her, and who exbibited, like our late lamented Princess, every accomplishment that could elevate the hopes of the nation, and delight the heart of a parent; but he was cut off in the twelfth year of his age, leaving the Royal Family and the Empire overwhelmed with the same grief for the irreparable loss they had sustained, and the same anxiety concerning the succession to the crown, which has universally prevailed since the death of her late Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales.

CHAP. II.

History of the House of Brunswick resumed, from

the Accession of King George I. to the Birth of

Her Royal Highness the late Princess Charlotte. In the preceding chapter we have inserted the resolution to which the House of Commons came in the fifth parliament of King William, in obedience to that part of the speech from the throne in which his majesty thus addressed them: “ My Lords and Gentlemen, our great misfortune in the loss of the Duke of Gloucester, hath made it absolutely necessary, that there should be a further provision for the succession of the Protestant line, after Me and the Princess.* The happiness of the

* Anne of Denmark, afterwards Queen Anne.

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