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fantry had fallen back into the intervals of his order of battle. The enemy, who renewed his attacks with increased impetuosity, made an extraordinary effort to force the last position of the corps near the village of Prisen, with a tremendously superior artillery. The loss of this position would have rendered the retreat of the main allied army from the mountains in a great measure impracticable; it was therefore imperatively necessary that it should be maintained to the very last man. As the French General Corbineau was advancing to attack Prince Leopold, with a corps of cavalry at least thrice as numerous, the Prince went to meet, and repulsed him. The French General, staggered by the intrepidity of his opponents, though so inferior in number, lost the decisive moment of victory; and as the Prince received a considerable reinforcement of cavalry, and fresh troops continued to arrive from the mountains, he was enabled to maintain his position till night.

On the morning of the 30th of August, before the conflict was renewed, Prince Leopold received, on the field of battle, from the Emperor of Russia, the cross of commander of the military order of St. George, for his conduct during the preceding days.

The other allied Sovereigns, as well as the Emperor Alexander, acknowledged with the greatest satisfaction the important part which Prince Leopold had contributed to the success of the operations which led to the capture of Vandamme with almost all his army, and he was presented with the Austrian military order of Maria Theresa ; having before received many honourable distinctions of the same kind froin the Sovereigns of Russia, Prussia, Bavaria, and other Princes.

In the beginning of October, the allied army returned to Saxony.

On the 16th of October, the first day of the battle of Leipzig, when the enemy had made a general, and not unsuccessful attack with cavalry upon the centre of the main army posted near the villages of Magdeborn and Cossa, the honourable service of covering not only this important point, but also the Russian batteries planted opposite to those of the French, was allotted to Prince Leopold, who on this occasion lost a great number of his men. On the 17th he continued in the same position, and had already received orders for the attack of the enemy's batteries, when it was deferred till the following day, on account of the non-arrival of several corps which were expected. On the 18th, the last and decisive day of this gigantic conflict, the Prince pushed on with his cavalry in the centre, to the environs of Leipzig. In the afternoon, when the left wing, under General Coloredo, was very furiously attacked by the French, it was asked what cavalry would go to the support of this wing? Though a greater force was wanted than Leopold had with him, he nevertheless offered himself, as there was no Austrian cavalry at hand, and went to the assistance of Coloredo. On the 19th be marched to the support of General Giulay, and followed the advanced guard and this corps to the vicinity of Erfurt.

Prince Leopold then proceeded to Frankfort, where he remained during the residence of the allied Sovereigns in that city, and afterwards went through Swabia and Switzerland to France. Here he was detached on the 30th of January, 1814, to the support of field-marshal Blucher and General Rajefsky to Rizaucourt, whence he returned on the 1st of February to the grand army. From a bivouac near Bar-sur-Aube he marched to the battle of Brienne, and assisted on the 2d to pursue the beaten enemy to Lesmont. The Prince then marched to Bar-surSeine and Troyes, and afterwards to Nogent-sur

Seine, Trainel, and Braye, whence the army again retreated.

On the 12th of March, the Prince, as well as the greater part of the Russian troops belonging to the main army, advanced upon the road to Vitry. After the French had recovered Rheims, and occupied Chalons, the Prince formed the advanced guard towards the roads leading to those places. In this service the troops, already extremely fatigued by the repeated night marches and incessant manæuvres in an exhausted and desolated country, and continually harassed moreover by the armed peasants, who were particularly troublesome in Champagne, had to en dure extraordinary hardships and inconveniences.

Till the 20th of March the enemy was daily expected to make a general attack upon the right wing of the army, which therefore occupied all its positions in readiness for battle. When, however, the enemy on the 20th suddenly retired from the Marne to the Aube, the allied troops of the right wing marched to the left upon Arcis, by which movement the main army effected its junction. The French now made a very impetuous attack, which the allied army repulsed with the greatest firmness; on which occasion the Prince had to support the right wing. On the morning of the 21st, Leopold was sent forward with his cavalry, part of the Prussian guard, and a reinforcement of horse artillery, to form a communication with the corps of the Prince-royal of Wirtemberg, which had not yet come completely into line. The enemy, apparently deterred from an attack upon the allies by their excellent position, occupied Arcis as a rear-guard position, and retired upon the road to Vitry. At night-fall the allied army also marched again to the left bank of the Aube, and then likewise directed its course towards the Marne, when the Prince formed the support of the advanced guard upon Vitry.

On the 24th of March the allied army took the road to Paris, and on the 25th its advanced guard attacked Marshal Marmont at la Fère Champenoise. The Prince being sent with his cavalry to the support of this advanced guard, attacked the enemy in the right flank at Connentrai, drove him from his position, and took five pieces of cannon. Being joined by the rest of the allied cavalry, he followed the Marshal from position to position, and did not desist from the pursuit, even when the greatest part of the allied cavalry was recalled against the corps of General Pactod. Marshals Marmont and Mortier, who had by this time formed a junction, profiting by the consequent weakness of the pursuers, sent their cavalry to attack the artillery of the Russian guard. Prince Leopold took this attack in flank, drove back the French cavalry to an elevated position which the Marshals had occupied, saved the Russian artillery, and, in spite of a very brisk fire, maintained his post till night.

The troops of the grand army were not again engaged till the battle of Paris. On the 31st of March, Prince Leopold entered Paris with the reserve cavalry, and there remained in garrison. He accompanied the Sovereigns to England, and sailed with them in the Impregnable from Boulogne to Dover. He continued here about a month after the Sovereigns, and left England suddenly at the end of July.

In the beginning of September he repaired to Vienna, to the Congress, for the purpose of promoting to the utmost of his power the independence of his native land, and the interests of his family.

Leopold's politics, sound as his understanding and his heart, could not chime in with all the maxims which were broached there. He could not, above all, convince himself, that it was just to sacrifice the right of one to the convenience and power of another; and though he duly weighed the

many clashing political interests, he found it impossible to admit the paramount cogency of those reasons upon which the partition of Saxony was decreed.

The Congress acknowledged the services which the Princes of the House of Cobourg had never ceased, during the last ten years, to render to their cause, as well as the sacrifices that had been made by them, and therefore granted an indemnity; which, though afterwards diminished by imperious political considerations, was nevertheless not inconsiderable. This business was exclusively conducted by Prince Leopold during the last decisive months, and to him alone is to be ascribed its happy issue.

On the return of Bonaparte to France, Prince Leopold hastened from Vienna to the grand allied army on the Rhine, which soon afterwards reached Paris. On the termination of the war, the affairs of his family detained him for some time in the French capital, after which he proceeded by way of Cobourg to Berlin; and here it was that the invi. tation of the Prince Regent (of which we shall treat in the next chapter) intimated to him the honour to which he was called.

In his early youth, this Prince manifested an excellent understanding, and a tender and benevolent heart. As he advanced in years he displayed a strong attachment to literary and scientific pursuits, and even at that time all his actions were marked with dignified gravity, and unusual moderation. His propensity to study was seconded by the efforts of an excellent instructor; and as he remained a stranger to all those dissipations with which persons of his age and rank are commonly indulged, his attainments, so early as his fifteenth year, were very extensive. His extraordinary capacity particularly unfolded itself in the study of the languages, history, mathematics, botany, music, and drawing; in

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