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Physiological Action and Therapeutics. Gum Arabic has no activity except the negative one of a demulcent, and is chiefly used in coughs, sore throats, catarrhal inflammation of the stomach and intestines, and irritant poisoning. It is much employed in pharmacy to suspend insoluble powders in mixtures, for which purpose the mucilage is generally used.
ACIDUM ACETICUM, Acetic Acid,-is a liquid composed of 36 per cent. of absolute Acetic Acid, HC,H,O,, and 64 per cent. of water. It is a clear, colorless liquid, of a distinctly vinegar odor, a purely acid taste, and a strongly acid reaction ; sp. gr. 1.048 at 59° F.; miscible in all proportions with water and alcohol, and wholly volatilized by heat. It is prepared from wood by destructive distillation and purification. Acetic Acid is also official in two other degrees of concentration, viz.
ACIDUM AceticuM GLACIALE, Glacial Acetic Acid, HC,H,0.2,- is nearly or quite absolute Acetic Acid, solid below 59° F., above that temperature a colorless liquid of sp. gr. 1.056 to 1.058. Is strongly escharotic and only used locally.
ACIDUM ACETICUM DILUTUM, Diluted Acetic Acid,-consists of Acetic Acid 17, Distilled Water 83 parts, contains 6 per cent. of absolute Acetic Acid, and has a sp. gr. of 1.0083. Dose, 3i-ij.
ACETUM, Vinegar (Unofficial),—is an impure diluted Acetic Acid, produced by the acetous fermentation of any liquid susceptible of the vinous fermentation.
Diluted Acetic Acid is used in the preparation of the four official Aceta (Vinegars).
Physiological Action. Acetic Acid, like the other vegetable acids, in concentrated form is escharotic and produces gastro-enteritis if swallowed. In dilute form it acts as a refrigerant, diminishing thirst and allaying restlessness. It forms salts in the stomach, thus enters the blood, and is there oxidized, producing carbonic acid, and thereby increases the acidity of the urine. It is also diuretic. Long used, it causes emaciation and poverty of the blood, producing a general scorbutic condition. It is hemostatic and anthelmintic, and the vapor inhaled causes reflex contraction of the vessels and raises the blood-pressure.
Therapeutics. The glacial acid is used as a caustic in many skin affections, as warts, condylomata, etc., and to destroy the parasite in ringworm and pityriasis. It has been employed locally in carcinoma, with the view of dissolving the supposed cancer-cells. The dilute acid is used locally in superficial inflammations of the skin, and may be sponged over the body to check perspiration and reduce the surface tenperature in fevers. It is often administered internally to reduce obesity, which it does by impairing digestion. Locally, it may be employed to arrest slight hemorrhages, as epistaxis; and is occasionally used by enema for the destruction of ascarides.
ACIDUM BORICUM, Boric or Boracic Acid, H,B03, - is a weak acid occurring in transparent, colorless, six-sided plates, of unctuous touch, odorless, of a cooling and slightly bitter taste, soluble in 25 of water and in 15 of alcohol at 59° F.,
3 of boiling water and in 5 of boiling alcohol. It is produced from Borax by the action of Sulphuric Acid. Dose, gr. V-XX. There is only one official Borate, viz.
Sodi Boras, Borate of Sodium, Borax, Na,B,0,,10H,0,colorless, transparent prisms, of cooling and sweetish, afterwards alkaline taste and alkaline reaction, soluble in 16 of water at 59° F., and in 0.5 of boiling water ; insoluble in alcohol. Occurs native in ancient lake beds in various parts of the world. Dose, gr. v-xl.
Unofficial Preparations. BORO-GLYCERIDE,-is a solid chemical compound, prepared by heating together Boracic Acid and Glycerin. It is soluble in water, but is generally used in solution of equal parts of pure Glycerin and Boro.glyceride. It com. bines readily with Chrysarobin, Carbolic Acid, Atropine, and Morphine, and is used as a local application in eye-diseases and skin affections.
BORACIC OINTMENT,-has of Boracic Acid 1, White Wax I, Paraffin 2, Almond Oil 2, thoroughly mixed together.
BORACIC LOTION,- is a saturated solution of the acid in water.
BORACIC LINT,-prepared by steeping lint in a boiling saturated solution and drying. It contains nearly one-half its weight of the acid.
MAGNESII BURO-CITRAS, Borocitrate of Magnesium,-prepared extemporaneously thus,-R. Magnesii Carbonatis 3j. Acidi Citrici 3ij. Sodii Biborat. 3ij, Aquæ Bullientis Zviij. A tablespoonful ihree or four times daily as a solvent of uric acid calculi.
POTASSI TARTRA BORAS, Tartraborate of Potassium,-is a better solvent of uric acid calculi than the Magnesium salt, and is soluble in 2 parts of cold water. Prepared by heating together Boracic Acid 1, Potassii Bitartras 4, Water 10 parts. Dose, gr. xx, largely diluted with water, three or four times a day.
Physiological Action and Therapeutics. BORACIC Acid is an efficient antiseptic, disinfectant, and deodorant, arresting fermentation and putrefaction, and very destructive to low organisms. A solution of 1 in 133 arrests the activity of bacteria. It is feebly acid and but slightly irritant,
and is used as a surgical dressing for its antiseptic and unirritating qualities. Its lotion and ointment have been successfully employed in ulcers, eczema, burns and scalds, pruritus ani, fetid perspiration, wounds, tinea tonsurans, and tinea circinata.
The BORATE OF Sodium is antiseptic and disinfectant, as it also destroys low vegetable organisms. It removes the epidermis when locally applied, has power to increase uterine contraction, and aids the solution of Benzoic Acid. It is employed as a wash to remove the epidermis from the skin, and as a lotion in acne, freckles, chloasma, leucorrhea, aphthæ, etc., and to allay itching in urticaria, psoriasis, impetigo, and in pruritus pudendi, scroti et ani. It has been used internally in amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhea, puerperal fever and puerperal convulsions, for its supposed specific action on the uterus.
BORO-GLYCERIDE in solution (1 to 40) is also a powerful antiseptic, and is used as a lotion in purulent ophthalmia and in the treatment of wounds, also as a local application to diphtheritic membranes. It is an efficient preservative of milk and food against putrefactive changes, and is entirely harmless.
An elegant cosmetic cream may be made by dissolving Boracic Acid in Glycerin, and then incorporating it with White Wax and Almond Oil.
ACIDUM CARBOLICUM, Carbolic Acid, Phenic Acid, Phenylic Alcohol, Phenol, C.H.HO,-is an alcoholic product of the distillation of coal-tar between the temperatures of 356° and 374° F. It occurs in needle-shaped crystals of tarry odor and burning taste, is liquefied by about 5 per cent. of water, soluble in 20 of water at 59° F., and very soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerin, oils, etc. Peculiarities about Carbolic Acid are that about 5 per cent. of water liquefies it, a further addition of water renders it turbid, until 2000 parts of water to 100 of the acid have been added, when a stable and clear solution is formed. One volume of liquefied Carbolic Acid containing 5 per cent. of water forms with one volume of Glycerin a clear mixture which is not rendered turbid by the addition of three volumes of water (absence of Creasote and Cresylic Acid). It does not redden blue litmus paper, but combines freely with alkalies and other salifiable bases, the products having an alkaline reaction and being decomposed by the feeblest acids (carbonic, etc.). Dose, gr. 14-j.
ACIDUM CARBOLICUM CRUDUM, Impure Carbolic Acid,-is obtained as above stated, but at a lower heat (338° to 374° F.), and contains Carbolic, Xylic, and Cresylic Acids in varying proportions, together with other impurities. It is used as a disinfectant.
Preparations. UNGUENTUM ACIDI CARBOLICI,-strength 10 per cent., Ointment 90. GLYCERITUM ACIDI CARBOLICI (Unofficial), — Carbolic Acid 1, Glycerin 4. AQUA Acidi CARBOLICI (Unofficial),-has of the Glycerite 3x to Aquæ Oj. Dose, 3j-Zss.
CARBOLIC ACID Gauze (Unofficial), -is medicated with Ac. Carbol. 1, Resin 5, Paraffin 7 parts.
CARBOLIC ACID PLASTER (Unofficial),-has of Carbolic Acid 25, Shellac 75, coated with Gutta-percha dissolved in Carbon Disulphide.
CARBOLIC ACID SOLUTIONS, sor antiseptic surgery, are5 per cent. in Water, as a spray or wash. 272 per cent. in Water, for sponges, hands, or as a lotion. 5 per cent, or less in Olive Oil, as a special dressing.
Official Derivative Salts. Sodui Sulpho-CARBOLAS, Sulpho-carbolate of Sodium, NaC H,SO, 2H,0, -prepared by dissolving Carbolic Acid 1, in strong Sulphuric Acid 1, thus forming Sulpho-carbolic Acid, which is then neutralized with Carbonate of Sodium. Transparent, rhombic prisms, soluble in 5 of water at 59° F., less freely in alco. hol and glycerin. Dose, gr. x-xxx.
Analogues. CREASOTUM, Creasote,-is a similar product, obtained from wood-tar, but by the action of Nitric Acid it is converted into Oxalic Acid chiefly, while by the same reagent Carbolic is converted into Picric Acid. Creasote does not coagulate albumen or collodion, Carbolic Acid does. Creasote is described under its own title.
RESORCIN (non-official), C.H.02,-is also a phenol, obtained from certain resins by the action of susing alkalies. [Described under its own title]
Physiological Action. CARBOLIC Acid is a powerful antiseptic and antiferment, being destructive to all low forms of life. It is a local anæsthetic and a superficial escharotic, coagulating albumen and also the blood when out of the body. Taken internally undiluted it produces violent gastritis, m vj of the pure acid having caused dangerous symptoms. It stimulates the cardiac inhibition, first slowing, then depressing, and finally paralyzing the heart. Respiration, at first increased, is soon depressed, the pupils are contracted, and both brain and spinal cord are directly affected ; stupor, coma, suspended reflexes, impaired motility and sensibility being produced. It is rapidly absorbed and diffused, many fatal cases having occurred from its external use. It is partly oxidized in the blood, and partly eliminated by the lungs and kidneys, imparting to the urine a peculiar olive-green or smoky color.
Locally applied Carbolic Acid produces on the skin or mucous membrane a white superficial eschar which succeeds to burning pain of short duration.
Antidotes and Antagonists. LIQUOR Calcis SACCHARATUS, or the official Syrupus Calcis, given freely; or Sodium Sulphate to form the Sulpho-carbolate of Sodium, are the chemical antidotes. Vegetable demulcents but no oils or glycerin) to protect the mucous surfaces. ATROPINE is a very complete physiological antagonist to the systemic symptoms, maintaining the heart and respiration until elimination occurs.
Therapeutics. CARBOLIC Acid owes its prominence to its having been the principal agent used in the antiseptic method of treating wounds; but lately its employment in that connection has become much restricted, and many of the most prominent surgeons have abandoned it altogether in favor of other germicides. For nausea and vomiting it is an excellent remedy in 14 grain doses, and in many chronic pulmonary affections it is used with benefit by spray. It may be employed locally in acute and chronic catarrhs, parasitic skin diseases, uterine and other ulcers, abscesses, boils, and carbuncles, endo-metritis, and perhaps in pulmonary phthisis. It has proven of temporary benefit in diabetes of hepatic origin. It has been injected parenchymatously (2 per cent, solution) in erysipelas, pleuro-pneumonia, intermittents, synovitis, lupus, chancroid, hydrocele, etc.
THE SULPHO-CARBOLATES of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium, have been employed advantageously in the septic diseases (as the exanthemata, diphtheria, puerperal fever), the object being to obtain the antiseptic and antipyretic actions of Carbolic Acid without its dangers. They may be used locally with good results in aphthæ, tonsillitis, otorrhea, gonorrhoea, and infamed mucous membranes generally.
ACIDUM CHROMICUM, Chromic Acid, CrO2,—is obtained by the action of Sulphuric Acid upon Potassium Chromate, and occurs in small crimson needle-shaped crystals, deliquescent and very soluble in water. Brought in contact with alcohol mutual decomposition takes place. A similar result and perhaps sudden combustion results when it is placed in contact with other easily oxidizable substances, such as Glycerin, Spirit of Nitrous Ether, etc. It is not used internally.
PotassiI BICHROMAs, Bichromate of Potassium, K.,Cr,0,- large, orangered prisms of disagreeable, inetallic taste and acid reaction, soluble in 10 of