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PREFACE.

THIS edition of Wallenstein has been prepared largely with reference to the needs of college students who have sufficiently mastered the principles of the German language to read this drama as a classic. The text of Hermann Oesterley's edition of Wallenstein in Goedeke's Historischkritische Ausgabe of Schiller's works (Vol. XII) is the basis of the text of the present edition. The deviations from this standard text are chiefly those of orthography, in which the Prussian system of spelling has been adopted. The punctuation has been modernized, as far as possible, according to present requirements.

Oesterley's text is authoritative text of

based upon the carefully printed and the first edition of the drama of 1800. Before the appearance of this edition Schiller had prepared a few manuscript versions for the use of several prominent theatres of Germany, and these stage manuscripts present many interesting and highly suggestive readings and omissions. Economy of space has made it impossible to insert these variant readings in this edition, but persons wishing to study this phase of the drama will find all the material in Oesterley's or in Vollmer's edition. Vollmer's introduction gives a

I Wallenstein. Ein dramatisches Gedicht von Schiller. Mit einer Einleitung und kritischen Noten. Stuttgart, 1880.

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clear and succinct account of the manuscript versions and of the other well known texts, and is strongly recommended to students who wish to acquaint themselves with the textual questions of the drama. The variant readings and all important facts bearing upon the texts of the drama are also presented in a reliable and convenient form in Bellermann's recent edition of Schiller's works, Vol. IV, pp. 373-393.

A careful study of the drama presupposes a good general knowledge of the history of the period, and such knowledge has been assumed by the editor in the preparation of this volume. He has felt that a short account of this important epoch, such as might find place within the limits of this volume, would be inadequate and hardly necessary, in view of the easily accessible handbooks on the subject, especially Gardiner's excellent short account of the Thirty Years' War,' which the editor has for several years used with his classes as a general historical introduction to the study of the drama. As it is of primary importance for the student to know also Schiller's conception of the period and its leaders, the student should be referred constantly to Schiller's history of the Thirty Years' War, which will, in many cases, furnish him with the best elucidation of the historical facts as they were known to Schiller.

The Thirty Years' War 1618-48, by Samuel Rawson Gardiner, in the "Epochs of History" series,

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The large number of historical characters in the dr who play a more or less important rôle in the dra action, and whose relations to Wallenstein can be f only in the more detailed histories of the period, induced the editor to prepare a full Index of Persons Places. The biographical sketches of this Index generally concise, as the editor has limited himself to presentation of such facts as are necessary to underst the drama. The Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie been generally consulted for this part of the work.

The numerous difficult and, in part, still unsolved torical problems in connection with the life and charac of Wallenstein made it seem necessary to the editor write a biographical sketch of Wallenstein's career, es cially because the general histories and handbooks are, this respect, inadequate, and also because even the larg histories often present a one-sided and partisan vie of Wallenstein's aims and motives. In the preparation this biographical sketch the editor has availed himse of the most important recent biographies and monograph on Wallenstein, and is especially indebted to the works Ranke, Schweitzer, Schulze, and the carefully prepare article of Wittich in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographi (Vol. XLV). In view of the many perplexing and stil unsettled questions, it would be presumption to take a dogmatic attitude respecting the character and aims of Wallenstein, but it seems to the editor that Ranke's biog

raphy, written in a spirit of calm objectivity, comes nearest to the truth, and hence the general point of view of the biographical sketch leans toward that of Ranke. The sketch is written primarily to present the biographical and historical facts required for the understanding of the drama, and secondly to suggest an interpretation of these facts from the point of view of modern historical investigations. The effort to satisfy both these aims, and the necessary limitations of space, have inevitably led to inequalities in the distribution of the material. Thus, for instance, Wallenstein's negotiations with Sweden, Saxony and Brandenburg in 1633 are as perplexing as they are important, and in an independent historical sketch would require more fullness of treatment.

The notes aim at literary interpretation. The editor has tried to avoid the discussion of all questions, literary or philological, that do not have an immediate bearing on the drama. The various editions mentioned in the bibliography have been consulted, and the editor wishes to acknowledge his special indebtedness to the editions of Bernd, Breul, Chuquet, and Funke. In the grammatical explanations and translations the editor has been guided by his experience in the class-room with students who have had about two and a half years of German in college.

In the interpretation of the drama the editor has consulted the principal critical works and commentaries on the subject, and has found the works of Düntzer, Fielitz,

Frick, Kühnemann, Werder, and especially of Bellermann, very helpful. The editor has tried to assume a definite position on the principal controverted points, and it is his opinion that a thorough study of Schiller's vast correspondence on the Wallenstein tragedy will serve as the best guide in interpretation, and guard the student against arbitrary and fanciful constructions. On most points Schiller himself is the best interpreter of his drama.

The editor wishes to express here his thanks to Dr. H. D. Carrington of the University of Michigan for his careful reading of the proof, and especially to Professor W. T. Hewett of Cornell University, who has kindly read the manuscript and the proof, and whose suggestions and criticisms have been of great assistance in the preparation of this volume.

ANN ARBOR, MICH., Dec. 15, 1900.

MAX WINKLER.

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