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vice of the Catholic League, distinguished himself at the battle of the White
Hill (1620), and in 1623 was appointed chief of the famous regiment which
bore his name, the "Pappenheimer." He aided Tilly in defeating Christian
IV of Denmark, took part in the storming of Magdeburg (1631) and in the
battle of Breitenfeld, and was mortally wounded at Lützen in 1632. He
was a very brave officer and much feared by the soldiers. His regiment was
famous throughout Germany. By Schiller he is called „der Telamonier des
Heeres, der furchtbarste Soldat des Hauses Österreich und der Kirche.“

Bestaluk, a captain of Terzky's regiment, mentioned by Murr (p. 277) as
one of the conspirators against Wallenstein. Cf. Hess, Biographien und
Autographen zu Schillers Wallenstein, pp. 409 and 414.

Pfalz, the Palatinate, a name applied to two German states, the Upper
and the Lower Palatinate. The Upper or Bavarian Palatinate was a duchy
situated west of Bohemia and north of the Danube. The Lower Palatinate,
or the Palatinate on the Rhine, embraced several principalities on both
banks of the Rhine, in the region of Heidelberg and Spires. According to
the Golden Bull of 1356, the Palatinate was made one of the seven elector-
ates of the Holy Roman Empire. At the beginning of the Thirty Years'
War, the Elector, Frederick V, having accepted the Bohemian crown, and
having been overthrown at the battle of the White Hill, was stripped of his
dominions. The electoral dignity was then transferred to Maximilian I,
Duke of Bavaria. The Lower Palatinate was restored to the son of Fred-
erick V by the treaty of Westphalia (1648), with the rank of an Elector of
the Empire.


Piccolomini, Octavio (1599-1656), a descendant of a very ancient and
distinguished Italian family whose ancestral seat was in Siena. He first
entered the service of Spain, but since 1627 was in the imperial service.
took part in the great battles of the war and distinguished himself especially
at the battle of Lützen. See Schiller, Werke, XI, p. 267. Since he had the
same horoscope as Wallenstein, he had the full confidence of the general,
but when he discovered Wallenstein's purposes, he worked most actively for
his downfall. He was in fact the leading spirit of the conspiracy against
the general. He signed the Revers of Pilsen of Jan. 12, 1634, but at once
reported the whole procedure to the Court of Vienna. For his other manip-
ulations against Wallenstein, see Introd., pp. xxx-xxxi. He was secretly pro-
moted to the rank of Field Marshal, Feb. 1, 1634. After Wallenstein's murder
he was richly rewarded for his services, receiving among other things the estate
Nachod. He distinguished himself subsequently as one of the best of the
imperial generals, and in 1648 was appointed commander-in-chief of the im-
perial army. In 1639 Philip IV of Spain made him Duke of Amalfi, and in
1650 the emperor made him a Prince of the Empire. In 1651 he married the
daughter of Duke Henry Julius of Sachsen-Lauenburg, but had no children.
His nephew was Joseph Silvio, called Max, Count Piccolomini, whom he
adopted and made his heir. But "Max" Piccolomini died before his uncle,
having been severely wounded at the battle of Jankau (1645) and then killed
by the Swedes. Cf. Die historische Persönlichkeit des Max Piccolomini, von
Freiherrn von Weyhe-Eimke, Pilsen, 1870. It is very doubtful whether
Schiller knew anything about this nephew of Octavio Piccolomini. He is
not mentioned in the sources used by Schiller.

Bilsen, a city in the western part of Bohemia. In the Thirty Years' War
it was a strongly fortified place and was stormed by Mansfeld in 1618. It
was the chief scene of Wallenstein's conspiracy against the emperor.

Prag, Prague, capital of Bohemia, situated on both sides of the Moldau
about fifty miles northeast of Pilsen. Its principal quarters are Altstadt
Neustadt, Kleinseite (Kleine Seite) and Hradschin.

Prokop, Andrew, the noted Hussite leader, known as Procop the Elder or Greater. In 1424 he became commander of the Taborites, the fanatic wing of the Utraquists. For fully ten years he invaded, at the head of mighty armies, Moravia, Austria, Hungary, Silesia and Saxony, everywhere defeating his German opponents. In these battles he was aided by another sect of the Taborites, who called themselves the " Waisen," and were led by a man subsequently known as Procop the Younger. Dissensions finally arose between the Taborites and the more moderate of the Hussites which led in 1434 to a decisive battle in which both Procops died. With these two brave leaders the cause of the Taborites perished.

Pyrrhus (318-272 B.C.), King of Epirus and one of the greatest generals of antiquity. In 280 B.C. he was invited by Tarentum to assist it against Rome, and defeated the Romans at Heracleia in 280 B.C. and at Asculum in 279 B.C. He was finally defeated by the Romans at Beneventum in 275 B.C.

Questenberg, Freiherr Gerhard von, a distinguished member of the ministry of war in Vienna and a friend of Wallenstein. He was a skilful mediator between the emperor and Wallenstein, and won the latter's confidence. After Wallenstein's deposition in 1630, he continued his correspondence with him, and was most active in inducing the general to reënter the imperial service in 1631. When the enemies of Wallenstein gained the upper hand at Vienna, he was sent to Pilsen toward the end of 1633 with the imperial command to Wallenstein to evacuate the winter quarters in Bohemia. He remained in Pilsen from the middle of December till the beginning of January, and played the part of an honest mediator between the emperor and Wallenstein, warning the emperor against extreme measures, and trying even in the last moment to bring about an understanding between the general and his master. After Wallenstein's death he fell for a time into disfavor, but soon became again a trusted counsellor of Ferdinand II and afterward of Ferdinand III. He died in 1646.

Quiroga, Father Diego de Quiroga, a Capuchin monk and confessor to the wife of Ferdinand III, very influential at the Court and frequently sent on political missions. It was he who was sent to Pilsen, Jan. 5, 1634, with the imperial demand to Wallenstein to send a force of six thousand cavalry to act as an escort to the Cardinal-Infant.

Regensburg, an important city of northern Bavaria, situated on the south bank of the Danube. It was captured by Bernhard of Weimar, Nov. 15, 1633. See Introd., p. xxvi.

Reichenberg, a town of Bohemia, fifty-six miles northeast of Prague. It belonged, 1622-1634, to Wallenstein, forming a part of the principality of Friedland. After Wallenstein's death it was given to Gallas.

Rheingraf, see Otto Ludwig von Salm.

Riesenberge, usually Riesengebirge, a range of the Sudetic Mountains, on the boundary between Bohemia and Silesia, southeast of the Duchy of Friedland. They are the highest mountains of northern Germany.

Rudolf II (1552-1612), Emperor of Germany, a man of scholarly tastes, but a weak and unpractical ruler. His government was unsuccessful and he was finally forced to acknowledge, in 1608, his brother Matthias king of Hungary and governor of Austria and Moravia. In 1609 he was compelled to grant to the Bohemian Protestants the famous Majestätsbrief, a royal charter which played an important part in the causes that led to the Thirty Years' War. It conceded perfect freedom in religious matters to every inhabitant of Bohemia. "But freedom of conscience did not by any means imply freedom of worship. A man might think as he pleased, but the building of churches and the performance of divine service were matters for the

authorities to decide upon. The only question was who the authorities
were. By the Royal Charter this authority was given over to the members
of the estates, that is to say, to about fourteen hundred of the feudal aris-
tocracy and forty-two towns. In an agreement attached to the charter, a
special exception was made for the royal domains. A Protestant landowner
could and would prohibit the erection of a Catholic Church on his own
lands, but the king was not to have that privilege. On his domains worship
was to be free." Gardiner, The Thirty Years' War, pp. 25 f.

Saale, one of the chief tributaries of the Elbe, traversing Thuringia,
Saxony, Anhalt, flowing generally north and joining the Elbe nineteen miles
southeast of Magdeburg.

Saalkreis, a small province on the lower Saale, in the northwestern part
of Saxony. Its chief town was Halle.

Sachsen, Saxony. The word Saxony was used in various designations in
the seventeenth century. It could denote: (1) The Electorate of Saxony,
of which John George was the elector during the great war.
(2) Several
small dukedoms in Thuringia, of which that of Sachsen-Weimar was the
most prominent. (3) The Lower Saxon circle, one of the ten circles of the
Holy Roman Empire, comprising Magdeburg, Lüneburg, Wolfenbüttel,
Lübeck, Bremen, Hamburg, Hildesheim, Halberstadt, Mecklenburg, Hol-
stein, etc. In this drama Saxony usually refers to Electoral Saxony. In
Piccol., 1. 1158, it refers to (3).

Sagan, a town in Silesia eighty-two miles northwest of Breslau. In the
seventeenth century it was the capital of the principality of Sagan, which
was acquired by Wallenstein in 1627.

Schafgotsch or Schaffgotsch, Johann Ulrich von (1595-1635), a Protestant,
but one of the most zealous supporters and trusted officers of Wallenstein.
Took part in the battle of Steinau (October, 1633), after which he was ap-
pointed governor of Silesia. He was in Silesia at the time of the events of
the drama. After Wallenstein's death he was convicted of treason and exe-
cuted in 1635.

Scherfenberg, Johann Ernst von, one of Wallenstein's most devoted ad-
herents and an able officer. He signed the first and second Revers. After
the murder of Wallenstein he was sentenced to death, but pardoned.

Schlesien, Silesia. In the Thirty Years' War an Austrian province, sit-
uated east of the Electorate of Saxony and of Bohemia, and traversed by
the Oder.

Schwaben, Swabia, an ancient duchy of Germany comprising in general
Würtemberg, Baden and southwestern Bavaria. It was one of the four
great duchies of the early German kingdom. The name was revived in the
sixteenth century as that of one of the circles of the empire.

Schwyz (with long y) is a dialectic form for the literary Schweiz. It is
really the name of the Canton Schwyz, one of the Four Forest Cantons
which rebelled against the Habsburgs in the fourteenth century. Afterward
the name of the Canton Schweiz was extended to the whole confederacy.

Seckendorf; a colonel von Seckendorf appears since 1632 in the Swedish
army. He was beheaded in 1641, because he tried to induce German officers
in the Swedish army to go over to imperial service. It is, however, doubtful
whether Schiller had this officer in mind in Tod, 1. 3082.

Seni, Wallenstein's astrologer. His real name was Giovanni Battista
Zenno. Schiller found the form Seni in Murr. He was an astrologer in
Padua, and since 1629 in Wallenstein's service. Little is known about him.
After Wallenstein's murder he was arrested, but released, because no charge
could be urged against him. He was murdered in Vienna in 1643.

Sesin, Jaroslav Sesyma Raschin von Riesenburg, a Bohemian, who after

the outbreak of the Bohemian insurrection fled with his family to Saxony, and later on became the political agent of Wallenstein and Terzky in their negotiations with the Swedes. After the Elector of Saxony made peace with Ferdinand II in 1635, Sesyma was pardoned by the emperor on condition that he would divulge all he knew about Wallenstein's relations with the enemy. This he did, and his account is one of the chief sources of our knowledge of Wallenstein's negotiations with the Swedes. This report has been naturally suspected on account of the circumstances under which it was written, and is on the whole unreliable. Sesyma was not captured by the imperialists as stated by Schiller in Piccol., 1. 2565. Early in February, 1634, he was sent to Oxenstjerna, probably by Kinsky, and on his return he learned of Wallenstein's murder just in time to make good his escape. It was Duke Franz Albrecht von Sachsen-Lauenburg who was sent by Wallenstein to Regensburg to summon Bernhard of Weimar to Eger, and it was he who on this mission was captured, Feb. 16, 1634, by the imperialists at Tirschenreut. Schiller has therefore combined here two historical characters, and he chose Sesyma as the agent, because of the report which the latter afterward gave of Wallenstein's negotiations with the Swedes and the Saxons. The form Sesin occurs in Murr. For Sesin's report see Lenz: “Zur Kritik Raschins" in Sybels Zeitschrift, Vol. 59, pp. 44 ff.

Slawata, Wilhelm von, one of the ten governors to whom the administration of Bohemia was entrusted by emperor Matthias before the outbreak of the Bohemian insurrection in 1618. He became very unpopular on account of his hostility to the Protestants, and so, together with Martinitz and Fabricius, he was thrown from a window of the castle on the Hradschin, but escaped uninjured. This act of the Bohemians may be regarded as the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. See Martinig. He was afterwards richly rewarded by the emperor, made a count in 1621, and appointed to several honorable and lucrative positions. Although related to Wallenstein, he was one of his bitterest foes.

Steinau, a small town in Silesia, situated near the Oder, thirty-four miles northwest of Breslau. Here Wallenstein defeated and captured, Oct. 11, 1633, a detachment of the Swedish army under Thurn. See Introd., p. xxv. Sternberg, Adam von, a wealthy Bohemian landowner, one of the regents of Bohemia and a faithful adherent of the House of Habsburg. When the Bohemian insurrection broke out in 1618, his vast estates were confiscated by the Bohemians, but were returned to him after the victory of the imperial forces in 1620. He died in 1623.

Stralsund, a seaport town of Pomerania, situated on the Strelasund, opposite the island of Rügen. Wallenstein besieged it in 1628, but was unable to capture it. See Introd., p. xv.

Südermannland or Södermanland, a county in eastern Sweden, southwest of Stockholm.

Suys, Baron of Clingeland and Neverdeen, a Dutch officer who entered imperial service and distinguished himself as a brave soldier. In 1633, while he was in command of several regiments in Upper Austria, he was ordered by the War Department in Vienna to cross the Inn, but refused to do So, because he had contrary orders from Wallenstein. The emperor, incensed at his disobedience, demanded his resignation, and it was a part of Questenberg's mission in Dec. 1633, to settle this dispute. Wallenstein then ordered Suys to come to Pilsen, where he remained for some time faithful to his general, but finally joined the conspiracy. In Piccol., 11. 1199 ff., Schiller deliberately reversed the historical facts in order to introduce a great court-martial scene, in which Wallenstein could appear absolute master of his army.

Tabor, a town in Bohemia, forty-eight miles south of Prague. It was founded as a stronghold by the Hussites under Ziska in 1419.

Taboriten, Taborites, so called from their fortified encampment Tabor, were members of the radical party of the Hussites. They were fierce and successful warriors under their leaders Ziska and the Procops, until they were defeated in 1634.

Tachau, a town of Bohemia, northwest of Pilsen and a few miles from Neustadt.

Temeswar, better Temesvar (pron. Tem'eshvär), a town in the county of Temes in southern Hungary, southeast of Buda-Pest.

Terzky. In Lager, 1. 37, he is called Terschka, and in Lager, 1. 1018, Terzka, while in Piccol. and Tod, the form Terzky is used exclusively. Terschka and Terzka are inaccurate phonetic spellings for the Czech name Trčka (pron. Trtshka). - Adam Erdmann Count Terzky was a member of an old and rich Bohemian family. He was related by marriage to Wallenstein, for his wife, Maximiliane, Countess of Harrach, was a sister of the Duchess of Friedland. He gradually won Wallenstein's confidence and was employed by his general in various diplomatic missions to Gustavus Adolphus before and after the battle of Breitenfeld, and afterwards in the negotiations with the Saxons and the Swedes. He remained faithful to Wallenstein till the end, and was murdered in Eger, Feb. 25, 1634.

Terzky, Countess, wife of the former. For Schiller's deviation from history in regard to her character, see Introd., p. lvi.

Thekla is an invention of the poet; the name was possibly suggested to Schiller by the historical novel entitled: Geschichte der Gräfin Thekla von Thurn, oder Scenen aus dem dreissigjährigen Kriege (1788), by Benedicte Naubert. Wallenstein's only daughter was Marie Elizabeth, who at the time of her father's death was only nine years old. She married afterwards Count Rudolf von Kaunitz.

Thurn, Count Heinrich Matthias von (1580-1640), leader of the Bohemian Protestant insurrection in 1618, and active in securing the election of Frederick V of the Palatinate. After the battle of the White Hill (1620), he went into exile, and later sided with the enemies of the emperor, viz. Bethlen Gabor, the Danes, and the Swedes. At the battle of Steinau he was captured by Wallenstein and then released. See Introd., p. xxv. In Piccol., 1. 1121, it is erroneously stated that after the battle of Steinau Thurn was richly rewarded and then dismissed. Really Thurn did not receive any presents, and was released only after he had ordered all the Swedish garrisons to surrender their posts. Wallenstein had no respect for Thurn's generalship, and when criticized for releasing Thurn, he defended himself by saying that he deemed it best to let him go and thus afford him an opportunity for collecting and losing a fresh army.

Tiefenbach or Tenffenbach, Rudolf Freiherr von, entered Wallenstein's army in 1625, served in various engagements of the war, but is not mentioned by any authority as having taken part for or against Wallenstein. That Tiefenbach was a drunkard (Piccol., 2047) and an illiterate man (Piccol., 1. 2193) seems to be an invention of the poet.

Tilly, Count Johann von (1559–1632), the most celebrated Catholic general after Wallenstein in the Thirty Years' War. After having served many masters in various parts of Europe, he was appointed at the beginning of the great war commander of the armies of the League. He won the battle of the White Hill, Nov. 8, 1620, subdued Bohemia in 1621, conquered the Palatinate in 1622, defeated Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter in 1626, became imperial generalissimo in 1630, captured Magdeburg in 1631, and met his first great defeat at Breitenfeld in 1631. He was mortally wounded at

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