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Stage Direction after 1. 3665. Kammerdiener... heftig bewegt etc. The servant's strange conduct here is due to the strong expressions of anxiety of Seni and Gordon, for he cannot know any. thing of the imminent danger of Wallenstein.

11. 3676 ff. One of the most impressive cases of tragic irony in dramatic literature.

SCENE 6.

Cf. Schiller's account of the murder of Wallenstein in Werke, XI, p. 323. See also Ranke, pp. 308–309.

1. 3680. das Zeichen, see Stage Direction at the end of this scene: Er stampft auf den Boden.

1. 3691. Ich stell's . . . heim, for the more usual ich stell's . . . anheim.

11. 3699-3701. Dieser Illo etc. Cf. Schiller, Werke, XI, p. 321, and Ranke, p. 308. According to some historical sources it was not Illo, but Terzky who defended himself so desperately at the banquet against the murderers. - Note that Buttler took part in the murder, 1. 3698. Cf. ll. 3208 ff. 11. 3706 f. Die Schuldigen sind tot, cf. 11. 2742 ff. 1. 3709. Cf. Macbeth, Act II, Scene 2, ll. 35–36:

"Methought I heard a voice cry 'Sleep no more!'
Macbeth doth murder sleep, etc.

Cf. note to 1. 1445.

1. 3714. Der nächste Augenblic, viz. as soon as the murder of Illo and Terzky at the castle becomes known.

11. 3717 f. Cf. note to Piccol., l. 1479.

SCENE 7.

Wallenstein was murdered in the house of the widow of Alexander Pachhälbel. In August, 1791, Schiller visited the room in which Wallenstein was murdered, and was shown Wallenstein's sword and portrait and the weapon with which the deed was committed.

1. 3730. An Euren Posten, viz. in order to defend the fortress against the supposed approach of the Swedes. Thus Gordon is skilfully removed from the scene of action.

1. 3732. Cf. Schiller, Werke, XI, p. 323, and Murr, p. 341. Stage Direction at the end of the scene. Waffengetöse. According to history Wallenstein received the fatal thrust without offering any resistance. Schiller says: „Die Arme auseinander breitend, empfängt er vorn in der Brust den tödlichen Stoß der Partisane und fällt dahin in seinem Blute ohne einen Laut auszustoßen." Werke, XI, p. 323.

SCENE 8.

1. 3734. Ihr, that is, Thekla's.

1. 3739. Schreckenspost = Schreckensnachricht. Cf. Siegespost in 1.

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11. 3756. Die Kaiserlichen etc. The next morning after Wallenstein's murder, Gallas and not Octavio Piccolomini entered Eger. Cf. note to Piccol., 1. 297.

SCENE IO.

1. 3774. Stage Direction. Zweiter Bedienter Silbergerät tragend. Schiller follows here his sources, which relate that after Wallenstein's murder, his servants stole much silver and other property.

SCENE II.

The closing of

1. 3779. das goldne Vließ, cf. note to 1. 2173. 1. 3780. daß man die Kanzlei, sc. verschließe. Wallenstein's cabinet in Eger is mentioned by Murr, p. 280 (Ausführlicher Bericht). Most of Wallenstein's papers were, however, in Pilsen, and were at once taken possession of by the imperial authorities.

11. 3782-85. Octavio's defense here is mere sophistry. Cf. note to 1. 1168.

1. 3790. Urtel, cf. note to 11. 2704 ff.

1. 3793. Bergänglichen, here

=

sich ändernden.

1. 3796. Dem Gnädigen, viz. the emperor.

1. 3809. Erfolg

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1. 3811. Cf. Murr, p. 325.

1. 3813-15. For the rewards he received from the emperor see Index under Buttler.

SCENE 12.

11. 3824-5. ich schloß es ab etc. These words must be taken figuratively, for it is to be remembered that the scene of action does not take place in Wallenstein's own palace, but in the house of the burgomaster of Eger. The countess means to say: I have set our family affairs in order and leave them now to your care.

11. 3829 ff. Cf. Egmont's request to Ferdinand in Act V: „Laß meine Leute dir aufs beste empfohlen sein;" also Maria Stuart, 11. 3773-75.

11. 3836-7. The emperor, however, confiscated Wallenstein's

estates, and gave them to his enemies. A small estate was given back to his widow and daughter, afterwards the Countess Kaunitz.

11. 3845 ff. Cf. note to ll. 3477 f.

11. 3851 f. Der Kaiser ist Besitzer etc., because Terzky too was put under the imperial ban and his property confiscated.

1. 3852. uns; note that she includes herself among the dead, thus preparing us for what follows.

Stage Direction after 1. 3865. einen Brief, the tenth document in the drama. Cf. note to ll. 2728 ff.

1. 3867. Fürsten Piccolomini cf. 1. 2766. According to history this promotion came much later. See Index under Octavio Piccolomini. This short, cynical ending, expressing the most poignant reproof of Octavio's whole conduct, has been much admired as one of the most effective touches in Schiller's dramas. On March 18, 1799, Goethe wrote about it to Schiller as follows: "The ending of the drama with the address of the letter is, in reality, startling, espe cially considering the tender state of one's feelings at the moment. It is indeed a unique case to be able to conclude with what is terrible after having exhausted all that was capable of arousing fear and pity."

INDEX TO PERSONS AND PLACES.

Altenberg, a strongly fortified hill near Fürth, occupied by Wallenstein
during the siege of Nürnberg.

Altorf or Altdorf, a small town about fifteen miles southeast from Nürn-
berg, since 1575 the seat of a gymnasium, which so grew in size and prom-
inence that it was changed in 1622 into a university. This institution was
under the control of the city of Nürnberg. In 1809 it was united with the
university of Erlangen.

Altringer. Johann von Aldringen (1588–1634), an able general of the
Empire and a man of character and culture. He distinguished himself in
various engagements under Tilly and Wallenstein, and was highly esteemed
by the latter. He did not attend the meeting of the generals at Pilsen in
January, 1634, but joined Marradas at Frauenberg. After the death of
Wallenstein he was richly rewarded by Ferdinand for his loyalty to the im-
perial cause, but died soon afterward in battle, July, 1634.

Arnheim, better Arnim (Schiller found the form Arnheim or rather Arn-
heimb in Murr).

Johann Georg von Arnim-Boytzenburg (1581-1641), a Brandenburg
nobleman, throughout his life a staunch Lutheran. He was first in the
Swedish and Polish service, and then entered the imperial army, in which
he attained high distinction under Wallenstein. In 1629 he entered the
Saxon service, and in 1631 was appointed commander of the forces of Elec-
toral Saxony to coöperate with Gustavus Adolphus. He was present at the
battle of Breitenfeld, and subsequently captured Prague. Although nomin-
ally an adversary of Wallenstein, he was in constant communication with
his former chief on the subject of peace. Wallenstein was particularly
anxious to detach the Elector of Saxony from the Swedes and then, with an
overwhelming force on his side, dictate peace to Europe. His negotiations
with Arnim and the Saxons were known to the emperor. After 1635 Arnim
left the Saxon service, but was employed in the diplomatic service until his
death.

Attila, a famous king of the Huns, surnamed the "Scourge of God" on
account of the devastation caused by his hordes. He was a great conqueror
of Germanic and Slavonic nations, laid waste the provinces of the Eastern
Roman Empire and claimed half of the Western Empire. He was finally
defeated in 451 A.D. in the battle of the Catalonian fields, near Châlons-sur-
Marne, by the Roman general Aëtius with the aid of German auxiliaries.
He died in 453.

Banner (Swedish Banér), Johannes (1596-1641), a distinguished Swedish
general trained under Gustavus Adolphus, after whose death he was made a
field-marshal, and won the victories of Wittstock (1636) and of Chemnitz
(1639). He was not present at the battle of Lützen, as stated in the Tod,

1.

940.

Bayern, Bavaria, in the Thirty Years' War a duchy, then much smaller
than the present kingdom of Bavaria. By the treaty of Westphalia (1648)
the Upper Palatinate, a district in northern Bavaria, was annexed to it.

Bayer, der. See Marimilian I.

Bayreuth or Baircuth, in the 17th century a principality on the upper
course of the Main, now a part of the kingdom of Bavaria. The town of
Baireuth is situated in the province of that name on the Red Main.

Belt, a term applied to two straits connecting the Cattegat and the Baltic.
It is used in Schiller by metonymy for the Baltic Sea.

He

Bernhard von Weimar (1604–1639), the most celebrated general on the
Protestant side after Gustavus Adolphus. He received his military training
in the Dutch service, took part in the campaigns of Christian IV of Den-
mark, joined Gustavus Adolphus upon his arrival in Germany, and was
actively engaged in the siege of Nürnberg and at the battle of Lützen.
captured the important fortress of Regensburg, Nov. 5, 1633. For his
services he was promised an independent duchy in Franconia (see Index
under Frankenland). After the death of Gustavus Adolphus he was en-
trusted with the chief command of one half of the Protestant army and did
excellent service. At the time of Wallenstein's death he was in command of
a large Swedish force, and was less than a day's march from Eger.

Bernhard's real part in the war is frequently assigned in the drama to
the Rhinegrave Otto Ludwig von Salm.

Böhmen, Bohemia. Schiller also uses the older German form Böheim.
Böhmerwald, a chain of hills separating Bohemia from Bavaria.

Brandeis, a small town on the Elbe, in Bohemia, north of Prague. It was
the seat of a royal palace.

Braunau, a town in the northeastern part of Bohemia, on the border of
Silesia.

Breitenfeld, a small place near Leipzig. Here Gustavus Adolphus won
the victory over Tilly, Sept. 17, 1631.

Brieg, a town in Silesia, on the Oder, southeast of Breslau.

Brügge, Bruges, a city in the northern part of Flanders, near the North
Sea.

Brünn, capital of the Austrian province of Moravia.

Buchau am Federsee, in the 17th century a free imperial town a few miles
southwest of Ulm, in the district of the Danube.

Budweis, a city in the southern part of Bohemia, on the Moldau.

Burgau, in the 17th century the capital of a small margraviate of the same
name, situated between Ulm and Augsburg, south of the Danube.

Bürgermeister, see Pachhälbel.

Buttler, Walter, a member of a noble but impoverished Irish family. He
entered the imperial service and rose from the ranks, until in 1632 he was ap-
pointed colonel of a regiment of dragoons consisting largely of Irishmen.
He was a zealous Catholic, sincerely loyal to the emperor, and hence regarded
Wallenstein with suspicion. Wallenstein in turn distrusted him. When
Wallenstein was on his way to Eger, Buttler accidentally met him, was asked
to accompany him to the town, and became there one of the chief accomplices
in the assassination of the general. Cf. Introd., pp. xxxii-xxxiii. After
Wallenstein's murder the emperor rewarded him by making him a count and
by giving him Friedberg, one of the largest estates of Wallenstein. He
died shortly afterward, in Dec., 1634.

Caraffa, name of an old and celebrated Neapolitan family, two members
of which took part in German affairs. Cardinal Pietro Luigi, who in 1623
was sent by the Pope as envoy to Germany and returned to Italy in 1628;
and Geronimo Caraffa, who fought at the battle of the White Hill and was
subsequently appointed by Philip IV governor of Aragon. He died in 1633.
The reference to Caraffa in Piccol. 1. 1006 is therefore unhistorical.

Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, called der Halberstädter, be-

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