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and from that point to its debouchure, in the Mediterranean, in latitude thirty-one degrees north, the Nile traverses a distance of over 3,000 geographical miles, or nearly one-tenth of the circumference of the earth. When he discovered the Nyanza lake in 1858, he found it to be a large sheet of sweet water, lying about 3,500 feet above the level of the sea, and he at once felt certain that it could only be the source of some vast river, such as the Nile. The natives had traditions, too, of its great extent, and certain Arab merchants of Zanzibar, who penetrated those regions in search of ivory, assured him that Nyanza was the source of some great river. Other traditions heard from the natives, confirmed him in this opinion; and he believes he would have settled the question of the source of the Nile in 1859, by traveling to Uganda with an Indian merchant, had not the chief of the expedition fallen ill.

On his return to England he found Sir Roderick I. Murchison deeply imbued with the necessity of at once completing the work he had left undone. He himself could not rest satisfied until the world had accepted his views, now happily confirmed by actual inspection and observation. On returning with his brave companion, Capt. Grant, to Unyanyembe, five degrees south of the lake, in 1861, he hit upon a new route, which he supposed, from the accounts of the ivory merchants, would lead to a creek in the western flank of the lake;. but owing to the confusion existing in the language of the country with regard to the terms river and lake, it turned out to be a new lake, the Luero-lo-Urigi, which once contained large quantities of water, but is now fast drying up. It is to the west and north of Karagwe that the great lake receives its largest supply of terrestrial water, through the medium of the Kitangule river, which drains off the Luero-lo-Urigi and many minor lakes. These lakes are all mere puddles compared to the Nyanza ; but the Kitangule is a noble river, sunk low in the earth like a huge canal, and measuring eighty yards

The question now arises, What forms these lakes without number?

The Mountains of the Moon, from whence they derive their water, are in the middle of the rainy zone, where he observed in 1862, that no less than 233 days out of the year were more or less wet days. The first place from which he obtained a view of Lake Nyanza during the second expedition was from the town of Mashonde, in the Uddu portion of the country of Uganda, on the western side of the lake. Pursuing his way northward along the shore to the valley of Katonga, which is situated on the Equator, the land above the lake becomes very beautiful, being composed of low sandstone hills, deeply scored and seamed by the heavy rains, covered with gigantic grass of unsurpassed verdure, and by dells of trees as tall and straight as the blue gums of Australia. Traveling, however, is most irksome in this part of the country, for owing to the gradual subsistence of all the streams, the moorlands surrounding them are mere net works of rushes, covering unfathomable soft bogs. Cross


ing the Equator, he reached the Mworango, a stream of moderate size, and said to flow out of the lake. It runs north, and joins the Nile in the kingdom of Unyoro, when its name is changed to Kafu. Further on the Luajerri follows its example, and still further on, at the centre of the northern coast of the lake, issues the parent stream of the Nile, falling over rocks of an igneous character, and forming falls twelve feet high, which he had christened by the name of the “ Ripon Falls,” in honor of the President of the Geographical Society at the time of the starting of the expedition. The escape of the Nyanza's waters, twenty miles north of the Equator, was the only outlet examined, owing to the barbarous restrictions placed on travelers by the king of the country. They, however, saw the junction of the Nile with the Kafu and Assua rivers, and crossed the Luajerri half way between its escape from the lake and its junction with the parent stream. Proceeding down the Nile from the Ripon Falls, they first passed through a row of sandstone hills, after which the river rushes down due north, with the beauty of a mountain torrent, running off at last into long flats, more like a lake than a river. In Unyoro it is increased by the contributions of the Kafu and Luajerri, and continues navigable as far as the Karuma Falls, where it rushes on with boisterous liveliness. They could not continue their passage beyond this point, owing to a war that was raging in the country. They next met the old river, in the Madi country, where it still bears the unmistakable character of the Nile-long flats and long rapids. Here it is that another great feeder from the Nyanza Lake, the Assua river, joins it on the eastern side. On the other side a long flat extends far into the country, as far, Capt. Speke believes, as the little Luta Nzigi lake. With the rest of the Nile we ought to be well acquainted; but little is really known about it, owing to the fact of no one having yet taken the trouble to place nilometers at proper spots. Proceeding onwards, the next great affluent is the Babr-el-Ghazal, which joins the Nile with hardly any visible stream, having more the appearance of a lake than of a river. The second is the Geraffee river, which may be said to be only onethird of the Nile in size at its point of junction. Its source has yet to be discovered. Its character suggests the possibility of its coming from Lake Nyanza. The third affluent is the Southern Sobat river, also full and navigable. The Northern Sobat they passed without knowing it.

Capt. Speke then went on to describe some other tributaries of the Nile, concluding by giving an account of his meeting with Mr. Baker at Khartoum, who had nobly come up the Nile to meet him, with no less than three ladies. Mr. Baker and his party intended following out the stream supposed to lead to the little Luta Nzigi Lake to its source. They would be pleased to hear that Mr. Petherick was in perfect health and excellent spirits, and trading energetically when last he heard of him.

Sir Roderick I. Murchison then called on Capt. Grant to say a few


words. He met with a similar round of cheering to that given to his companion. He said that nothing could give him greater pleasure than to bear witness before the eyes of the world to the energy

of his old friend, Capt. Speke, during the whole expedition. Not one man in ten thousand who attempted such a journey would have come home victorious, and he felt proud at having had the honor and the privilege of serving under such a chief. They had collected specimens of natural history, and had made many sketches. They were neither of them artists, so the sketches must not be judged too critically. He would, however, vouch for their accuracy.

At the suggestion of the President:

Capt. Speke again addressed the meeting, giving a long and interesting account of the people of the countries through which he passed, and detailing the reception he met with from various kings and chiefs. The people of this part of the country are most intellectual, but have a great distrust of the white man, owing to the enormities committed by the slave traders. The difficulties of traveling through these countries are almost insuperable from numberless

The native kings are continually at war with each other, which causes wholesale desertion among the men forming the expeditions. The natives, however, with whom he had amicable relations, were most friendly and honest, not only helping him themselves with presents, but sending men with him into other friendly nations as safeguards. He considers that the race is the same as the Abyssinians, with a strong admixture of the Hindoo. They are mostly tall, well made men, with straight noses and curly hair. They have no religion, and do not believe in a soul. The people of Karagwe he praises most highly. The king and princes are in every respect worthy of the epithet" gentlemen.”

After the conclusion of his address, Sir Roderick I. Murchison presented Capt. Speke with the gold medal sent to him by the King of Italy. The medal for Capt. Grant was on its way, and had not yet arrived.

Sir Roderick then called on the meeting to give three cheers for the heroes of the evening, which was responded to by at least a dozen ringing rounds.

The meeting did not break up until nearly twelve o'clock, every one being anxious to shake hands with the travelers and their black companions.

(From the London Times, June 24.]

Captain Speke on the Source of the Nile. The members of the Royal Institution held a special meeting last night, to hear a lecture delivered by Capt. Speke on the discovery of the source of the Nile. The lecturer was honored by the presence of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who was attended by General Knollys, Sir Roderick I. Murchison, and a numerous suit.

The Prince was accompanied by the Comte de Paris, and several other members of the late royal family of France.

Before commencing his lecture, Capt. Speke introduced to the audience the two little black boys, who were so lionized at the Geographical Society the night before. It was mainly through the unwearying energy of the fathers of these boys that Capt. Speke was enabled to traverse the country between Zanzibar and Gondokoro. He mentioned that the little fellows were brought to this country to receive an English education, by Capt. Rigby, the British Consul at Zanzibar, through whose instrumentality so much bad been done to abolish the slave trade in those regions. He also desired publicly to thank Sir Roderick I. Murchison and the Fellows of the Geographical Society for the assistance they had afforded him in proving the correctness of the conclusion at which he had arrived in 1858, that Lake Victoria Nyanza was the source of some great river, and that that river was the Nile.

Time would not permit him to describe the whole of the incidents of this journey from Zanzibar to Egypt, which occupied two years and a half, and extended over a distance of more than 3,000 miles. He chose rather to give some account of the Wahuma, and some of the other tribes in habiting the shores of Lake Nyanza. Judging from the physical characteristics of these tribes, he considered them to be descended from the ancient Abyssinians. This idea was in a great measure confirmed by the traditions of the people, who, when questioned about their origin, always replied that they came from the north. The Abyssinians sprang from the union between the children of Shem and Ham, the negro blood being modified and toned down by the Shemitio admixture. Captain Speke then went on to describe how the aboriginal inhabitants of Abyssinia, who were essentially an agricultural people, had been conquered and enslaved by nomad races, who lived on the produce of their flocks and herds. These ancient Abyssinians came down by degrees from the north, carrying all before them, and founding the great kingdom of Kittara, which was now split up into several minor kingdoms through continual internal wars. A singular tradition of the double origin of these people was repeated to him by one of the chiefs, who gravely told him that at one time the inhabitants of Kittara were half black and half white, one side of their heads having curly hair, the other straight. The largest portion of Kittary consists of the kingdom Unyoro. Capt. Speke gave a long and interesting account of the history of this people, tracing their kings down to the present monarch. On the most fertile part of the shores of Lake Nyanza is the kingdom of Uganda, which is the most interesting of all the nations of equatorial Africa, being better cultivated and better governed than any other. The customs of Uganda are many of them most irregular. The princes having large harems of women, their progeny is, of course, most numerous. When a king dies all his sons are burned except his successor and two others, who are kept in

tions under peculiarly favorable circumstances, owing to the fact that their agencies on the West Coast of Africa are already organized, and competent acclimatized persons, native merchants and others at Abbeokuta, Elmina, Lagos, Cape Palmas, and on the Niger river, are ready to act in behalf of the company, the moment it commences business."

Its agency at Cape Palmas connects this company with Liberia; and thence its field of operations, as at present arranged, stretches eastward, about a thousand miles, to the Bight of Benin, and thence some hundreds of miles up the Niger.

We have also the prospectus of the London and West African Bank. Its capital is to be £500,000, in shares of £100 each. It is to have a chief office in London, and branches at the British settlements at Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, and Lagos. It may commence business when about $75,000 is paid in, to be increased with the increase of business to $125,000; the stockholders, however, being liable to the full amount of their subscriptions. The directors have satisfied themselves that the business between London and that coast is large enough to make such investments profitable, and will rapidly increase. The branches of this bank are all in British settlements; but Liberians, if they should need accommodation from it, can easily obtain it from the branch at Sierra Leone. Probably it will not be needed.

The London and Liberian Banking and Commercial Institution will be able to furnish all the facilities of that kind, which the business of the Republic can require. We have not its prospectus; but we understood some months ago, that capital to a large amount more than a million of dollars, as we recollect, was already secured. We learn from the message of President Benson, that it would ask for an act of incorporation by the Legislature of of Liberia at its late session ; that it would offer ready employment to great numbers of emigrants, would facilitate agricultural as well as commercial operations, and the President expected, would give a great impetus to every branch of industry, and promote the rapid development of the resources of the country. The plans had been laid in London, in consultation with him and ex-President Roberts, who will be connected with the management of its interests in Liberia. The President recommended that an act of incorporation be granted; but we have yet no complete list of the acts passed at that session.

When these companies are in operation, the industry and commerce of Liberia will no longer be restricted by the want of capital. The difficulty will be in the foreign ownership of so much of the capital, and in the want of a more numerous civilized population to take advantage of it. That these arragements will carry so much of the productions of Liberia to England, can scarcely be regarded as a disadvantage, as England is their best market, except for the

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