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surface, and we rejoice that the present work has been undertaken by so accomplished a philologist and geographer.
Finally, large maps of Africa are in progress of publication, the one by Dr. Petermann, in his comprehensive Mittheilungen,' and the other by Mr. Ravenstein, in England."*
Of the labors of the Geographical Society towards Africa, Lord Ashburton says:
"Africa has engrossed a large share of the attention of the Royal Geographical Society. From the time that the Society's first medal was awarded to Richard Lander, thirty-one years since, for solving the great problem of the course of the Niger, to the present moment, when we are looking for the consummation of its endeavors to elucidate that other ancient enigma, the true sources of the Nile, the Society has been more or less occupied with obtaining information of the physical and moral condition of this great continent and its people.
"At the first period above named, our maps of Africa exhibited its interior as nearly one universal blank, or with only the vague surmises of crude speculation. Now the geography of inner Africa presents a very different aspect. The pages of our transactions are an index to the progress of discovery, which has been gradually displacing the imaginary arid desert by the well watered and fertile country, or the supposed tenantless solitude with busy and populous tribes.
"It is needless to advert to the early travels of Dr. Livingstone across the continent. The relation of the Geographical Society to that great traveler, and the wonderful successes due to his indomitable courage and untiring energy, must ever be a subject of congratulation.
"The Society has for many years most zealously advanced those attempts to resolve the great geographical problem of the true sources of the White Nile; and all are now looking with great interest for tidings of the expedition under our medallist Captain Speke and his companion Captain Grant, in the confi dent hope that the experience its leader gained when associated with Captain Burton in the Somali country, and in the journeys they had to the great African lakes, will enable him to complete successfully what was then commenced, and definitely set at rest that question of so many ages' standing. It is needless now to speculate as to any connection there may or may not be between
*Since the Anniversary Meeting, intelligence has been received of Dr. Livingstone's navigation of the west coast of the Nyassa (in an open boat) up to lat. 11° 20′; during the whole of which distance (200 miles) its width appeared never to exceed sixty miles; no large river was seen to flow into it, and no certain account was obtainable of its northern termination. It lay between highlands; its waters were of great depth, and continually and dangerously stormy. The same mail informed us of the deaths, from fever, of Bishop Mackenzie, and of another important member of the University Mission.
the head waters of the Nile and the Victoria Nyanza, which he visited in July, 1858, as this will all be determined, it is believed, when we hear of the traveler's further progress. This topic is elsewhere adverted to, as is the expedition of Mr. Petherick, who also travels under the auspices of the Society to the aid of Captains Speke and Grant. We look hopefully that before the next session we may welcome these gallent men on their successful return.
"A brief account has been received from our associate, Mr. Thornton, of an expedition to the great volcano Kilimanjaro, which has been thought to have some connection with the physical geography of the Nile basin. Mr. Thornton was at first connected as geologist to Dr. Livingstone's expedition, but afterwards joined the Baron von der Decken, a Hanoverian gentleman, to the mountain. This journey is of great importance; for while it fully confirms the accounts of the German missionaries given in our former proceedings, it has the great additional claim of accurate survey and geological observation. Being an isolated volcanic cone, Kilimanjaro does not form part of that great eastern meridional axis which was so well argued upon by Sir Roderick Murchison in former years, and which has been reasoned on by some as the Mountains of the Moon of ancient geographers. The Baron von der Decken and his associate did not reach this great division between the Eastern and Western waters, and therefore the Nile question, probably, is not affected by the result of their journey.
"Dr. Livingstone's proceedings are noticed in another part of this address; a brief allusion to them here will therefore suffice. His visit to the Victoria Falls of the Great river Zambesi, and his further observations on this important river are of great interest. Connected also with his operations is the exploration of the river Shire and the great Lake Shirwa. The more exact knowledge thus placed before us, instead of the imperfect accounts given by the Portuguese of former years, are of great importance in the future conduct of commercial or other relations with these regions. In the progress of this expedition an important part has been taken by our associate, Mr. Baines, well know as the artist of the North Australian Expedition, and also in Kaffraria. Mr. Charles Livingstone, Dr. Kirk, the botanist of the expedition, and Mr. May, our associate, have well seconded their leader in examining and reporting on the country. The examination of the Rovuma river, although not deciding whether it is the outlet of one of the chain of the East African lakes, is of much importance.
"The geography of Eastern Africa has thus assumed an entirely new aspect within a very brief period. The exact knowledge we now possess contrasts in every way with the chaos of opinion and imperfect observation which before these expeditions were organized were our only guides. Although much may be required before we can have a perfect and accurate geographical picture of Eastern or Central Africa, yet the data thus laid down will be the foundation of that which will be subsequently acquired. The representations
we now have demonstrate how imperatively necessary it is that astronomical observation should be connected with the necessarily vague estimates of a traveler over an unknown country.
"On the shores of Western tropical Africa, our indefatigable associate and medallist, Captain Burton, is active in the acquisition of information concerning the country where he represents Her Majesty's Government. The accounts of his visits to various places in the Bights of Benin and Benfia will be read with much interest, and there is no doubt but that his varied talent and extensive knowledge will accumulate much valuable information on these countries. He ascended and surveyed the Ogun or Abbeokuta river, in company with Captain Bedingfield, our associate, who is well known to us in connection with his examinations of the Congo, and as one of Dr. Livingstone's expedition.
"Dr. Baikie, R. N., our associate, who has been long on the Niger and Tchadda rivers, and has been endeavoring to establish a commanding position for England in Central Africa, has written hopefully of his prospects, should his expedition be retained. Intelligence has just arrived that the Sunbeam has ascended the river for 600 miles.
"Another communication records the proceedings of Commander Dolben, F. R. G. S., during his ascent of the river Volta for 120 miles for the first time by white men.
"With the increasing importance of the commerce of the Gold Coast and Western Africa generally, these narratives acquire great additional interest, and inspire the hope that a more intimate acquantance with the physical condition of these countries will lead to a beneficial intercourse with the people who have so long been debased by the slave traffic."
[From the Spirit of Missions of December, 1862.]
From the discourse of the Rev. A. N. LITTLEJOHN, D. D., preached in the Church of the Ascension, N. Y., October 2, 1862, we find the following passage in reference to Africa:
"Look now to Africa, and behold here and there the scattered rays which pledge the coming day. The bands which have held that vast continent are beginning to dissolve. The spirit of life stirs and pulsates in thick darkness. On all sides the barriers to our advance are giving away. Egypt through her ruler, invites the heralds of the faith to enter in, plant, and reap. Abyssinia, still the home of an erring and benighted, but scarcely more heretical church than those of the Tridentine Communion, has thrown herself open to us by the sea, and no longer violently resists all efforts at Christian enlightment and reform. A way, moreover, has at length been discovered and explored over which the Church may travel with her divine treasures to the heart of the continent. The Anglican University Mission, under Bishop Mackenzie, (now, alas! no more,)
ascending from the English possessions, has penetrated to the outer limit of what is known as Southern Africa; while the western coast is dotted with stations of various grades of efficiency, from the river Senegal to the Cape of Good Hope; and the north has been thrown open by the French occupation of Algiers. So that the day is at last come which assures an early Christian future to what has been accounted the darkest, most abandoned and inaccessible portion of the globe.
REPORT FROM THE AFRICAN MISSION
To the Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, assembled Oct., 1862.
It is cause of thanksgiving to the ever-living Head of the Church that, because He lives, the African Mission lives also. The American civil war has been made the occasion of reducing contributions e-half; stations have been reduced to the lowest point of material existence, and judged by its manifestations, the love of Episcopal Christians has flowed coldly and languidly out towards a world for which Christ died. But we were destitute of the marks of true discipleship, if this "trial of faith" did not yield some precious fruits. Through grace the African Missionaries and Churches have been thus led to contribute more liberally, to labor more earnestly, and to attempt (since "the word of God is not bound") to spread more and more widely the glad tidings.
There is something of the very image of the faith of God in that practice of Roman Catholic Missionaries, when landing in new countries, they take formal possession of them by erecting the bol of Christianity. Only they would possess for the Pope, while Christ's true disciples will labor to recover and occupy for Him.
In this latter spirit, it is hoped, that at our Eastern Convocation, we divided our whole Mission field into five Missionary Districts, namely: Monrovia, Bassa, and Sinoe, Cape Palmas, Čavalla, and Bohlen ; each being pledged to preach the Gospel, as far as possible, over the extensive field assigned to it.
According to this arrangement, I beg leave to report:
1. THE MONROVIA DISTRICT.
This embraces Mesurado county, extending some sixty miles coastwise, and as far as practicable in the interior. In this district are canonically resident four clergymen, namely: Rev. G. W. Gibson, E. W. Stokes, A. F. Russell, and A. Crummell. The last named is absent at present, but is expected to return shortly, and take a professorship in Liberia College.
There are now also four church buildings, namely: Trinity and St. Paul's, Monrovia; Grace, Clay-Ashland; and St. Peter's in Lower Caldwell. St. Paul's is a wooden building now going to decay, built by Rev. E. W. Stokes, with funds collected chiefly in England.
has been kindly loaned to the congregation of Trinity Church, while the latter has been in course of erection. This latter fine edifice is now occupied, we are glad to learn, and will be ready for consecration on my next visitation.
ST. PETER'S.-A small chapel was erected chiefly by the contributions of the congregation of Trinity Church, Monrovia. It was consecrated on Sunday, March 2. I was assisted in the services by the Rev. Messrs. Stokes, Russell, and Gibson.
I made a visitation to this county in February and March last; preaching two Sundays in St. Paul's, Monrovia, and one in St. Peter's, Caldwell. Grace Church was too much out of repair to be occupied. I was glad to hear that the congregation were endeavoring to fix it up again for worship.
On this occasion I ascended St. Paul's river to the Rapids. Here I found a very interesting station, called Muhlenberg, under the auspices of the American Lutherans. Their only pursuits were recaptured Africans. This class of persons have been introduced in such numbers in the past two years, as to transform Mesurado county especially into a proper Mission field. Rev. A. F. Russell reports 1,200 in his district alone. More, he says, attend services than can find room in the church and houses occupied for worship.
During my visitation I confirmed on Sunday, February 23d, in St. Paul's Church, three persons; and in St. Peter's on Sunday, March 2d, eight persons.
As an illustration of the disposition to help themselves in these times of distress, I would state that, while the Church at Monrovia has given over $300 to erect the Chapel in Caldwell, they have contributed, or otherwise raised, several hundred dollars to fit up Trinity Church for worship.
TRINITY CHURCH, MONROVIA.-Baptisms: Infant, 2. Confirmations: Trinity and St. Peter's, 8. Communicants, 37; Day scholars, 45; Sunday-school scholars, 60: Total 105.
ST. PAUL'S.-Baptisms: Infant, 2. Confirmations, 3; Communicants, 2.
CLAY-ASHLAND AND ST. PETER'S.-Communicants, 42; Day and Sunday-school scholars, about 50.
The day schools taught by Mrs. De Courcey at Clay-Ashland, and Miss G. Williams at Monrovia, was suspended at the close of last year, by the marriage of the latter and removal of the former.
The school at Monrovia, however, has been reopened under Mr. White, candidate for orders.
2. THE BASSA AND SINOE DISTRICT.
This embraces the counties of Bassa and Sinoe. Its coast-line is upwards of one hundred miles, while to the north populous regionsyet a moral waste-invite the missionary.
Yet the only minister of our Church now within this wide field is