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wind, by a compound course, inclined to the place of her destina tion. This method of navigation is otherwise called plying.

VAN, the foremost division of any naval armament, or that part wich usually leads the way to battle; or advances first in the order of sailing.

VANE, a thin slip of bunting bung to the mast head, or some other conspicuous place in the ship, to show the direction of the wind.

VEERING, the operation by which a ship, in changing her course from one board to the other, turns her stern to windward. Hence it is used in opposition to tacking, wherein the bead is turned to the wind, and the stern to leeward.

UNBENDING, generally implies the act of taking off the sails from their yards and stays; of casting loose the anchors from their cables, or of untying one rope from another.

To UN MOOR, is to reduce a ship to the state of riding by a single anchor and cable, after she has been moored or fastened by two or more cables.

UPPER DECK, the highest of those decks which are continued throughout the whole of a ship of war, or merchantman, without any interruption of steps or irregular ascents.

UPPER WORK, a general name given to all that part of a ship which is above the surface of the water, when she is properly balanced for a sea voyage; hence it may be considered as separated from the bottom by the main walc.

WAD, a quantity of old rope yarns, hay, &c. rolled firmly together into the form of a ball, and used to confine the shot or shell, together with its charge of powder, in the breech of a piece of artillery.

WAIST, that part of a ship which is contained between the quarter deck and forecastle, being usually a hallow space, with an ascent of several steps to either of those places.

WAKE, the print or track impressed by the course of a ship on the surface of the water. It is formed by the re-union of the body of the water, which was separated by the ship's bottom whilst moving through it; and may be seen to a considerable distance behind the stern, as smoother than the rest of the sea.

A ship is said to be in the wake of another, when she follows her on the same track, or on a line supposed to be formed on the continuation of her keel.

WARP, a small rope employed occasionally, to remove a ship from one place to another, in a port, road, or river. And hence

To WARP, is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling her from one part of a harbour, &c. to some other, by means of warps, which are attached to buoys; to anchors sunk in the bottom; or to certain stations upon the shore, as posts, rings, trees, &c. The ship is accordingly drawn forwards to those stations, either by pulling on the warps by hand, or by the application of some purchase, as a tackle, windlass, or capstern upon her deck.

WATCH, the space of time wherein one division of a ship's crew remains upon deck, to perforin the necessary services, whilst the rest are relieved from duty, either when the vessel is under sail or at anchor.

The length of the sea watch is not equal in the shipping of different nations. It is always kept four hours by our British seamen, if we except the dog watch between four and eight in the evening, that contains two reliefs, each of which are only two hours on deck. The intent of this is to change the period of the night watch every twenty-four hours; so that the party watching from eight to twelve in one night, shall wateh from midnight till four in the morning on the succeeding one. In France the duration of the watch is extremely different, being in some places six hours, and in others seven or eight; and in Turkey and Barbary, it is usually five or six hours.

A ship's company is usually classed into two parties; one of which is called the starboard and the other the larboard watch. It is however occasionally separated into three divisions, as in a road, or in particular voyages.

In a ship of war the watch is generally commanded by a lieutenant, and in merchant ships, by one of the mates; so that if there are four mates in the latter, there are two in each watch; the first and third being in the larboard, and the second and fourth in the starboard watch; but in the navy, the officers who

cominand the watch, usually divide themselves into three parts, in order to lighten their duty. .

WATCH GLASSES, a name given to the glasses employed to measure the period of the watch, or to divide it into any number of equal parts, as hours, half hours, &c. so that the several -stations therein may be regularly kept and relieved; as at the helm, pump, look out, &c.

To set the WATCH, is to appoint oné division of the crew to enter upon the duty of the watch; as 'at eight o'clock in the evening. Hence it is equivalent to mounting the guard in the army.

WATER LOGGED, the state of a ship when, by receiving a great quantity of water into her hold, by leaking, &c.she has become heavy and inactive upon the sea, so as to yield without resistance to the efforts of every wave rushing over her decks. · As, in this dangerous situation, the centre of gravity is no longer fixed, but stuctuating from place to place, the stability of the ship is utterly lost; she is therefore almost totally lost deprived of the use of her sails, which would operate to overset her, or press the bead under water. Hence there'is no resource for the crew, except to free her by the pumps, or to abandon her by the boats as soon as possible.

WAY of a ship, the course or progress which sbe makes on the water under sail. Thus, when she begins her motion, she is said to be under way; and when that motion increases, she is said to have fresh way through the water. Hence also she is said to have fresh way through the water. Hence also she is said to have head way or stern way.

TO WEATHER, is to sail to windward of some ship, bank, or head land.

WEATHER SHORE, a name given by seamen to the shore lying to the windward.

To WEIGH, denotes in general, to heave up the anchor of a ship from the ground, in order to prepare her for sailing.

WELL, an apartment formed in the middle of a ship's hold to inclose the pumps, from the bottom to the lower deck. It is used as a barrier to preserve those machines from being damaged by the friction or compression of those materials contained in the bold,

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and particularly to prevent the entrance of ballast, &c. by which the tubes would presently be choaked, and the pumps rendered incapable of service. By means of this inclosure, the artificers may. likewise more readily descend into the hold, in order to examine the state of the pumps, and repair them as occasion requires.

WINCH, a cylindrical piece of timber, furnished with an axis, whose extremities rest in two channels, placed horizontally or perpendicularly. It is turned about by means of a handle resembling that of a draw well, griudstone, &c. and is generally employed as a purchase, by which a rope may be more conveniently or more powerfully applied to any object, .than when used singly, or without the assistance of mechanical powers.

WIND, a stream or current of air, which may be felt; and usually blows from one part of the horizon on its part.

The horizon, besides being divided into three hundred and sixty degrees, like all other circles, is by mariners, supposed to be divided into four quadrants, called the north-east,s north-west, south-east, and south-west quarters. Each of these quarters they divide into eight cqual parts, called points, and each point into four equal parts, called quarter-points. So that the horizon is divided into thirty-two points, which are called rhumbs or winds; to each wind is assigned a name, which shows from what point of the horizon the wind blows. The points of north, south, east, and west, are called cardinal points; and are at the distance of ninety degrees, or eight points from one another.

To WINDWARD, towards that part of the horizon from whence the wind bloweth. WINDLASS, a machine used in merchant ships to heave

up anchors from the bottom, &c.

WINDSAIL, a sort of wide tube or funnel of canvas, em. ployed to convey a stream of fresh air downward into the lower apartments of a ship.

To WORK, to direct the movements of a ship, by adapting the sails to the force and direction of the wind.

A ship is also said to work, when she strains and labours heavily in a tempestuous sea, so as to loosen her joints or tim. bers.

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WORKING to windward, the operation by which a ship endeavours to make a progress against the wind.

WORMING, the act of winding a rope spirally about a cable, so as to lie close along the interval between every two strands. It is generally designed to support and strengthen the cable, that it may be enabled to sustain a greater effort when the ship rides at anchor; and also to preserve the surface of the cable, where it lies flat on the ground, near the station of the anchor, particularly in moderate weather.

YACHT, a vessel of state, usually employed to convey princes, ambassadors, or other great personages, from one kingdom to another.

YARD, a long piece of timber suspended upon the masts of a ship, to extend the sails to the wind.

YAW, a name given by seamen to the movement by which a ship deviates from the live of her course towards the right or left in steering

YAWL, a wberry or small ship's boat, usually roved by four or six oars.

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