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four fathom and three quarters, he calls “ a quarter less five!” .and so on.

The deep sea lead is marked with two knots at twenty fathom, three at thirty, four at forty, and so on to the end. It is also marked with a single knot in the middle of each interval, as at twenty-five, thirty-five, forty-five fathoms, &c. To use this lead more effectually at sea, or in deep water on the sea coast, it is usual previously to bring to the sbip, in order to retard her course; the lead is then thrown as far as possible from the ship on the line of her drift, so that, as it sioks, the ship drives more perpendicularly of it. The pilot, feeling the lead strike the bottom,' readily discovers the depth of the water by the mark on the line nearest its surface. The bottom of the lead being also well rubbed over with tallow, retains the distinguishing marks of the bottom, as shells, ooze, gravel, &c. which naturally adhere to it.

The depth of the water, and the nature of the ground, which is called the soundings, are carefully marked in the log book, well to determine the distance of the place from the shore, as to correct the observations of former pilcts.

To SP LICE, to join the two ends of a rope together, or to unite the end of a rope to any other part thereof.. i SPLIT, the state of a sail which is rent asunder by the vió. lence of a tempest, or by sustaining a greater effort on one part of its surface than the rest. : SPRING, a crack or breech running transversely or obliquely through any part of a mast or yard, so as to render it unsafe to carry the usual quantity of sale thereon. ;:'>

SPRING, is also a rope passed out of one extremity of a ship, and attached to a cable preceding from the other, when she lies at anchor. - It is usually performed to bring the ship’s broadside, or battery of cannon, to bear upon some distant object; as ano ther ship, or a fortress on the coast, &c.

SPUN YARN, a small line or 'cord formed of two or three rope yatns twisted together by a winch. The yarns, of which it is usually made at sea, are drawn out of the strands of old cables or other ropes, and are knotted together and tarred. It is employed for several purposes; particularly to fasten one rope to

VOL. VIII.

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another, to seize block strops to the shrouds, and to serve ropes which are liable to be chafed by rubbing one against another, &c.

SQUALL, a sudden and violent blast of wind, usually occasioned by the interruption and reverberation of the wind from high ·mountains. These are very frequent in the Mediterranean; par'ticularly that part of it whicli is known by the name of the Leyant, as produced by the repulsion, and new direction which the wind meets with in its passage between the various islands of the Archipelago.

SQUARE-RIGGED, an epithet applied to a ship whose yards are very long. It is also used in contradistinction to all vessels whose sails are extended by stays or lateen yards; or by boots and gaffs ; the usual situation of which is nearly in the plane of the keel.

STARBOARD, the right side of the ship when the eye of the spectator is directed forward.

STAY, a large strong rope employed to support the mast on the fore part, by extending from its upper end towards the fore part of the ship, as the shrouds are extended to the right and left, and behind it.

STEERAGE, an apartment without the great cabin of a ship, from which it is separated by a thin partition. In large ships of war it is used as a hall through which it is necessary to pass, to arrive at, or depart from, the great cabin. In merchant ships it is generally the habitation of the inferior officers and ship's crew.

STEM, a circular piece of timber, into which the two sides of a ship are united at the fore end : the lower end of it is scarfed to the keel, and the bowsprit rests upon its upper end.

STERN, the posterior face of a ship; or that part which is presented to the view of a speetator, placed on the continuation of the keel behind.

STERNMOST, usually implies that part of a feet of skips which is in the rear, or furthest astern, as opposed to head most.

STEWARD, an officer in a ship, of war, appointed by the purser, to distribute the different species of provisions to the

officers and crew; for which purpose he is furnished with a mate and proper assistants.

STORE ROOM, an apartment or place of reserve, of which there are several in a ship, to contain the provisions, or stores of a ship, together with those of her officers, during a sea voyage.

STOWAGE, the general disposition of the several materials contained in a ship's hold, with regard to their figure, magnitude, or solidity.

STRETCHING, in navigation, is generally understood to imply the progression of a ship under a great surface of sail, when close hauled. The difference between this phrase and standing, is apparently in the quantity of sail, which, in the latter, pay be very moderate, but in stretching, generally signifies excess : as, we saw the enemy at day-break stretching to the southward, under a crowd of sail, &c.

To STRIKE, in navigation, to run asbore, or to beat upon the ground in passing over a bank or shallow.

To Strike also implies to lower or let down any thing; as an ensign, or top sail, in saluting; or, as the yards and topmasts in tempestuous weather. It is, however, more particularly used to express the lowering of the colours, in token of surrender, to # victorious enemy.

STUDDING SAILS, certain ligbt sails extended, in mode rate and steady breezes, beyond the skirts of the principal sails, where they appear as wings upon the yard arms.

SUPERCARGO, an officer charged with the accounts of the cargu, an all other commercial affairs in a merchant ship.

SWELL, generally denotes an heavy and continued agitation of the waves, according to a particular direction; as there is a great swell setting into the bay. It is, however, more particularly applied to the fluctuating motion of the sea, which remains after the expiration of a storm: as also, to that which breaks on the sea shore; or upon rocks, or shallows.

1 TO SWING, to turn round the anchors, or moorings, at the change of the wind or tide; it is usually expressed of a ship, either when she is moored by the head, or riding at a single anchor.

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TACK, a rope used to confine the foremost lower corners of the courses and stay sails in a fixed position, when the wind crosses the ship’s course obliquely. The same name is also given to the rope employed to pull out the lower corner of a studding sail or driver to the extremity of its boom.

Tack is also applied, by analogy, to that part of any sail to which the tack is usually fastened.

A ship is said to be on the starboard or larboard tack, when she is close hauled, with the wind upon the starboard or larboard side ; and in this sense the distance which she sails in that position is considered as the length of the tack; although this is more frequently called a board.

To TACK, to change the course from one board to another, or turn the ship about from the starboard to the larboard tack, in a contrary wind. Tacking is also used, in a more enlarged sense, to imply that maneuvre, in navigation, by which a ship makes an oblique progression to the windward, in a zigzag direction. This, however, is more usually called beating or turning to windward,

TACKLE, pronounced taicle, a machine formed by the communication of a rope, with an assemblage of blocks, and known in mechanics by the name of pulley.

TENDER, a small vessel employed in the king's service, on various occasions; as, to receive volunteers and impressed men, and convey them to a distant place; to attend on ships of war or squadrons; and to carry intelligence and orders from one place to another, &c.

TIMBERS, the ribs of a ship, or the incurvated pieces of wood, branching outward from the keel in a vertical direction, so as to give strength; figure, and solidity, to the whole fabric. -UTOP, a sort of platform, surrounding the lower mast head, from which it projects on all sides like a scaffold.

-1 TORNADO, a violent squall or gust of wind rising suddenly from the shore, and afterwards veering round the compass like a hurricane. These are very frequent on the coasts of Guinea and South Barbary.

To TOW, to draw a ship forward in the water, by means of a rope attached to another vessel or boat, which advances by means

of a rope attached to another vessel or boat, which advances by the effort of rowing or sailing.

Towing is either practised when a ship is disabled, and rendered incapable of carrying sail at sea; or when her sails are not fixed upon the masts, as in a harbour; or when they are deprived of their force of action by a cessation of the wind.

When a ship of war is dimasted, or otherwise disabled from carrying sail at sea, she is usually towed by a cable, reaching from her bow to another ship a head. In a barbour, towing is practised by one or more boats, wherein all the force of the oars are exerted to make her advance.

TRADE WINDS, certain regular winds blowing within or near the tropics,' and being either periodical or perpetual. Thus, in the Indian ocean, they blow alternately from different points of the compass, during a limited season; and, in the Atlantic ocean, continue alınost without intermission in the same direction. They are accordingly called trade winds, from their great utility in navigation and commerce.

TRIM, implies, in general, the state or disposition by which a ship is best calculated for the several purposes of navigation.

Thus the trim of the hold denotes the most convenient and proper arrangement of the various materials contained therein, relatively to the ship's motion or stability at sea. The trim of the masts and sails is also their most apposite situation, with regard to the construction of the ship, and the effort of the wind upon her sail.

Speaking TRUMPET, a trumpet of brass or tin used at sea, to propagate the voice to a great distance, or to convey the orders from one part of the ship to another, in tempestuous weather, &c. when they cannot otherwise be distinctly heard by the persons to whom they are directed. : TRYING, the situation in which a ship lies nearly in the trough or ballow of the sea in a tempest, particularly when it blows con. trary to her course.

TURNING to windward, that operation in sailing wherein a ship endeavours to make a progress against the direction of the

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