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one day destroyed his power; and for his banishment to St. Helena, and the second return of the Bourbons.
Parliainent was convened in November, 1814. On the 14th of that month, Sir George Warrender, one of the lords of the Admiralty, said, that as the war was still unfortunately carrying on with America, it was necessary that a certain number of ships and seamen should be still kept iu employ; he begged leave, however, to state, that the expenses would relate solely to the fleet afloat. He, moved therefore that seventy thousand men should be voted for the service of the year 1815, including fifteen thousand marines; and also that one million six hundred and fifteen thousand two hundred and fifty pounds should be granted for the said seventy thousand men, at the rate of one pound fifteen shillings per month, for thirteen months.
Considerable discussions took place during this session of Parliament on the conduct of the war against America ; on the injustice and impolicy of the attack on Washington; and on the disasters on the Lakes of Canada,
Though peace was concluded in the month of December, 1814, between America and Britain, yet before it could be known, an attack was made on New Orleans; as this was a military enterprize, we shall merely state that it was unfortunate; General Pakenham, the commander-in-chief, being killed; and Generals Kean and Gibbs being wounded, the latter mortally. The total loss was about two thousand killed, wounded, and prisoners; and the army was obliged to re-embark.
The naval contest between the two countries was closed by a triumph over one of the most formidable of the American commanders, who, however, incurred no loss of honour on the occasion.
A British squadron, consisting of a man-of-war and three frigates, stationed off the coast of New York, in
order to prevent the United States ship President, Commodore Decatur, and other vessels, at Staten Island from putting to sea, descried on the 15th of January the President attempting to get out, and commenced a general chase. After a run of several hours the Endymion frigate, Captain Porter, came up with the President, and an action ensued, which was maintained for upwards of two hours and a half, with great vigour on both sides. The sails of the Endymion being cut from the yards by the shut of the enemy, the President got ahead : at this time another of the British squadron came up with herthe Pomone, which fired a few shots, when Commodore Decatur hailed, to say that he had surrendered. The loss of men was considerable on both sides; but much the greatest on board the American frigate. This ship was of an immense size, much more like a line-of-battle ship than a frigate, and had on board about four hundred and ninety men.
The Naval History of Great Britain during the year 1816.-Expedi
tion against Algiers.--Concluding Remarks.
AFTen Britain, by her perseverance and by the bravery and success of her army and navy, had succeeded in destroying the revolutionary power of France, and in restoring the peace and independence of Europe, it was to be hoped that she would have had, at least for a considerable lapse of time, no cause for again appealing to arms. The contrary, however, was the case : her navy indeed was reduced to the peace establishment, and every thing bore the appearance of confirmed and permanent tranquillity, when a foe sprung up in a quarter where it was least expected.
It had long been deened an indelible disgrace to Europe that she permitted the piratical states of Barbary to plunder her ships and carry captive her inhabitants; nay more, that she not only submitted to these things, but also frequently sent presents to these piratical states. Of course such of the European powers as had no navy, or a navy consisting only of a very few ships, could not be expected to do much against the Barbary powers; but the maritime powers, Britain, France, Holland, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, and Russia, it might have been supposed and expected would have exerted themselves at least to protect their trade and their subjects from these states. It may indeed be said with respect to Britain, that the Barbary powers never molested her: this is true, since Britain possessed Gibraltar; but even since this event she had sent them presents, and thus demeaned and disgraced herself, when there was no necessity for it.
At last Britain was roused to vindicate herself, and avenge the cause of civilized Europe against one of the most formidable of these Barbarous states, and thus it is hoped has put an end to the piratical practices of all of them; but before we give an account of the navąl expedition to Algiers, it may be proper to premise some account of this place, and of the expeditions which have at various times been sent against it.
The bay of Algiers is eight leagues wide between Cape Coxine, on the west, and Cape Matifore, on the east; off the latter is a ledge of rocks and several islets. The bay has good anchorage throughout in twenty to thirty fathoms, and receives the river Haretch. The city of Algiers is on a cove on the west side of the bay: it contains fifteen thousand houses, and about one hundred thousand inhabitants, and is built like an amphitheatre, on the side of a bill : it has a port formed by a pier five hundred paces long, which joins a small island to the main; it is very strongly fortified.
After Charles V. had succeeded in an expedition against Tunis he resolved to attack Algiers, in which he was by no means equally successful.
" When Hayradin, by his vigorous and judicious exertions, had so much increased the strength of Algiers, the Sultan Solyman, either from gratitude or jealousy, raised him to the dignity of a bashaw of the empire, and appointed Hassan Aga, a Sardinian renegado, a bold and experienced officer, to succeed him in the viceroyalty of Algiers. Hassan immediately began to ravage the coast of Spain with great fury; extending his depredations likewise to the ecclesiastical state, and other parts of Italy. His cruel piracies roused the resentment of Pope Paul III. and of the Emperor Charles V., who concerted an enterprise against this infidel robber. A bull was published by his holiness, promising plenary absolution of sins, and the crown of martyrdom to all who should
perish in battle on the coasts of Barbary, or be made slaves; and the emperor sailed with a fleet consisting of one hundred and twenty ships, and twenty galleys, having on board an army of thirty thousand men, with an inmense quantity of money, provisions, animiinition, and arms. Many of the Spanish and Italian mobility accompanied their monarch in this expedition, eager to share in the glory which they were confident he was to acquire ; A hundred knights of Malta, who had always distinguished themselves for their zeal against the enemies of the cross, embarked in this sacred cause with one thousand chosen followers; and so high were the expectations formed of this enterprise, that even ladies of rank and character, and the wives and daughters of the officers and soldiers, braved the perils of the sea, with a view of settling in Barbary after the conquest was completed. After a tedious and hazardous voyage from Majorca, the feet appeared before the African coast; but the roll of the sea and the violence of the winds prevented the troops from disembarking. At length Charles, seizing a favourable opportunity, landed them without opposition not far from Algiers, towards which he advanced without delay.
“The Algerines were thrown into the utmost consternation when they beheld such an immense armament, and saw a mighty army already moving towards their city. "A wall with scarce any outworks was all its external defence. The greater part of their forces were dispersed in the different provinces of the kingdom, to levy the usual contributions from the Arabs and Moors; and in the garrison there were only eight hundred Turks, and six thousand Moorish soldiers, poorly disciplined, and worse accoutred. Charles, after building a fort, under the cannon of which his army encamped, and diverting the course of a spring which supplied the city with water, summoned Hassan to surrender at discretion; and threatened, in case of bis refusal, to put all the garrison to the