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Then prepared he again of newe as fast for his translation from the sea of Lincoln unto the sea of Yorke, as he did before to his stallation. After which solemnization done, and being then an archbishop and Primas Angliæ, he thought himself sufficient to compare with Canterbury; and thereupon erected his crosse in the court, and every other place, as well within the precinct and jurisdiction of Canterbury, as in any other place. And forasmuch as Canterbury claimeth a superiority over Yorke, as of all other bishoprickes within England, and for that cause claimeth, as a knowledge of an auncient obedience, of Yorke to abate the avauncing of his crosse, in presence of the crosse of Canterbury; notwithstanding Yorke nothing minding to desist from bearing thereof, in manner as I said before, caused his crosse to be avaunced and borne before him, as well in the presence of Canterbury as elsewhere. Wherefore Canterbury' being moved therewith, gave unto Yorke a certaine check for his presumption; by reason whereof there engendered some grudge betweene Yorke and Canterbury. Yorke perceiving the obedience that Canterbury claimed of him, intended to provide some such means that he would be rather superior in dignity to Canterbury, than to be either obedient or equal to him. Whereupon he obtained first to be made priest cardinall and Legatus de latere, unto whom the pope sent a cardinall's hat with certaine bulles for his authority in that behalfe.

know not the originall thereof. Then sayde hee, that in the Apostles tyme, there were dyvers cities, some seven myle, some six myle long, and over them was there set but one byshop, and of their suburbs also; so likewise now, a byshop hath but one citye to his cathedrall churche, and the country about is as suburbs unto it. Me thought this was farre fetched, but I durst not denye it." Barnes's Works, p. 210. A.D. 1573.

3 Geven him.] But he resigned Lincoln in September the same year, when William Atwater was appointed to succeed him.

To be avaunced.] This was not the first time in which this point of precedency had been contested. Edward III. in the sixth year of his reign, at a time when a similar debate was in agitation, having summoned a Parliament at York, the archbishop of Canterbury and all the other Prelates of his Province, declined giving their attendance, that the Metropolitan of all England might not be obliged to submit his Cross to that of York, in the Province of the latter. Fox, p. 387, 8.

5 William Warham.

• Priest cardinall.] He was confirmed cardinal of S. Cecilia beyond the Tiber, by a bull of pope Leo X. dated Bologna, Dec. 13, 1515.-Fiddes's Records, p. 18.

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Yet by the way of communication you shall understande that the pope sent him this worthy hat of dignity as a jewell of his honor and authority, the which was conveied in a varlett's budget, who seemed to all men to be but a person of small estimation. Whereof Yorke being advertised of the baseness of this messenger', and of the people's opinion, thought it not meete for the honor of so highe a message, that this jewell should be conveied by so simple a person; wherefore he caused him to be stopped by the way, imediatly after his arrivall in England, where he was newely furnished in all manner of apparell, with all kinde of costly silkes, which seemed decent for such an high ambassador. And that done he was encountered upon Blackheathe, and there received with a great assembly of prelats and lusty gallant gentlemen, and from thence conducted and convaied through London, with great triumphe. Then was great and spedy provision and preparation made in Westminster abby for the confirmation and acceptaunce of this highe order and dignity; the which was executed by all the bishopes and abbots about or nigh London, with their rich miters and copes and other ornaments; which was done in so solemn a wise, as I have not seene the like, unlesse it had bin at the coronation of a mighty prince and kinge.

Obtaining this dignity he thought himself meete to encounter with Canterbury in high jurisdiction before expressed; and that also he was as mete to beare authority among the temporall powers, as among the spirituall jurisdictions. Wherefore remembering as well the tauntes and checkes before sustained of Canterbury, the which he intended to redresse, as having a respect to the advancement of worldly honor, promotion and great benefit, he founde the meanes with the kinge, that he was made lord

7 Messenger.] Who was of the rank of a prothonotary. See an account of the ceremonies observed at the reception of the hat, in Fiddes, App. p. 251.

8 Great and spedy provision.] "Not farre unlike to this was the receaving of the cardinalls hatte. Which when a ruffian had brought unto him to Westminster under his cloke, he clothed the messenger in rich array, and sent him backe to Dover againe, and appoynted the bishop of Canterbury to meete him, and then another company of lordes and gentles I wotte not how oft, ere it came to Westminster, where it was set on a cupborde and tapers about, so that the greatest duke in the lande must make curtesie thereto : yea and to his empty seat he being away."-Tindal's Works, p. 374; Fox's Acts, p. 902.


chancellor of England; and Canterbury which was then chancellor dismissed, who had continued in that honorable rome, since long before the death of kinge Henry the seventh.

Now he being in possession of the chancellorship, and endowed with the promotions of an archbishop, and cardinall de latere, thought himselfe fully furnished with such authorities and dignities, that he was able to surmount Canterbury in all jurisdictions and ecclesiasticall powers, having power to convocate Canterbury, and all other bishops and spirituall persons, to assemble at his convocation, where he would assigne; and tooke upon him the correction of matters in all their jurisdictions, and visited all the spirituall houses, having also in every diocese through this realme all manner of spirituall ministers, as commissaries, scribes, apparitors, and all other necessary officers to furnish his courtes; and presented by prevention' whom he pleased unto all benefices throughout all this realme, and dominions thereof. And to the advancing further of his legantine jurisdiction and honors, he had masters of his faculties, masters ceremoniarum, and such other like persons, to the glorifying of his dignity. Then had he twoe great crosses of silver, whereof one of them was of his archbishoprick, and the other of his legacy, borne before him whither soever he went or rode, by two of the tallest priestes that he could get within this realme. And to the increase of his gaines he had also the bishopricke of Durham, and the abbey of St. Albans in commendam; and after, when bishop Fox, bishop of Winchester died, he surrendered Durham into the king's hands, and tooke to him Winchester. Then had he in his hands, as it were in ferme, the bishoprickes of Bathe, Worcester, and Hereforde, for as much as the incumbents of them were strangers', and made their aboade continually beyond the seas, in their

• Lord chancellor.] Takes the oath at Eltham, Dec. 24, 1515.-Fiddes, p. 98. A copy of the Letters Patent, dat. 1 Dec. 7 Hen. VIII. is in the British Museum, Harl. MS. 381. fol. 208.

1 Presented by prevention.] See above, p. 170.

2 Were strangers.] See Life of Wickliffe, p. 191. The see of Bath was filled by Cardinal Adrian de Castello (who had been previously bishop of Hereford from 1502 to 1504), and that of Worcester by Sylvester de Giglis, appointed in 1499, in succession to his uncle John de Giglis; but the then bishop of Hereford was Richard Mayhew, or Mayo, an Englishman, who was succeeded, in 1516, by Charles Booth, also an Englishman. The see of Llandaff was occupied by a Spaniard, George Athequa, chaplain to Queen Katharine, whom he attended to this country. He, however, was not appointed until

own countries, or else in Rome, from whence they were sent in legation to this realme, unto the kinge. And for their rewardes, at their departure, the wise kinge Henry the seventh thought it better to give them that thinge which he himself could not keepe, than to disbourse or defray any thing of his treasure. And they being but strangers, thought it then more meete for their assurance, and to have their jurisdiction preserved and maintained, to suffer the cardinall to have their benefices for a convenient sum of money paide them yearely, whereas they remained, than either to be troubled with the charges of the same, or to be yearely burthened with the conveyaunce of their revenues unto them: so that all the spirituall promotions, and presentations of these bishopricks were wholy and fully in his domaine and disposion, to preferre whom he listed. He had also a great number daily attending upon him, bothe of noblemen and worthy gentlemen, of great estimation and possessions, with no small number of the tallest yeomen, that he could get in all the realme, insomuch that well was that nobleman and gentellman, that could preferr a talle yeoman into his service.

Nowe to speak of the order and officers of his house, I think it be necessary here to be remembered. And first you shall understande, that he had in his hall continually three bordes, kept with three severall principall officers; that is to say a stewarde which was alwaies a priest, a treasurer a knight, and a comptroller an esquire. Also a cofferer being a doctour; three marshalles, three yeomen ushers in the halle, besides twoe groomes and almoners. Then had he in the hall-kitchen two clarkes of the kitchen, a clerke comptroller, a surveyor of the dresser, a clerke of his spicery, the which together kept also a continual mess in the hall. Also in the hall-kitchen he had master cookes two, and of other cookes, labourers, and children of the kitchine twelve persons; four yeomen of the scullery, and four other yeomen of his silver scullery; two yeomen of his pastery, with two other pastellers under the yeomen.

1517, and by Henry VIII.

Italians in succession, viz. :

The see of Worcester was filled by four

Giovanni de' Gigti, 30 Aug. 1497-25 Aug. 1498.

Silvestro de' Gigli, (nephew of the preceding) 17 Mar. 1499-16 April 1521. Giulio de' Medici, cardinal, administrator, 31 July 1521 to 1522.

Ieronymo de' Ghinucci, (Lat. de Nugutiis) 20 Feb. 1523. He was deprived in 1534.

Then had he in his privy kitchen a master cook who went daily in velvet or in sattin with a chaine of gould, with two other yeomen, and labourers six in the same roome; in the larder a yeoman and a groome; in the scalding house a yeoman and two groomes; in the saulcery two persons; in the buttery two yeomen, two groomes, and two pages; and in the ewery likewise : in the celler three yeomen and three pages; in his chaundery two; in the wafery two; in the wardrobe of bedds the master of the wardrobe, and ten persons; in the laundery a yeoman, a groome, thirteen pages; two yeomen purveiors, and one groome; in the bakehouse a yeoman and two groomes; in the woodeyarde a yeoman and a groome; in the barne one; in the garden a yeoman and two groomes; porters at the gate two yeomen, and two groomes; a yeoman of his barge and a master of his horse; a clerke of the stable, a yeoman of the same; the saddler, the farrier, a yeoman of his chariot, a sumpter man, a yeoman of his stirrup; a muleteer, sixteen groomes of the stable, every one of them kept four geldings: in the almeserie, a yeoman and a groome.

Now will I declare unto you the officers of his chappel, and singing men in the same. First he had there a deane, a great divine and a man of excellent learning; a sub-deane; a repetor of the quier, a gospeller, a pisteller; of singing priests ten; a master of the children. The seculars of the chappel, being singing men, twelve; singing children ten, with one servaunte to waite upon the children. In the revestry, a yeoman and two groomes over and besides diverse retainers that came thither at principall feasts. And as for furniture of his chappel, it passeth my capacity to declare the number of the costly ornaments and rich jewells, that were to be occupied in the same continually. For I have seen in procession about the hall forty four of very rich copes, of one sute, worn, besides the rich crosses and candlesticks,

3 Singing men in the same.] "My Lorde, yff itt were not for the personall love that the Kyngis Highnesse doith bere unto your Grace, suerly he wolde have owte off your chiapell, not chyldren oonly, but also men. For hys Grace hath playnley schewydde unto Cornysche, that your Graces chiapell is bettre than hys and providde the same by thys reason, that yff ony manner of newe songe schulde be broght unto boith the said chiapellis for to be sunge ex improviso, then the sayde songe schulde be bettre and more suerly handlydde bi your chiapell than bi hys Graces. Cornyshe istud plane verum nullo modo concoquere potest." Letter from Richard Pace to Wolsey, 25 March. III Ellis, ji. 49. W. Cornish was master of Henry VIII.'s chapel,

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