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cheerefull countenaunce. Than was he layd upon an hardle, as though he had bene a most heynouse traytour to the crowne, and so drawne forth into saynct Gyles Felde, where as they had set up a newe payre of gallowes. And as he was comen to the place of execution and was taken from the hardle, he fell down devoutlye upon his knees, desyerynge almyghtye God to forgeve his enemys. Than stode hee up and behelde the multytude, exhortynge them in most godlye maner, to followe the lawes of God wrytten in the Scripturs, and in anye wise to beware of soche teachers as they se contrarye to Christ in theyr conversacyon and lyvynge, with manye other specyall counsels. Than was he hanged up there by the myddle in cheanes of yron, and so consumed alyve in the fyre, praysynge the name of God, so longe as his lyfe lasted. In the ende he commended his sowle into the handes of God, and so departed hens most christenlye, his bodye resolved into ashes.
And this was done in the yeare of oure Lorde one thousand four hundred and eighteen, which was the sixt yeare of the regne of kynge Henrye the fyft, the people there present shewinge great dolour. How the prestes that time fared, blasphemed, and cursed, requyryinge the people not to praye for him, for that he departed not in the obedyence of theyr pope, yt were too long to wryte.
This terryble kynde of deathe, with galowes, cheanes, and fyre, apereth not very precyouse in the eyes of menne that be carnall, no more than did the deathe of Christ, when he was hanged up amonge theves. The righteous seemeth to dye (sayth the wise manne) in the syghte of them which are unwyse, and theyr end is taken for verye destruccyon. Ungodlye foles thynketh theyr lydes verye madnesse, and theyr passage hens without all honour. But though they suffre payne before menno (sayth he), yet is theyr expectation full of immortalyte. They are accounted for the chyldren of God, and have theyr just porcyon amonge the saynctes. As golde in the fornace doth God trye his electes, and as a most pleasant brent offerynge receyveth he them to rest. The more harde the passage be, the more gloriouse shall they apere in the latter resurreccyon. Not that the afflictyons of this lyfe are worthye of soche a glorye, but that it is Gods heavenlye pleasure so to rewarde them. Never are the judgements and wayes of menne lyke unto the judgements and wayes of God, but contrayre evermore, unless they be taught of him. In the latter time (sayth the Lorde unto Daniel) shall manye be
chosen proved and puryfyed by fyre, yet shall the ungodlye live wickedly styll, and have no understandynge that is of faythe.
By an angel from heven was Johan ernestlye commanded to wryte, that blessed are the dead which hence departeth in the Lorde.
– Ryghte dere (saythe David) in the sight of God is the dethe of his true servauntes.
Thus resteth this valeaunt Christen knyghte Syr Johan Oldcastele, undre the aultre of God (which is Jesus Christ), amonge that godlye companye, which, in the kyngedom of patyence, suffred great tribulacyon with the deathe of theyr bodyes for his faythfull worde and testimonye, abydynge there with them the fulfyllynge of theyr whole nombre, and the full restauracyon of his electes. The which He grant in effect at his tyme appoynted, which is one God eternall !
INVENTION OF PRINTING–CHAUCER AND GOWER-PRO. GRESS OF REFORMATION AND OF PERSECUTION, &c. MARTIN LUTHER.
How admirable are the ways of Providence ! and how illustrious was its present dispensation! It directed the independent, the various, and the contrary revolutions of these times, to rectify the mischiefs occasioned by the past : whereby that very learning, which, in the first ages had been perverted to corrupt Christianity, was now employed to purify and restore it: that very philosophy which had been adopted to explain articles of faith, was now studied only to instruct us in the history of the human mind, and to assist us in developing its faculties, and regulating its operations : and those very systems, which had supported the whole body of school divinity, now afforded the principles proper to overturn it.
BENEFIT AND INVENTION OF PRINTING.
In following the course, and order of yeeres, wee find the yeere of our Lord 1450, to be memorable, for the divine and miraculous invention of printing. Nauclerus ', and Wymselingus' following him, referre the invention thereof to the yeere 1440. In Paralip. Abbatis Urspergensis', it is recorded this facultie to be found, an. 1446. Aventinus and Zieglerus doe say, anno 1450. The first inventor thereof (as most agree) is thought to be a German, dwelling first in Argentine', afterwards citizen of Mentz, named John Faustus, a goldsmith. The occasion of this invention
· Nauclerus.] John Vergen, called Nauclerus, in his Memorabilium Chronici Commentarii, vol. ii. fol. 282, ed. Tubingen : Th. Anshelmi, 1516. The text of this edition was revised by Melancthon, who was then a corrector of the press in the printer's office.
• Wymselingus.] Jacobus Wimphelingius; in chap. lxv. of his Epitome Rerum Germanicarum, written in 1502, and printed at Strasburg in 1505.
3 Paralip. Abbatis Urspergensis.] The Chronicon Universale, which passes under the name of Conrad v. Lichtenau, abbot of Ursperg, who died in 1249. It had several continuators, the last of whom was Caspar Hedio of Etlingen, who brought it down to 1537. It is published under the title of Chronicon Abbatis Urspergensis correctum : Parulipomena ei addita rerum memorabilium ab an. 1230 ad an. 1537. It is this edition which Fox quotes.
* Aventinus.] John Thurmaier, called Aventinus from his native place, Abensberg, in Bavaria. See his Annalium Boiorum libri septem. Basil. 1580. ad an. 1453, and the Documenta et Testimonia Typographica, appended to Ger. Meerman's Origines Typographicæ, ed. 1765.
s Zieglerus.] John Ziegler, a well-known theological and mathematical writer, who died at Passau in 1549. See Schelhorn's Amænitates Hist. Eccl. et Lit. vol. ii. The passage will probably be found in Ziegler's Encomia Germanie, printed in the collection intituled, Germanicarum Historiarum Illustratio, ed. 1542.
• Argentine, i. e. Strasburgh.