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certaine, so open blasphemy and slander as they have spoken and done, in their revoking and forsaking of the truth, ought not nor may not privily be amended, duly. Wherefore sirs, I pray you that you

busie not for to move me to follow these men, in revoking and forsaking the truth, and soothfastnes, as they have done, and yet do ; wherein by open evidence they stirre God to great wrath, and not onely against themselves, but also against all them that favour them, or consent to them herein, or that communeth with them, except it be for their amendment. For whereas these men first were pursued of enemies, now they have obliged them by oth for to slander and pursue Christ in his members. Wherefore (as I trust stedfastly in the goodnesse of God) the worldly covetousnesse, and the lustie living and the sliding from the truth of those runagates shall be to me and to many other men and women, an example and an evidence, to stand more stiflie by the truth of Christ. For certaine, right many men and women do marke and abhor the foulenesse and cowardnesse of these foresaid untrue men, how that they are overcome and stopped with benefices, and withdrawne from the truth of God's word, forsaking utterly to suffer therefore bodily persecution. For by this unfaithfull doing and apostasie of them especially that are great lettered men, and have knowledged openly the truth, and now, , either for pleasure or displeasure of tyrants, have taken hire and temporall wages to forsake the truth, and to hold against it, slandering and pursuing them that covet to follow Christ in the way of righteousnes, many men and women therefore are now moved. But many moe thorow the grace of God, shall be moved hereby for to learne the truth of God, to doe thereafter, and to stand boldly thereby.

Then the archbishop said to his clerks; Busie you no longer about him, for he and other such as he is, are confedered together that they will not sweare to be obedient, and to submit them to prelats of holy church. For now since I stood here, his fellow also sent me word that he will not sweare, and that this fellow counselled him that he should not sweare to me. And losell, in that thing that in thee is, thou hast busied thee to lose this yong man; but blessed bee God, thou shalt not have thy purpose of him. For he hath forsaken all thy learning, submitting him to bee buxum and obedient to the ordinance of holy church, and weepeth full bitterly, and curseth thee full heartily for the venemous teaching which thou hast shewed to him, counselling

him to do thereafter. And for thy false counselling of many other and him, thou hast great cause to be right sorie. For long time thou hast busied thee to pervert whomsoever thou mightest. Therefore, as many deathes thou art worthie of, as thou hast given evill counsels. And therefore by Jesu, thou shalt goe thither, where Nicolas Herford and Thomas Purvey were harbored. And I undertake, or this day eight daies thou shalt be right glad for to do what thing that ever I bid thee to do. And losell, I shall assay, if I can make thee there as sorrowfull (as it was told mee) thou wast glad of my last going out of England ®. By St. Thomas, I shall turne thy joy into sorrow.

And I said ; Sir, there can no body prove lawfully that I joyed ever, of the maner of your going out of this land. But sir, to say the sooth, I was joyfull when ye were gone: for the bishop of London in whose prison yee left mee, found in mee no cause for to hold mee longer in his prison, but at the request of my friends, he delivered me to them, asking of me no maner of submitting.

Then the archbishop said to me, Wherfore that I yede out of England, is unknowne to thee: but be this thing well knowne to thee, that God (as I wote well) hath called me againe, and brought me into this land, for to destroy thee and the false sect that thou art of: as by God, I shall pursue you so narrowly, that I shall not leave a slip of you in this land.

And I said to the archbishop; Sir, the holy prophet Jeremy said to the false prophet Anany; When the word, that is, the prophecie of a prophet is knowne or fulfilled, then it shall bee knowne, that the Lord sent the prophet in truth.

And the archbishop (as if he had not beene pleased with my saying) turned him awayward hither and thither, and said ; By God, I shall set upon thy shinnes a paire of pearles, that thou shalt be glad to change thy voice.

These and many moe wondrous and convicious words, were spoken to mee, manassing mee and all other of the same sect, for to be punished and destroyed unto the uttermost.

And the archbishop called then to him a clerke, and rowned with him': and that clerke went forth, and soone brought in the

8 Going out of England.] In the year 1397, within twelve months after his translation to Canterbury, but not before he had given proofs of his active zeal against Lollardy, archbishop Arundel was tried on a charge of treason, condemned and banished. After an absence of about two years he was restored.

9 Rowned with him.] To rowne or round a person in the ear is much the

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constable of Saltwood castle, and the archbishop rowned a good while with him : and then the constable went forth, and then same as to whisper to him. The word is illustrated by the following extracts, which however would not have been given solely on that account: but are produced in the hope that they may administer to more important purposes. The first is taken from a sermon appointed to be read every year at the anniversary of the dedication of a parish church. “My hous is called an house of prayers; but is now made an house of rownyng, whysperynge, cryenge, claterynge, scornynge, tales, and symple spekeynge. We rede how saynte Gregory was at masse on a tyme, and saynte Austyne was his deken, and bad the people turne to the popes blessyng. Thenne he saw two wymmen rowne togyder in the popes chapell: and the fende sat in her neckes wrytying a grete rolle: and it lacked parchment, and he drewe it out with his tethe, and soo it felle out of his clawes: and saynt Austyn saw it, and went and toke it up. Thenne the pope was wroth, and asked hym why he laughed hym to scorne. And he shewed him what the fende had wryten of the wymen. And thenne he come to the wymmen, and asked theym what they hadde sayed alle this masse time. And they sayed, our pater noster. Then the pope bad rede the rolle to theim that the fende hadde wreten. And saint Gregory red it: and there was never a goode worde therein. Then they kneled downe, and asked mercy, and besought the pope to praye for theym: and so he dyd; and brought them out of the fendes bokes.”-- Festival, fol. 155, 156. The next extract is taken from the Mirror of our Lady, very necessary for all religious persons, a book composed more especially for the use of the nuns of Sion, being an exposition upon the service of that monastery, in a manner not unlike Wheatley's and other illustrations of our Liturgy. It supplies many particulars whereby we may judge of the state of religion at that period. “Spekers and slepers (at service) let others as well as themselves, and gyve occasion of yvel. How perylous this vyce ys, ye may se by this example. There was a yonge religyous vyrgyn aboute ten yere of age in the order of Cystews (Cîteaux, the Cistercian) whose name was Gertrude, whyche after her deth cam agayne on a day at evensonge tyme, when all the convent was in the quyer, and enclyned lowe before the hye auter. She cam in to her place where she was wonte to stande in the quier; and at the ende of evensonge of our lady, she fel downe prostrate, tyl all was done, and then she rose and went her wayes. None saw her but another mayde of the same age, that was wont to stande by her in the quier, whiche was aferde, and tolde yt to the abbes; and on the next day, by byddyng of the abbesse, she asked of the same virgin, when she came agayne, and sayde unto her, syster Gertrude, good syster Gertrude, from whence comest thou now, and what doest thou amongest us after thy dethe? Then she answered and sayd, I come hyther to make amendes for my trespace, for I rowned to thee in the quyer halfe wordes, and therefore I am byden do satisfaccion in the same place, and but that thou be ware of the same vyce, thou shalte suffer the same payne after thy dethe. And after she had appered so foure tymes, she saide, sister I hope I have fulfylled my penaunce; from hencefurthe thou shalte no more se me; and so she went to blysse. But take ye hede, syth this yonge mayde of ten yere of age was punysshed so for halfe wordes, what shall they suffer


came in divers seculars, and they scorned mee on every side, and manassed me greatly. And some counselled the archbishop to burne me by and by, and some other counselled him to drowne me in the sea, for it is neare hand there.

And a clerke standing beside mee, there kneeled downe to the archbishop, praying him that hee would deliver me to him for to say mattens with him : and hee would undertake, that within three daies I should not resist any thing that were commanded me to do of my prelate.

And the archbishop said, that he would ordaine for me himselfe.

And then after, came againe the constable and spake privilie to the archbishop: and the archbishop commanded the constable to lead me forth thence with him, and so he did. And when we were gone forth thence, we were sent after againe. And when I came in againe before the archbishop, a clerke bad me kneele downe and aske grace, and submit me lowly, and I should find it for the best.

And I said then to the archbishop; Sir, as I have said to you divers times to day, I will wilfully and lowly obey and subject mee to be ordained ever after my cunning and power, to God and to his law, and to everie member of holy church, as far forth as I can perceive that these members accord with their head Christ, and will teach me, rule me, or chastise me by authoritie, specially of Gods law.

And the archbishop said, I wist well he would not without such additions submit him.

And then I was rebuked, scorned, and manassed on every side: and yet after this, divers persons cried upon me to kneele downe and submit me; but I stood still, and spake no word. And then there was spoken of me, and to me, many great words, and I stood and heard them manasse, curse, and scorne me: but I said nothing

Then a while after, the archbishop said to me, Wilt thou not submit thee to the ordinance of holy church?

And I said ; Sir, I will full gladly submit me as I have shewed

you before.

And then the archbishop bad the constable to have me forth thence in haste.

that ar of greater age for hole wordes spoken in tyme or place of sylence.” Fol. 21.

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And so then I was led forth, and brought into a foule unhonest prison, where I came never before. But thanked be God, when all men were gone forth then from me, and had sparred fast the prison doore after them, by and by after, I therein by myselfe busied me to thinke on God, and to thanke him for his goodness. And I was then greatly comforted in all my wits, not onely for that I was then delivered for a time from the sight, from the hearing, from the presence, from the scorning, and from the manassing of mine enemies; but much more I rejoiced in the Lord, because that through his grace he kept me so, both among the flattering specially, and among the manassing of mine adversaries, that without heavinesse and anguish of my conscience, I passed away from them. For as a tree laid upon another tree, overthwart or crosse wise, so was the archbishop and his three clerks alwaies contrarie to me, and I to them.

Now good God for thine holy name, and to the praising of thy most blessed name, make us one together, if it be thy will, by authority of thy word, that is true perfect charity, and else not. And that it may thus be, all that this writing reade or heare, pray heartily to the Lord God, that hee for his great goodnesse that cannot bee with tongue expressed, grant to us, and to all other which in the same wise, and for the same cause specially, or for any other cause be at distance, to be knit and made one in true faith, in stedfast hope, and in perfit charitie. Amen.

What was the end of this good man and blessed servant of God, William Thorpe, I finde as yet in no storie specified. By all conjectures it is to be thought, that the archbishop Thomas Arundel, being so hard an adversary against those men, would not let him goe. Much less it is to be supposed, that he would ever retract his sentence and opinion, which he so valiantly maintained before the bishop; neither doth it seeme that he had any such recanting spirit. Againe, neither is it found that he was burned. Wherefore it remaineth most like to be true, that hee being committed to some strait prison (according as the archbishop in his examination before did threaten him) there (as Thorpe confesseth himselfe) was so straitly kept, that either he was secretly made away, or else there hee died by sicknesse.

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