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was plain and modeft; his demeanour, courteous and affable. At the proper hours, his palace was open to all his fubjects: but the voice of a crier was heard, as in the Eleufinian myfteries, pronouncing the fame falutary admonition," Let none enter thefe holy "walls unless he is confcious of a pure and innocent “mind.”

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HERE are few perfonages in hiftory, who

T have been more expofed to the calumny of

enemies, and the adulation of friends, than Queen Elizabeth; and, yet, there fcarce is any, whole reputation has been more certainly determined, by the unanimous confent of posterity. The unufual length of her administration, and the strong features of her character, were able to overcome all prejudices; and, obliging her detractors to abate much of their invectives, and her admirers fomewhat of their panegyrics, have, at last, in fpite of political factions, and, what is more, of religious animofities, produced an uniform judgment with regard to her conduct. Her vigour, her conftancy, her magnanimity, her penetration, vigilance and addrefs, are allowed to merit the highest praifes. and appear not to have been furpaffed by any perfon who ever filled a throne: a conduct lefs rigorous, lefs imperious, more fincere, more indulgent to her people, would have been requifite to form a perfect character. By the force of her mind, the controlled all her more active and ftronger qualities, and prevented



them from running into excefs. Her heroifm was exempted from all temerity; her frugality, from avarice; her friendship, from partiality; her enterprize, from turbulency and a vain ambition: fhe guarded not herself, with equal care, or equal fuccefs, from leffer infirmities; the rivalship of beauty, the defire of admiration, the jealousy of love, and the fallies of anger.

HER fingular talents for government, were founded equally on her temper, and on her capacity. Endowed with a great command over herself, the foon obtained an uncontrolled afcendant over the people; and, while fhe merited all their efteem by her real virtues, the alfo engaged their affection by her pretended ones. Few fovereigns of England, fucceeded to the throne, in more difficult circumstances; and none ever conducted the government, with fuch uniform, fuccefs and felicity. Though unacquainted with the practice of toleration, the true fecret for managing religious factions, the preferved her people, by her fuperior prudence, from those confufions, in which theological controversy had involved all the neighbouring nations; and, though her enemies were the most powerful princes of Europe, the most active, the moft enterprifing, the leaft fcrupulous, fhe was able, by her vigour, to make deep impreffions on their ftate; her own greatnefs, mean-while, remaining untouched, and unimpaired.

THE wife minifters, and brave warriors, who flourished during her reign, fhare the praise of her fuccefs; but inftead of leffening the applause due to her, they make great addition to it. They owed, all of them, their advancement to her choice; they were supported by her conftancy; and, with all their


ability, they were never able to acquire any undue afcendant over her. In her family, in her court, in her kingdom, fhe remained equally miftrefs. The force of the tender paffions, was great over her; but the force of her mind, was ftill fuperior: and the combat which her victory visibly coft her, ferves only to display the firmnefs of her refolution, and the loftiness of her ambitious fentiments.

THE fame of this princefs, though it has furmounted the prejudices, both of faction and of bigotry, yet lies ftill expofed to another prejudice, which is more durable, because more natural; and which, according to the different views in which, we furvey her, is capable either of exalting beyond measure, or diminishing, the luftre of her character. This prejudice is founded on the confideration of her fex. When we contemplate her as a woman, we are apt to be ftruck with the highest admiration of her qualities, and extenfive capacity; but we are, alfo, apt to require fome more foftness of difpofition, fome greater lenity of temper, fome of thofe amiable weakneffes, by which her fex is diftinguished. But the true method of eftimating her merit, is to lay afide all these confiderations; and to confider her merely as a rational being, placed in authority, and entrusted with the government of mankind. We may find it difficult to reconcile our fancy to her, as a wife, or a miftrefs; but her qualities as a fovereign, though with fome confiderable exceptions, are the object of undifputed applause and approba


VII. ^

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LATTERY is a manner of converfation, very fhameful in itself, but beneficial to the flatterer.

IF a flatterer is upon a public walk with you, "Do "but mind," fays he, "how every one's eye is "upon you. Sure there is not a man in Athens,

that is taken fo much notice of. You had justice "done you yesterday, in the portico. There were "above thirty of us together; and the question

being started, who was the most confiderable "perfon in the commonwealth? the whole com"pany was of the fame fide. In fhort, Sir, every "one made familiar with your name." He follows this whisper with a thousand other flatteries of the fame nature.

WHENEVER the person to whom he would make his court begins to fpeak, the fycophant begs the company to be filent; moft impudently praises him to his face; is in raptures all the while he talks; and, as foon as he has done, cries out, That is perfectly right! When his patron aims at being witty upon any man, he is ready to burft at the fmartness of his raillery, and ftops his mouth with his handkerchief, that he may not laugh out. If he calls his children about him, the flatterer has a pocket full of apples for them, which he diftributes among them with a great deal of fondnefs; wonders to fee fo many fine boys; and, turning about to the father, tells him, they are all as like him as they can ftare.


WHEN he is invited to a feast, he is the first man that calls for a glass of wine, and is wonderfully pleafed with the delicioufnefs of the flavour; gets as near as poffible to the man of the houfe; and tells him, with much concern, that he eats nothing himfelf. He fingles out fome particular difh, and recommends it to the reft of the company for a rarity. He defires the mafter of the feaft to fit in a warmer. part of the room, begs him to take more care of his health, and advifes him to put on a fupernumerary garment in this cold weather. He is in a clofe whisper with him during the whole entertainment, and has neither eyes nor ears for any one elfe in the company.

If a man fhews him his houfe, he extols the architect, admires the gardens, and expatiates upon the furniture. If the owner is grofly flattered in a picture, he outflatters the painter; and, though he discovers a great likenefs in it, can by no means allow that it does juftice to the original.-In fhort, his whole bufinefs is to ingratiate himfelf with those who hear him, and to wheedle them out of their fenfes.




TREATY being on foot between the Romans and Pyrrhus king of Macedon, for the exchange of prisoners, the latter, after having given a general audience to the ambaffadors, took Fabritius afide, and addreffed him in the following manner.


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