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ed; and their hair black.
Thefe nations, in general, have no religion, no fettled notions of morality, and no decency of behaviour. They are chiefly robbers; their wealth confifts in horfes, and their fkill in the management of them.
THE third variety of mankind, is that of the fouthern Afiatics, or the inhabitants of India. Thefe are of a flender shape; have long ftraight black hair, and generally Roman nofes. Their complexions are of an olive colour, and, in fome parts, quite black. These people are flothful, luxurious, fubmiffive, cowardly, and effeminate.
The parent Sun himself
Seems o'er this world of flaves to tyrannize;
THE negroes of Africa conftitute the fourth striking variety in the human fpecies: but they differ widely from each other. Thofe of Guinea, for inftance, are extremely ugly, and have an infupportably offenfive fcent; whilft those of Mosambique, are reckoned beautiful, and are untainted with any disagreeable fmell. The negroes are, in general, of a black colour; and the downy foftness of their hair which
grows upon their fkin, gives a fmoothnefs to it, refembling that of velvet. The hair of their heads is woolly, fhort, and black; but their beards often turn grey, and fometimes white. Their noses are flat and fhort, their lips thick and tumid, and their teeth of an ivory whiteness.
THE intellectual and moral powers of thefe wretched people, are uncultivated; and they are subject to the most barbarous defpotifm. The favage tyrants, who rule over them, make war upon each other for human plunder; and the wretched victims, bartered for fpirituous liquors, or the wares of Birmingham and Manchester, are torn from their families, their friends, and native land, and configned, for life, to mifery, toil, and bondage. 21 kqT
THE native inhabitants of America, make a fifth race of men. They are of a copper colour; have black, thick, ftraight hair; flat nofes, high cheekbones, and fmall eyes. They paint the body, and face, of various colours; and eradicate the hair of their beards, and of other parts, as a deformity. Their limbs are not fo large and robuft, as thofe of the Europeans. They endure hunger, thirft, and pain, with astonishing firmnefs and patience; and, though cruel to their enemies, they are kind and just to each other.
THE Europeans, may be confidered as the laft variety of the human kind. But it is unneceffary to enumerate the perfonal marks which diftinguish them, as every day affords you opportunities of making fuch obfervations. I fhall only fuggeft to you, that they enjoy fingular advantages from the fairness of their complexions. The face of the African black, or of the olive-coloured Afiatic, is a
very imperfect index of the mind; and preferves the fame fettled fhade, in joy and forrow, confidence and fhame, anger and defpair, fickness and health. The English are faid to be the fairest of the Europeans; and we may therefore prefume, that their countenances best exprefs the variations of the paffions, and the viciffitudes of difeafe. But the intellectual and moral characteristics of the different nations, which compofe this quarter of the globe, are of more importance to be known. Thefe, however, become gradually lefs difcernible, as fashion, learning, and commerce, prevail more generally; and I fhall leave them, as objects of your future enquiry.
THUS paffed a winter evening, by the fire-fide of Euphronius; whofe pleafing, though anxious task, it was,
"To rear the tender thought;
"To teach the young idea how to shoot; "To pour the fresh inftruction o'er the mind; "To breathe th' enlivening spirit; and to fix "The generous purpose in the glowing breast."
ON PUBLIC SPEAKING.
TOST foreign writers, who have given any
MOST character of the English nation, whatever
vices they afcribe to it, allow, in general, that the people are naturally modeft. It proceeds, perhaps, from this our national virtue, that our orators are obferved to make use of lefs gefture or action than those of other countries. Our preachers stand stockfill in the pulpit; and will not fo much as move a finger, to fet off the beft fermons in the world. We meet with the fame fpeaking ftatues at our bars, and in all public places of debate. Our words flow from us, in a smooth continued ftream, without those ftrainings of the voice, motions of the body, and majefty of the hand, which are fo much celebrated in the orators of Greece and Rome. We can talk of life and death, in cold blood; and keep our temper, in a discourse which turns upon every thing that is dear to us. Tho' our zeal breaks out in the finest tropes and figures, it is not able to ftir a limb about
us. I have heard it obferved, more than once, by those who have feen Italy, that an untravelled Englishman cannot relish all the beauties of Italian pictures; because the poftures which are expreffed in them, are often fuch as are peculiar to that country. One who has not feen an Italian in the pulpit, will not know what to make of that noble gefture in Raphael's picture of St. Paul preaching at Athens, where the apostle is reprefented as lifting up both his arms, and pouring out the thunder of his rhetoric amidft an audience of Pagan philofophers.
IT is certain, that proper geftures, and vehement exertions of the voice, cannot be too much studied by a public orator. They are a kind of comment to what he utters; and enforce every thing he says, with weak hearers, better than the strongest argument he can make use of. They keep the audience awake, and fix their attention to what is delivered to them; at the fame time, that they fhew the fpeaker is in earneft, and affected himself, with what he fo paffionately recommends to others. Violent gesture and vociferation naturally fhake the hearts of the ignorant, and fill them with a kind of religious horror; and we very frequently fee people lulled afleep with folid and elaborate difcourfes of piety, who would be warmed and tranfported out of themselves by the bellowings and diftortions of enthusiasm.
. IF nonfenfe, when accompanied with an emotion of voice and body, has fuch an influence on mens minds, what might we not expect from many of those admirable difcourfes which are printed in our tongue, were they delivered with a becoming fervour, and with the most agreeable graces of voice and gesture?