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is a manifest recognition of the old doctrine of Hippocrates -his coction and his crises!
One of Boerhaave's prominent therapeutic maxims was, contraries are removed by contraries, or, "contraria contrariis curantur." This, however, he thus explains-" Not by such means as are directly opposite or contrary to the present disease, but by such remedies as will afterwards manifest their effects contrary to the cause of the disease"that is, whose ultimate action is a radical cure. "Paracelsus and Van Helmont ridicule the maxim contraria contrariis curantur, and point to the fact that a frozen man would be killed, not cured by exposure to the influence of the fire; cold, a similar, being the proper cure. But they do not reflect that in this case, remedies which cure or relieve cold by renewing heat must produce an opposite effect to cooling. In the same way, when we want to cool in fever, we do not give cold water, but such drinks as will produce cold as their ultimate, not their primary action.”1 Here we have the explicit admission of the opposite effects produced by the same curative agent, its primary action being one thing, and its secondary the contrary.
This is the fifth distinct signification of the maxim, contraria contrariis curantur. The first is that of Hippocrates, who said, we must produce an opposite condition of the body to that in which the disease has occurred. a man be too fat, he is to be made leaner; and if too lean, we must fatten him. The second is that of Galen, who said disease arises from excess of moisture, dryness, heat, or cold. Remedies are in their nature, moist, dry, hot, and cold. Give, then, hot medicines in cold diseases, moist in dry, and so on. The third is that of Paracelsus, whose arcanum was a specific, or opposite of the disease, as the knife of cancer. The fourth was that of the Chemists, who ascribed diseases to an excess of acid or alkali in the
1 Vol. VI., par. 1086.
blood, and founded their curative system on the neutralizing of this excess by giving an acid to an alkaline, and an alkaline to an acid. Lastly, comes that of Boerhaave, who says, "Give a medicine, whose ultimate action is curative of the cause of the disease, whatever its immediate action may be. If a hot drink produce perspiration in fever, then give a hot drink, for that will cool the body, which is what we want to do. If the primary action of opium is constipating, and of rhubarb laxative, and the secondary the reverse, according to the principle of reaction, then opium may be the remedy in constipation, and rhubarb in diarrhoea." Thus we perceive that between the maxim of contraria contrariis, as understood by Boerhaave, and that of similia similibus, there is no antagonism.
Besides advocating the system of rational medication, that is, of finding out an opposite to the cause of the disease, Boerhaave acknowledges the specific method which "removes the cause of the disease by the administration of such things as are known to be efficacious only from experiment." How imperfectly he appreciated it, however, we learn from his observation that, as bark cures ague directly, so opium is a specific for pain. Now opium does not remove the cause of pain, and therefore it is not a specific according to his own definition of the term. It is impossible to study Boerhaave without a feeling of surprise that so able a man should be so inaccurate in his observations, and so loose in his reasonings; and that he should have acquired so enormous a reputation, without having contributed one great fact, or even one important suggestion, to the advancement of the art over which he may be said to have presided for so long a period.
Haller-His Wonderful Acquirements as a Boy-His Travels-Professor at Göttingen-His Labours-Doctrine of Irritability-New Definition of Life -Cullen-His Birth-place and Early Education-Professor at Edinburgh -Sir James Mackintosh's Description of Edinburgh University-Cullen's Wisdom-Use and Abuse of Theory-Definition of Life-On Peruvian Bark -Denies its Specific Power-John Brown-Furore Excited by His DoctrinesBrunonian Riots at Göttingen-Brown's Career-Account of His SystemExcitability, Exhausted and Accumulated-His Theory of Life Of HealthOf Disease--Of Treatment-His Prescriptions-His End.
As we approach the latter stages of our long journey, we encounter certain names which suggest the observation that giants are confined to no one period of history. An impartial survey of successive generations inevitably begets a conviction that there is no truth in the notion that the race of man developes itself at the expense of the individual members who compose it; for in the whole range of men of prowess and renown in the domain of medicine, it would be difficult to select one equal in capacity and attainments to Haller, emphatically described by Cuvier
as "Anatomiste, botaniste, poète Allemand, savant presque universel." 1
Albert Haller was born at Berne, on the 16th of October, 1708, of an ancient and respectable family. He was distinguished almost from his infancy by his extraordinary powers of acquiring knowledge. At the age of four years, he used to expound passages of Scripture to his father's servants; at eight years old, he had written 2000 notices of the lives of persons he had read about; at ten, he had made a vocabulary of the Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldee languages; at fifteen, he had composed tragedies, comedies, and an epic poem of 4000 verses, which he once risked his life to rescue from destruction, when his house was on fire, but which he afterwards himself committed to the flames when his judgment was more mature. His memory was most retentive. On one occasion he got nervous about it, thinking it impaired in consequence of a fall, and to test it went over the names of all the rivers in the world that fall into the sea. Having satisfied himself, by examining a map, that he had forgotten none, he was comforted. This was at a late period of life, when he was engaged in physiological studies.2
At the age of fifteen, he went to the University of Tübingen; and at seventeen, to Leyden, where Boerhaave was in the full blaze of his popularity. The young Haller was entirely captivated by this great teacher, and afterwards, as we have already had occasion to mention, he published, with Commentaries of his own, an edition of Boerhaave's Lectures. At the age of eighteen, in the year 1726, he took his degree; and chose for the subject of his thesis, the supposed discovery of a new salivary duct, which he demonstrated to be only a blood-vessel. He then visited the great seats of learning, and made
1 Biograph. Universelle. Art. Haller.
2 Leben von Hernn, von Haller, von O. J. G. Zimmermann. Zurich, 1755.