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within a year. The results have been entirely satisfactory. The first cost of the crematories were $9000 and $12,000 respectively and the cost of operation during the year was thirty cents per net ton of garbage. This included wages of three men, repairs and one and a half tons of gas coal per diem. The crematories are said to be good for twenty years' use and the amount of ash is less than one per cent. There is absolutely no odor, no smoke, not even the escape of ammonia fumes from the stack. The crematory is built in the center of the city and the garbage is dumped directly into the furnaces from steel carts each carrying 3000 pounds.

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FROM time to time we have heard rumors of the frequency with which ruptures of the perineum occur at the lyingCan this be True? in hospitals. The accident, usually consequent upon the use of forceps, seems to have been looked upon as a matter of no consequence; a few stitches will make things all right again in a week and when the woman is ready to get up at the ninth day, she will be as well as if nothing had happened. It has even been asserted - always in a jocular way that these ruptures are not always accidental; that the exigencies of the students' instruction in this important branch required that they should see such cases and know how to remedy them.

But a few days ago the matter was again brought to the writer's attention in such a way as to impress him with its importance. It is possible that there is a serious evil here which demands rebuke and correction. The writer was conversing with a prominent gynecologist and dean of one of the St. Louis colleges. Referring to the subject of practical instruction in obstetrics, this gentleman

said in effect, that rupture of the perineum was strikingly frequent in the lying-in hospital connected with his college-that it was the rule rather than the exception. That he had charged the professor of obstetrics with producing the rupture in order that his students might profit by it and that the latter had not denied it. Now many a true word is spoken in jest and if one may judge by the circumstances, this gentleman evidently believed in the truth of what he was saying.

Such a thing seems horrible to contemplate. That a human being- and often an innocent young woman (at any rate "more sinned against than sinning "), often from a distant country home, far from friends and sympathy, should be submitted to mutilation merely for the gratification of the whims and convenience of students, if true, calls for loudest condemnation and we brand any brother who would permit, much less himself perform it, as unworthy of his noble calling.

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The Proper Uses of a Museum.

A USEFUL hint or two may be obtained in some quarters from a description of the purposes fulfilled by the museum of Owens College, Manchester. Its public utility is quite as great as its private, if not greater. It is a teaching museum and not a mere agglomeration of curios. Lecturers from the whole of the city and the surrounding districts are accustomed to send their classes to verify by observation what they are taught. Insects and other animals are brought that it may be ascertained whether they are likely to be harmful to cotton, wood or crops. Associations concerned with self-education and literary and scientific societies come for entertainment and instruction. Much interest is also taken in the geological collection which is very rich in specimens of coals. The museum is open to the public daily free of any charge.

The Academy of Sciences of Baltimore might well emulate the example of Owens College. It possesses now a fine building— the gift of Mr. Pratt-centrally located. Let a recognized teacher in natural science be placed in charge and adequately paid for his services and we will guarantee that the collection will grow and its usefulness will commend it to the beneficence of our wealthy and public-spirited citizens.

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The Index Medicus fund now amounts to $1475-$5000 are required. The editors (Drs. Billings and Fletcher) announce that if revived, it will have no exchanges and no advertisements and will be a rare work. Until December I will be given.

Dr. Jacobi says that more than half of the patients of every practitioner are infants and children, yet it was not until 1860 that their diseases were taught in a thorough and special way; not until 1870 did the larger medical schools give clinical instruction in this branch.

Dr. John Syer Bristowe, the eminent English physician, author of Bristowe's "Practice," died August 20. He was senior physician to St. Thomas Hospital, London, and wrote the articles in Reynolds' System of Medicine on Pyemia and Diseases of the Intestines. He was 68 years old.

A bill has been introduced in the Minnesota legislature, by Dr. Zier, requiring those who manufacture patent medicines and nostrums to publish their formulae on each bottle, box, or package. The measure is a just one and has received the endorsement of many physicians and pharmacists of the State.

The Philadelphia authorities will not in fu. ture allow the exhibition, for money, of idiotic, insane, imbecile or deformed persons, a recent legislative act forbidding such exhibition. This reform, as it may properly so be called, is strictly in the interests of humanity and public decency. These exhibitions are demoralizing in themselves, cruel to their subjects, and tend only to pander to a morbid curiosity, which rather needs repression than occasion.

Dr. Frank B. Gardner, a well known physician of this city, met death under very sad circumstances on Saturday last, September 7. On the previous morning when his servant went to his room to call him, he found ¡him unconscious and the gas turned on. It appears that in adjusting his mosquito net Dr. Gardner had pulled upon the stopcock and turned on the gas. He was taken at once to the Maryland University Hospital and restoratives applied but he died the following morning without recovering consciousness. Dr. Gardner was a graduate of the University of Maryland, class of 1867, and 47 years of age. He was unmarried.

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Chairman Board for physical examination officers Revenue Cutter Service, August 22, 1895.

Fairfax Irwin, Surgeon, detailed as Chairman Board for physical examination of candidate Revenue Cutter Service, August 30, 1895.

C. E. Banks, Passed Assistant Surgeon, detailed as member Board for physical examination of candidate Revenue Cutter Service, August 30, 1895.

G. B. Young, Passed Assistant Surgeon, upon expiration of leave of absence, to report at Bureau for temporary duty in Laboratory, August 28, 1895.

BOOK REVIEWS.

A SYSTEM OF SURGERY. By American Authors. Edited by Frederic S. Dennis, M. D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Surgery, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York; President of the American Surgical Association, etc., assisted by John S. Billings, M. D., LL. D., D. C. L., Deputy Surgeon-General, U. S. A. To be completed in four imperial octavo volumes, containing about 900 pages, each with index. Profusely illustrated with figures in colors and in black. Volume II, 915 pages, 515 engravings and 10 colored plates. Price per volume $6.00 in cloth; $7.00 in leather; $8.50 in half Morocco, gilt back and top. For sale by subscription. Full circular free to any address on application to the publishers.

In our issue of July 13, we made a brief notice of Volume I of this magnificent system of surgery, by American authors. We now have the pleasure of reviewing Volume II of the same work. The present volume is the joint production of eleven authors, whose names are sufficient guarantee of the excellence of their work. Dr. Henry R. Wharton of the University of Pennsylvania contributes the first article, on minor surgery, which occupies 130 pages, and describes the methods of application of bandages, sutures, transfusion, etc., and if any criticism is permissible, it is the mild one, that many of the illustrations have served these many years in the various text-books which have appeared from time to time. The only needle holder figured is an antiquated affair, which it is impossible to clean thoroughly, and which a modern surgeon would not care to use if he could get any other.

Dr. Geo. R. Fowler of Brooklyn, N. Y., contributes the article on Plastic Surgery; which is devoted especially to plastic operations on the face, such as the restoration of the lips and nose, the closure of cleft palate

and the repairing of hare lips, all of which CURRENT EDITORIAL COMMENT. are fully described and illustrated. Military Surgery and the Care of the Wounded on the Battlefield is assigned to Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Forwood, U. S. A., but we find very little said in regard to military surgery itself, the greater portion of the very interesting article being devoted to the duties of the medical officers in the field, the organization of, field hospitals, and the distribution of supplies. Dr. Forwood seems to be somewhat opposed to the performance of laparotomy for penetrating gunshot wounds of the abdomen, owing to the lapse of time before the patient can be brought to the surgeon, and says: "Very exceptional qualifications are demanded of the surgeon," and "none but those having skill and especial training in this line should dare undertake it." It seems to the reviewer that every army surgeon should be prepared to perform laparotomy and suture intestinal perforations, as it is a procedure especially belonging to military surgery, and the patient is almost certainly doomed to speedy death if it is not done.

Dr. Nicholas Senn is the author of the article on "Diseases of the Bones" and it shows evidence of his usual careful and thorough work, though only 46 pages are devoted to this important class of diseases. Dr. Virgil P. Gibney devotes 100 pages to the consideration of Orthopedic Surgery, and all the usual deformities and joint diseases are dealt with thoroughly but in a conservative manner.

The surgery of the blood vessels is thoroughly considered by Drs. Lewis A. Stimson, Percival R. Bolton and Frederick S. Dennis. By all odds the most elaborate treatise in this volume is the section on Diseases and Injuries of the Head, by Dr. Roswell Park of Buffalo, N. Y., occupying nearly 300 pages, and richly illustrated with typical plates and drawings. It would seem that the subject had been most minutely considered, embracing pretty much every condition affecting these parts, from a scalp wound to a brain tumor. Articles by Dr. Keen on the Surgery of the Spine, and by Dr. John B. Roberts on the Surgery of the Nerves, are valuable contributions to surgical literature, as well as the article by Dr. Genish on the Surgery of the Lymphatic System.

We conclude as we began, with the expression of our high appreciation of this magnificent System of Surgery.

MIDWIVES.

Lousiville Medical Monthly.

THERE is no objection to midwives practicing obstetrics, and we believe that they should be allowed to do so, but they ought to be subjected to the same restrictions as are placed on physicians.

CONTAGION IN SCHOOLS.

National Medical Review.

MEASLES is a more serious disease than is generally considered. It is a great error to think that we do children a kindness in exposing them to measles. One case of measles in a school should cause the closure of the school until it can be definitely ascertained that all danger of contagion is past.

MANAGEMENT OF ENTERIC FEVER.
Philadelphia Polyclinic.

WITH good treatment and good nursing, in the light of present knowledge, the mortality of typhoid fever should not exceed seven per cent., and except under very unfavorable circumstances we may expect to see it reduced to less than five per cent. In seventy-five cases out of one hundred of typhoid fever, the patients left to themselves, without interference on the part of physician or nurse, will get well. In seventy cases out of one hundred, typhoid fever patients will survive poor medication, provided they have good nursing; and in sixty-five cases out of one hundred, they will probably survive even bad medication and bad nursing.

THE REGULATION OF PROSTITUTION.
New York Medical Journal.

THE SO-called "social evil" presents so many points of difficulty in its management that it is well-nigh useless to expect any material benefit to result from legislation on the subject unless the legislation is based on broad conceptions of justice and expediency, and it never will be so based until such conceptions are entertained by a large class of the people. To bring about such a desirable state of public opinion it is quite necessary that the moralist and the physician should not array themselves against each other, each intent on carrying through all that he regards as important; they should rather co-operate to secure the best attainable regulation of the miserable trade.

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PHARMACEUTICAL.

BEING devoid of toxic properties, Melachol may be safely recommended as a household remedy, and because of its non-irritant qualities, it is the safest remedy for domestic practice; fecal impaction, typhlitis, and even appendicitis, has been cured by the prompt use of Melachol.

ACUTE cystitis-resulting from gonorrhea. and presenting symptoms of distress and pain over pubes, frequent and urgent inclination to micturate, urine cloudy and depositing slight amount of mucus on standing. Chronic cystitis-resulting from enlarged prostate, retained or altered urine, or from gout or nervous derangement-mucus or muco-pus rendering the urine more or less cloudy or opaque. Treatment-In addition to the mechanical treatment, usually essential in the management of disorders of this class, the administration of Lambert's Lithiated Hydrangea is often of the greatest service. A practitioner of wide experience says "I have used Lambert's Lithiated Hydrangea on various persons affected with diverse and painful manifestations of chronic rheumatism, gout, lithiasis-urica, nephritic calculus and functional disturbances of the renal system, with excellent results and I consider it a valuable remedy for normalizing the renal function, for promoting the active elimination of uric acid and to calm the congestive conditions of the kidneys and of the urinary mucous membrane."

EXTRACT from a paper read before the Academy of Medicine of Cincinnati, May 13, 1895, on Acute Mania, by W. H. DeWitt, M. D.: The medical treatment of these cases is very simple, and can be disposed of in few words. To procure sleep and quiet is perhaps the greatest desideratum, and I know of nothing so certain in its action as chloral hydrate, given in 40 or 60 grains. It may be given alone or combined with one of the bromides. The "Bromidia" of Battle & Co. I have always found very reliable. It is almost certain to quiet and produce sleep. You will occasionally meet with cases that resist the influence of chloral even in large repeated doses; here opium or some one of its derivatives, either given alone or in con

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