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Vol. X., No. 4.

PHILADELPHIA, PA., JANUARY 27, 1894.

$1.50 A YEAR

of this paper.

To the Reader:

Please read our special offers on last page If you will accept any of these offers and subscribe for the weekly EDUCATIONAL NEWS within sixty days, we will allow you four months' time to make payment of subscription.

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can be made working for us. Spare hours turned to go od axount. This is of especial interest and value to teachers Never mind about sending stamp. Ad. dress B. F. JOHNSON & CO., Richmond, Va.

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ionship. It will be reflected in a great many ways. And

no one should care to conceal it, either.

The habitual reader of the sensational novel, though per-

PUBLISHED WEEKLY

haps beyond danger of being moved to attempts at imita-

EDUCATIONAL NEWS COMPANY,

tion, will none the less, reveal without fail in language, act,

or expression, the drift of his private companionship. There

Philadelphia, Pa.

is an almost imperceptible influence developed that will

quite unconsciously develop sensationalism in the impres-

CONTENTS.

COMMUNICATIONS:

sionable minds of youth.

THE PRIVATE LIBRARY.....

.51

For the purposes of the teacher there are three grades of

WHAT TO DO IN EMERGENCIES...

.52 general reading matter. ist, that grade which from its di-

WINTER HEALTH HINTS...........

53 rect influence for the bad should be studiously avoided; 2d,

FUNNY THINGS...........

-53 that which from its lack of influence direct, is as evil indi-

HOW TO TEACH FRACTIONS

.54

rectly in developing a mental lethargy unworthy of any

ELOCUTIONARY

teacher; and 3d, that which from its direct appeal to the

THE JOLLY OLD PEDAGOGUE

......55

EDITORIAL:

better impulses of life should be sought out and cultivated.

EDITORIAL NOTES......

...56

Those who are familiar with samples of the first grade cap

PERSONAL ITEMS................

...57 hardly fail to recognize them. It is not intended to limit

HINTS..............

.58 the class to actually vicious books, but to include those

EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE...

59 that tend to develop and call into life elements in human

QUERY COLUMN.............

.61

nature quite foreign to our present necessities of life. The

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC,.

...62

second class includes all these wishy-washy productions,

the chief harro in which is their weak shallowness and ener-

Original and Selected.

vating influence. Devotees of this literature are not apt

For The EDUCATIONÅL NEWS,

to become criminals, for thought is dwarfed rather than

preverted, and they become the ciphers in society. To the
THE PRIVATE LIBRARY.

third class must be accorded the credit of all the building

up of ihe intellectual age credited to literature in any form.
No modern teacher ventures to dispute the importance Here are found the teachers' aids and tools; here are the
of the influence exerted by the literature met with outside materials for building up the private selt; here the truly
The schrol room. At the same time, there are not sew great works, essays, poetry, and novels, that have proven
who fail to appreciate the figure their own reading cuts in themselves levers to elevate the intellectual standard a little.
the development of the pupils. It is not necessary to go The human intellect is, first of all, a mirror that reflects
to the teacher's library to know what it contains in sub. back the images it has received fron other sources, chief of
stance. A teacher is in a certain sense a public character, which perhaps, are books and the periodical press. This
much more closely watched, judged, and criticised than is particularly true of any profession like the teacher's that
the ordinary individual. In country towns particularly, is a constant drill of the reflecting powers. This is the
the chances are that a pretty good idea of what periodicals cause of the direct influence. The indirect comes from the
he or she takes is more or less current. No person can cloudiness of the mirror that transforms the reflection of all
successfully conceal the character of his literary compan. 'quarters, and destroys the clear cut images of beauty that

spring up from healthier sources. Even the natural good almost worthless to another. First of all, however, of the is tinged with the acquired evil.

secular library, is the dictionary, as complete as possible. Show me the teacher's library and I will tell you pretty A good encyclopedia would be my next choice. Then accurately what that teacher is doing in the school room; some good works for teachers from the professional standwhether the influence is for good or evil. In a general point, their tools. One good standard history of the more way, if I find a few copies of the sensational dime novel in important countries. A large atlas of the world. And in the private room, I look for sensationalism and unnatural the line of fiction and lighter literature such authors as aims and purposes among the pupils. But I would almost Dickens, Elliott, Scott, Irving, Hawthorne, Thomas Hughes, as soon find this as a series of purposeless, soulless, sense - Thomas Reade, J. G. Holland, and a host of others may less, dish-watery stories the whole effect of which is nega

be selected from almost at pleasure. I for one would not tive, a dwarfing of every intellectual capacity by a total fear to trust a child of mine with the possession of such a failure to appeal to and cultivate any. Sometimes I am library for his private inspiration. XENO W. PUTNAM. tempted to fear that the devil's work-shop in the shape of

WHAT TO DO IN EMERGENCIES. an idle brain more than the devil himself. I do not wish the impression to go that I am opposed to

B. B. LOUGHEAD, M. D. the reading of fiction. I believe we could better afford to suddenly lose all of nearly every other class of literature There are certain accidents and emergencies that frethan our true poetry and fiction. They appeal to the soul quently occur among school children, while at play or where their more solid brothers only storm the intellect. about their school duties, that require immediate and The best thoughts of all the ages past and present are crys- skilful attention. If the teacher knows exactly what to do tallized into our fiction. Give me a volume teaching cer- when any one of these emergencies arises, it is most fortain moral truths in the shape of the most attractive essays tunate for the sufferer, and very creditable to the teacher, and discourses, and one in which the same are equally giving to both pupils and parents increased confidence in well presented in the form of a novel, and I would place his ability. But if an emergency arise and the teacher be the lattter in the hands of a child first; not because it is found unable to do the needful thing, mark you, the lost more attractive but because it is more practical, a word prestige can never be regained, for every old woman in the picture showing the double purpose of illustration and district will declare her ability to have done just the right advice.

thing. So long, however, as there is an opportunity of retaining The following are the most common conditions which both I would much prefer to make the most of the privi- call for skilful treatment on the part of the teacher, viz: lege. Even the not strictly orthodox "moral novels” may fainting, convulsions or fits, wounds, hemorrhage from be advantageously resorted to occasionally. By this I do nose, mouth, or cuts, sprains, broken bones, and disloca not by any means intend to admit literature contrary to tions. good morals, but those in which the "moral" is not fasten- Fainting is one of the most common and terrifying aced on like a rag to a sore thumb; a tale told for itself, and cidents that you will meet with. The suddenness of the capable of standing on its own legs. A certain professor attack and the deathly appearance of the patient are likely in one of our prominent colleges confesses to an approval to terrify the pupils and try the nerve of the teacher. of such tales as "The Arabian Nights” to a limited degree, Fainting or syncope is caused by a sudden anæmia or lack as an exerciser of the imagination. In fact, if we think of of blood in the brain. This loss of blood supply is caused it, many of the triumphs of science have been forced to by sailure of heart action, and may be precipitated by a come through channels of improbability almost as great as variety of causes. If a pupil fall over in a faint, what shall these fables, and have required a good deal of the Jules I do? is a question every teacher should be able to answer Verne style of imagination in their conception. But, like without hesitation. To restore the patient to conscious. a ball of twine, a little will go a good ways.

ness is the thing desired, and that can be brought about It is always easier to criticise than to advise. This is by securing a return of blood to the brain. Now, I beg of particularly true in regard to the best choice of books for you, don't rush out and get a pail of water and dash it the private library, as the ideal to be aimed for is of such the little sufferer. That is what the aforementioned old uncertainty, and the various conditions that surround indi- woman would do. Quietly place the patient upon the viduals render that which would be of high value to one floor, or upon a couch near an open door or window, with

on

the head a trifle lower than the body it possible, thus fav- When you have been working and have taken your coat oring the return of blood to the brain by force of gravity. off, be sure to keep in motion all the time, so as not to Now loosen the clothing so that there will be no impedi- become chilled. When the work is over, put on your coat ment to free action of heart and lungs. By this time, prob- at once. Do not get chilled by any carelessness. When ably some one has brought the time-honored pail or feet get wet, change boots and stockings at earliest opporpitcher of cold water. With this bathe the head and face, tunity.

With this bathe the head and face, tunity. Change all wet or damp clothes. These hints are not by pouring, but by wetting the hand and gently wash- to those who desire to avoid pneumonia, a disease alarming temples and face. No attempt should be made to get ingly prevalent, and noted for its selection of the strong the patient to swallow until there is a fair return of color and vigorous as its victims. A word to the wise, &c. to the face and lips, as raising the head may precipitate The cold season of the year is the time when the contaanother attack of syncope. There will be no necessity for gious diseases of childhood-diphtheria, scarlet fever, dosing the patient with stimulants after a fair action of the measles, &c., are most prevalent. Keep your children heart is restored. If the means here suggested do not away from houses where diseases prevail, and if they berecover the patient from the attack or bring about signs of come epidemic in your neighborhood it may be necessary recovery within five to ten minutes from the time of at- to keep the children from the day and Sabbath schools It tack, a physician should be called it one can be found; if is much better to close all schools promptly when any of not, the pupils' parents should be notified and the respon these diseases threatens to become epidemic. It is a good sibility shifted from the teacher. After the pupil has re plan to give your children a cup for their own use at school. covered sufficiently, he should be sent home for the day, If children are kept free from scarlet fever and diphtheria attended by another member of the family or an older until 16 or 18 years of age the danger of contracting them pupil.

is greatly lessened. Convulsions of an epileptic character are frequently met If in spite of all your care they do catch these diseases, with, and if a pupil that is known to be an epileptic, or nurse them carefully, and then be very careful of them ''subject to fits," as the phrase goes, suffers an attack in while convalescent (for many children who have escaped the school room or in the yard, the most that can be done scarlet fever and diphtheria die of subsequent exposure.) is to use sufficient restraint to keep him from injuring him. After these diseases, the eyes are often in a weak state for self by striking the head or hands against the floor or fur- a long time, and the children should not be permitted to niture, and if possible thrusting a cork or wooden gag be- use them to excess. Many children should be kept out of tween the teeth to keep the sufferer from biting the tongue school until the eyes have recovered their tone. Whenand lips. If the patient is not an epileptic, but a convul- ever a child complains of its eyes aching, don't allow it to sion is precipitated from some cause unknown, the sofferer use them in studying or doing fine needlework. At night, should be kept as quiet as possible and the parents, or a don't allow them to be crowded far oft from thelight. Their physician, or both, should be summoned, for medical aid eyes are better than those of the older people, it is true, will probably be required to remove the cause and prevent but, like older eyes, they can readily be injured too. further attacks, or to treat the patient for some disease of If you have vegetables stored in the cellar, see that they which the convulsion is the initial symptom.-Ohio Educa- are not left to decay and thus to make foul air for the tional Monthly.

rooms above. Of the vegetables commonly placed in the

cellar, cabbage probably becomes the most offensive. It WINTER HEALTH HINTS.

is far the better plan to bury this vegetable in the garden in Dress warmly, especially whenever exposed to unusual a barrel or box, where it will keep fresher and nicer than cold. Whenever about to take a ride, put on your heav- in the cellar. Of one thing the head of the family may be iest clothes, the extra heavy overcoat, and then throw into sure, and that is, if there is foul air in the cellar, it will the buggy or sleigh several extra robes or blankets. One find its way into the living-rooms above. never knows how cold it may be before he again reaches

As it is difficult to keep the cellar air pure in winter, home. At sales wear your overshoes and heavy overcoat, there should be some means devised whereby it may be even on warmish days, and don't stand in any place where ventilated. This will be best accomplished by making an there is a current of cold air blowing. At funerals, don't opening into a flue which is in a chimney kept warm all take your hat off on a cold day and stand in that position. winter. Such a flue will have a draft, and will do much Some ministers seem to desire other funerals at which to to keep the air in the cellar pure. When there is a fur. officiate, by their needlessly long services at the grave. nace in the cellar, this will use up the foul air and lessen

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