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FOR BRAIN-WORKERS, the WEAK an T-REVIEW-REVIEWS

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Remedy for relieving Mental and the other magazines in addition to its own brilliant, orig.

Nervous Exhaustion ; and where inal articles, took America by storm, as it had taken England-though the magazine itself was not at all a

the system has become debilitated reprint of the English edition. It deals most largely with Zomerican affairs, and is edited with perfect independence, in its own office.

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meridians and parallels simplifies it so much that it is uni

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in the nautical world is thus estimated by Sir George
CONTENTS.

Grove: "The most ignorant sailor can lay down his course
COMMUNICATIONS:
THE MERCATOR MAP........

.755

without calculation. In fact the invention of this map has THE PRINCIPLES OF THE HERBARTIAN SCHOOL.........756 been justiy called one of the most remarkable and useful LANGITAGE WORK.....

758 events of the sixteenth century; because it enables common, TEACHERS' MEETINGS..

..758 unlearned people to do easily and correctly what only ELOCUTIONARY

clever, learned people could have done without it." TALKING IN THEIR SLEEP

.759

A paper on "How Maps Are Made,” by W. B. Blakie, EDITORIAL:

which originally appeared in the Scottish Geographical MagRODITEL NOTES.......

...760 PERSONAL ITEME.................

..761

azine and which is reprinted in a recent Smithsonian Report, AINTS

.76 makes clear the probable method of reasoning which evolvEDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE......

.763 ed this map. As Mercator was a globe maker, the QUERY OOLUMN......

.765

natural inference is that he worked from a globe. Let us LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC,.

766

suppose that he stripped the entire Northern hemisphere
Original and Selected.

from his globe, preserving the equator line intact save at
the prime meridian. Placing this map on a plane surface,

it would present nearly the outlines of a saw, the gores be. For the EDUCATIONAL NEWS.

tween the meridians bcisg united on the side bounded by THE MERCATOR MAP.

the equator, and projecting in pointed teeth at the pole.

This would be a very inconveniently shaped map. Let The Mercator map, which represents the earth as a cylinder instead of a sphere, was the invention of a Flemish us suppose that he paced a blank sheet under this, and geographer and globe maker who was born in 1512 and upon it completed the outlines broken by the meridional died in 1594. His real name was Gerard Kremer, which gores. This completed would produce a map fairly accusignifies "merchant.” Following a custom of that time, rate in tropical regions; but as the spaces betweeri the merihe Latinized it and his name was passed into history under dian boundaries constantly widen as they approach the the foreign synonym, Mercator.

poles, the distortiou in the outlines increases in proportion. His

map faithfully represents the form of each small Certain convex mirrurs are so arranged that the face appiece of land but it is inaccurate as to distances, a fault pears abnormally bread, while others reflect one equally which increases in the higher latitudes. Despite this fault, elorg atd. The microscope lens is so made that it magnihowever, it is in some respects superior to any other fies uniformly on all sides and thus preserves the relative method of projection. It is the only means by which the proportious. This is just what Mercator endeavored to do entire surface of the earth may be represented on a plane. by stretching his degrees of latitude in the circur.i-polar re. The substitution of straight lines for curves in representing gions. To illustrate this, Mr. Blakie makes use of a square

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as represent in the natural outlines. In filling in between must no longer be purely formal or restricted to two o the gores, the breadth is necessarily made too great; this three subjects. If school studies are to reveal our duties he represents by a rectangle, the shorter dimension of to ourselves and our neighbors, and to sweeten our disposiwhich equals that of the original square. By stretching it ton toward "others, they must be full and rich, throbbing sufficiently, the original square form may be restored with the life of the world, and no longer merely formal, though the size is necessarily increased. And since the cold, and abstruse. . disproportion in breadth increases in bigher latitudes, the To reveal the moral order of the world, not alone in its Stretching between the parallels must also increase in these subjective aspects, but in all its manifold and far-reaching regions.

objective relations, as seen in family, civil, business, and This explains the fact that in Mercator maps the degrees social life, is a task that implies not only faith and high increase in length as they recede from the equator. For purpose, but broad knowledge and deep insight as well. instance, in a map at band the space between the equator The second implication contained in the idea that inand the parallel of 20° measures but little more than three-structions makes a moral revelation of the world to the fourths of an inch; between 20° and 40°, about one inch; pupil is, that the making of the curriculum,in all its details, between 40° and 60°, a little more than one and one-fourth is a work of magnitude and importance. Our principals inches; while the next twenty degrees occupy a space of and teachers must struggle with the outline programmes two and one-half inches, the last ten degrees monopolizing offered by groups of experts, like those represented in the nearly two-thirds of this allowance.

report of the committee of ten. Bessie L. PUTNAM.

A third implication is, the moral character cannot be

glued on to the pupil by any external system of ethical inTHE PRINCIPLES OF THE HERBARTIAN SCHOOLS.

struction superimposed upon intellectual education, but

must grow out of the very heart of the studies themselves, BY CHARLES DE GARMO, PRESIDENT OF SWARTHMORE through the nature of their content, and by keeping them COLLEGE.

in close touch with a few fundamental ethical ideals.

In the light of this idea of instruction the moral purOne of our greatest problems is, What shall the public poses to be subserved assume clear outline and definite schools teach? For the past twenty years the Herbartians content. in Germany have labored at its solution with the vigor and In pursuance of this initial purpose of instruction, the persistence so characteristic of the German scholar. Her- Herbartians emphasize first of all the painstaking study of bart and his followers teach that, except for the inculcation conditions and development of the child's apprehension, of dogma and the training in ecclesiastical ceremony, the or apperception, as the only reliable guide to the selection public school is an adequate agency for the development of the subject matter and the methods of presenting it to of moral character. This, for us, is important, if true. the child. The same problem is attacked from the phyEven more than we need to know what to teach do we siological side in the child-study, so ably and so vigorously need to know how to temper our school intellectualism by represented by President Hall. effective moral training.

Herbartians do not always agree, bnt whatever they The two subjects of most vital importance to American attempt is always done in the sacred name of the child, education appear to be (1) the moral outcome of educa- bis understanding, his sympathies, his interest, his feeltion, and (2) the selection, sequence, and articulation of the ings and mental stages, his natural ways of living. With subject-matter of the curriculum. It is to these two subjects them all educational psychology focuses upon the procesnot as isolated, but as organically connected, that the foloses of mental life, as exhibited in the child. With the lowers of Herbart have given their best efforts.

ethical purpose as an end and the apperception of the child Herbart declares "Instruction in the studies of the public each of the problems of education is examined. Upon the schools must be made to reveal to the pupil the moral order ethical and psychological basis already explained, the of the world; and not only must it furnish this moral insight Herbartians dwell especially upon three fundamental topics but it must so touch the heart that a permanent right dis-in instruction. They are:position toward all men, both in their individual and in 1. The selection of subject matter and the sequence of their organized capacity, may result.”

its topics. 2. The coordination or concentration of studThe first implication of such a demand is that the studies ies. 3. The best methods of teaching.

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