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WANTED—pals, 2. college presi



Vol. X., No. 42.


$1.50 A YEAR:



Referring to “Hints and Helps in Grammar," published

by Raub & Co., I find that but is made a subordinate conPUBLISHED WEEKLY

junction, therefore the sentence embracing the first two lines BY THE

of the stanza is complex, containing a leading and a suborEDUCATIONAL NEWS COMPANY,

dinate clause, and doubtless the poet used but in the sense Philadelphia, Pa.

of unless, in order to shorten the line, or to preserve the CONTENTS.

poetic foot; "There is no flock however watched and tended COMMUNICATIONS:

unless one dead lamb is there.” In plain prose we would A LETTER ON GRAMMAR .............

.659 likely use a prepositional phrase instead of the subordinate TALK FROM TEXAS........


clause; we would then have, "without one dead lamb." GEOGRAPHY SUGGESTIONS..........


... 661

The complex preposition except that is sometimes used for NATURAL HISTORY FOR STREET BOYS......... .662 | unless in similar constructions. Is not T. J. M.'s sentence ELOOUTIONARY

similar in construction ? There is not a white hair on your ONE OF HIS FAMES......

.....663 face (except that) (unless) (but that) it should have its efEDITORIAL:

fect of gravity; it is to be admitted that the above is not EDITORIAL NOTES........

..664 PERSONAL ITEMS...............


very smooth English, but the original sentence is not pure HINTS.........

...666 English and therefore cannot be made to conform to the EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.

...667 rules for English construction as it stands. QUERY COLUMN..............

...669 I do not think that but is coordinate in this sentence, nor LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIO,


are the clauses of equal value, while I admit that in the

effort to reconstruct the sentence so as to make it complex, Original and Selected.

the smoothness of the construction is destroyed, yet the sense For the EDUCATIONAL NEWS.

is the important thing to be aimed åt, and the words used A LETTER ON GRAMMAR.

to bring out that sense ought to be of secondary import


Will others please express an opinion? “In the multitude Dear Sir,

of council there is wisdom." In the issue of the EDUCATIONAL News of Nov. 3, What is gained by using the idiom in T. J. M.'s sentence I notice the analysis of a sentence by contributor T. J. M., in prose writing? We can understand why it is employed about which I am not quite clear. “There's not a white in poetry, but fail to see that it renders the meaning clear hair on your face but should have its effect of gravity," T. in prose. Please answer through the columns of the J. M. makes but a co-ordinate conjunction and the sentence News.

TEACHER. compound in construction. The sentence belongs to a Philadelphia, Nov. 5, 1894. class that are not purely English idiom, and for that reason

For the EDUCATIONAL News. are apt to be misconstrued; we find them both in


in poetry, Longfellow says:
. There is no flock, however watched and tended,

But one dead lamb is there;
There is no hearthstone, howsoe'er defended,

The deficit in the public school fund for the past year,
But bath one vacant chair."

and the great reduction of the per-capita allowance for the




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present year, are anything but gratifying to the friends of portionment, the coming year, of $4.50 per capita, which education. How to meet the emergency and carry out the will maintain the schools for five and twenty-five one hunconstitutional requirement as to length of school term is a dredths months, unless increased by additional local taxes. knotty problem now confronting the State Board of Educa- Weatherford, Texas. tion. The facts in the case as recently given to the public by Attorney General Culberson are as follows: For the

GEOGRAPHY SUGGESTIONS, scholastic year of 1891-92, the apportionment of the school fund, per capita, was $4.50, and the school term five and

BY ELLA M. POWERS, Milford, N. H. twenty-five one hundredths months; and for the year 189293, the apportionment, per capita, was $5.00, and the term Geography serves as a common ground upon which litfive and seventy-four one hundredths months. This in- erature, history and science all meet. No study is richer crease in the school term is due to the increase in the levy in necessary and entertaining facts if these are presented of local taxes for school purposes and the transfer of one correctly. per cent. from the permanent to the available fund. The Too many children learn "A map is a representation of apportionment for 1893-94 was $4.50, and for the year a part or the whole of the earth's surface.” Unless a child 1894-95, on a scholastic population of 693,752 it is $3.50, has been led to think this truth he will be helpless forever per capita, or $2,428,133. There was a deficit of $606,- in all his attempts to gain geographical knowledge. 018.45 for the year 1893-94, and it is yet unpaid. This So many times a little globe, the size of a one year old's deficit, as well as the failure to make a greater apportion- head, is shown to the class, then a seven year old is asked ment for the present year, is due to the increase in the to stretch out his mind and grasp the idea that this little scholastic population and the arrears of interest on school colored globe represents the world. When we say to that land notes. The following shows the increase in the child: “What is the world?” is it strange that his reply is: scholastic population.

"It is a pasteboard globe colored yellow," or at another For the year 1891-92 it was 583,835 time says: “The earth is the most popular--zone on the 1892-93

605,495 globe.” 1893-94


What steps shall be taken to correct such tendencies? 1894-95

693,752 First, require the class to observe a limited portion of any Of the permanent school fund out of which the available surface, as the school room. Make measurements, agree tund is drawn in interest there are $15,000,000 in land notes. upon a scale, draw a map of it perhaps upon the scale of These notes generally represent sales to settlers of lands one half inch to every yard. When this is completed take situated in the western portion of the State. The appor- a larger surface, as the school-yard; require the children to tionment for the year 1893-94 was made upon the assump- locate trees, shrubs, walks and the schoolhouse. tion that the interest upon these notes would be paid; yet swer to well directed questions may be, The broad gravel because of the general financial depression and the disaster walk extends east and west.' The large elm tree is in the to agriculture in that section, the amount of past due inter- southwest corner of the lot.' The small maple tree is in the est on these notes is $750,000. If this could be collected centre. The hedge forms the northern boundary of the it would discharge the deficit and leave a surplus to be ad- lot.” ded to the present apportionment of $150,000. If this can Next let a field be drawn in similar manner. Let all the not be collected, or if it is and the people desire to main-class walk out at least once to view the ground and get the tain the schools for the full period of six months, there is measurements. This work should be thorough, The no method by which this debt can be paid and this purpose streams, woods, roads and fences should be noticed. Pro. accomplished except an increase of taxation. The present duce all these in outline, using the conventional signs used rate of taxation for school purposes is 12/2 cents, and the by map makers to mark boundaries, streams. Besides constitutional limit is 20 cents on the hundred dollars. making a map upon paper let one of sand be made. In Taking as a basis the $2,423,133, apportioned for the pres-one school the pupils modeled a complete miniature field ent year, the scholastic population of 693,752 and $565,- with the little hills, streams, a woodland corner and fences. 000,000, the estimated total assessed values, if the interest Even little pebbles were there to represent some large due be paid and the taxes increased to the limit of 20 cents, rocks that were noticable in the field. After this work is it will do no more than pay the deficiency and allow an ap- done a pupil will have a clear idea of what a map

is. They

The an

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will be in possession of a principle which they have learned "The form of thorns is more or less varied; they nearly by their own efforts and which will enable them to get in- always spring from an eminence at their base, are pointed formation from all maps. Only in this way can realistic at the free end, and are very hard in texture. Ordinarily teaching be fully assured and appreciated.

simple, they may be trifurcated. Their position is also very From a map of large fields the children will readily make variable; one might indeed say that all the parts of plants and understand similar maps of the town, the country and are capable of bearing them: we find them on the stems of the state.

the rose, on the base of the leaves of the barberry, on the Do not be contented with one map of each.

leaves and flowers of thistles, on the fruit of the jimson-weed Several maps with few details upon each will give us a and on the root of the acanthus. clearer idea than the one may which contains all. This “A plant consists of three members, root, stem, and latter is confusing. The first map should have the sim- leaves, which by their modifications assume the very complest lines. Again, one maf may contain the countries, plex forms exhibited by vegetation. Now to which part of another, the resources; a third; the railroads; and a fourth; the plant shall we ascribe the thorns? In this matter it is the rainfall, different pupils being assigned to provide necessary, from the botanical point of view, to make a very different maps.

important distinction, but one which untortunately is not These may be easily made of paper, salt, pulp, putty, visible without a microscope. Certain spines, like roots, clay or other plastic material.- Popular Educator.

stems, and leaves, have vessels which elaborate sap,

while others are completely wanting in this respect. The DEFENSIVE WEAPONS OF PLANTS.

term 'thorn' has been restricted to the first class, while Any one who has been caught in a thicket of brambles those of the second class are called 'prickles.' These latter can testify to the vigor and efficacy with which plants simply emerge from the superficial tissues, and are dissemarmed with thorns defend themselves and their domain inated without order over all plant. Thorns, on the conagainst intrusion. Nor is it a mere figure of speech or a trary, are always regularly disposed, a fact easily intellipoetic personification of inanimate vegetation to look upon gible when it is recognized that they are only modified orits Action as defensive, since science tells us that thorns and gans, as is proved by the sap-vessels with which they are the like are true protective weapons, given by Nature for furished. just this kind of use. The subject of thorny protection,

"Thorps are often modified branches. This fact is most with the conditions under which it exists and has been de- apparent in the blackthorn, which bears flowers on its veloped, is treated by Henri Coupin in La Nature. Sep- thorns. Sometimes, also, they are modified leaves as in tember 22, from which we translate the following:

the barberry, or leat divisions, as in the century-plant, or "The means of defense, so numerous and varied in the ani- even stipules as exemplified in the acacia. Sometimes mal world, appear at the first glance to be wholly wanting both leaves and branches are so modified as to become among vegetables, but this is by no means the case. Super- thorns. Nature has diverse means of attaining her ends. fical as is the attention bestowed on the behavior of plants "Thorns are interesting not only for their functions and toward their animal destroyers, one very soon perceives their morphology, but also for the modifications of which that they are protected by numerous and very efficacious they are susceptible under varying condition. For exweapons of defense. Among these last, everybody knows ample, in one region a plant may be richly armed with of the thorns, spines, and prickles which bristle on the stems thorns, may possess few in a second region, and none in a and leaves of some plants. One can hardly forbear to third. It is remarkable. too, that the condition which ascribe to these organs the function of active defense, not favors or arrests the development of thorns in any one only against the teeth of the herbivores who would devour species are similarly operative on all the plants in the rethem, but also against the hand of man who would pluck gion. Hence it is that the flora of the steppes of the vast them. In the Spring, for example, when vegetation is but dry prairies and the desert have many more thorny species little advanced, the blackthorns would soon disappear in than the flora of the forest. the stomachs of oxen, sheep, and other herbivorous feeders "It is, above all, in the deserts that thorny plants are if Nature had not provided them with long and sharp spines abundant. Vegetation is there exposed at once to the so that it is very difficult to swallow them. Because of action of arid soil, dry atmosphere, and intense light. The their spines, the blackthorns are able to flower, fruit, and influence of these causes in the production of thorns has consequently perpetuate their species.

been made the subject of experimeut by M. Lothelier, of

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