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He was tried by a court-martial, among whom were Lafay- never. The big boy must needs have some smaller fellow ette, Greene, Steuben, Stark and Stirling. Andre argued to direct; the little boy feels himself bigger, even when in his own case, giving a frank and truthful account of his absolute subjection lo the big boy, if he only be permitted part in the unhappy transaction, but denying that he was a to keep his company; the middle-size boy partakes of the spy since he entered the American lines on the invitation nature of both. Happily for the all-round development of an American general. The court, however, pronounced of the child, of which the psychologists write knowingly, him a spy and sentenced him to death.
the same boy may be either big, middle-size, or little, Andre wrote a letter to Washington requesting that he according as he chooses his mates, and so may director might be spared the rope and die a soldier's death. serve, lead or be led, shout orders, or fondly imitate the Washington laid the matter before the court-martial which louder shouts of his leaders. replied by saying:—"Have you forgotten how the British These three sizes of boys were represented in the group hanged our brave Nathan Hale four years ago?" Clinton which my stolen glance surveyed. Two-thirds the way tried to effect Andre's release. Washington would gladly up a ladder resting against the side of the house opposite, have pardoned him, had he not thought it necessary 10 stood the big boy of this company, encased in his Saturday comply with the usages of war. He would not agree to suit of blue overalls, which had the effect of increasing both exchange him for any officer except Arnold. Clinton his apparent size and his power of impressing his younger thought he could not honorably break his faith with the companions. With occasional blows of his hammer, which traitor and declined. Andre showed no fear of death, and he held, without regard to the principle of leverage, close when he saw the gallows he exclaimed, "How hard is my to the iron, he endeavored to fasten some wire fencing to fate," and turning to an officer said, "I pray you to bear the porch as a support for an ambitions woodbine in the witness that I meet my fate like a brave man." So Andre coming summer. This attempt at hammering interfered was hanged instead of the infamous Arnold, and Amer- somewhat with his main business, which appeared to be cans feeling that he was thevictim of a cruel man, have been that of instructing in the noble art of gymnastics the middlegenerous to his memory. He was buried near Tappan, sized boy, who was performing feats which required much New Jersey, but in 1821, forty years afterward, his remains straining and puffing on his part, as his red face frankly were removed to England and laid in Westminister Abbey. admitted. These feats caused the eyes of the small boy to Slippery Rock Normal, Pa.
D. C. MURPHY.
stick out, like crab's, with wonder and admiration, but they
elicited from the big boy in the blue overalls not even scant A PHASE OF CHILD STUDY,
“Ho!” he shouted, in tones calculated to inform the neighBY SARAH L. ARNOLD.
borhood of his prowess,“ that a'n't nothirg; you ought to see me at the 'gym' bar twice as high as that.
You ought Having occasion to wait in the carriage while my friends to see us men use the trapeze. I wish I was down there to made a call, the other day, I opened my book, which I show you.” had brought "a purpose,” intending to while the time The small boy was lost in admiration of the hero in blue away with Hawthorne's poetic pages. The day's mood overalls, and the middle-sized boy looked red in the face, was in tune with that of the poet, for the April sunbeams grasped the iron fence-rod which served as a bar, and exwere showered generously down upon twigs and swellings plained, “This thing's too high. I a'n't as tall as you felbuds. The robin's song was heard in the maple, and the lows at the 'gym. soft breezè prophesied a fuller beauty and gladness yet to
“You just wait,” said the big boy, who had been comcome. Just the day to visit the old manse, to sit beneath miseratingly watching the efforts of the middle-sized boy the yellow willow branches, or float dreamily upon the on the bar, "you just wait until I drive this nail,” and I'll winding river; so thought I, as I opened the pages of my get down and show you how we do it at the 'gym.” With book. But child voices attracted my attention,-boys were several and sundry badly- aimed blows, he pushed the nail near, and boys are to my liking. I peeped over my into its place, then laid down his hammer descended the shoulder to survey the group.
the ladder, carefully hitched up his overalls with an air of. Boys naturally group themselves like the bear family being used to them, and spat upon his hands preparatory made famous in fairy lore, into big, middle-size, and little. to exhibiting his skill before the admiring groups, now inBirds of a feather may flock together, but boys of a size creased by several additions of small boys, who waited with
earnest expectancy. With a look of unconcern, he seated Two characteristics of boy nature were suggested to me himself upon the bar, placed his hands in a grasping posi- by this and kindred experiences. Boys aspire to be men; tion, keeled over backward, hung his head, twisted one leg they like to consider themselves grown up; they imitate under the bar, when the boys, middle-sized and small, their elders in everything, and assume the authority and used the opportunity, and promptly belabored the blue over- manner of older people in the presence of their younger alls surface with fist and shoe. The champion of the playmates. We have all seen abundant indication of this "gym” swung too high to drop with impunity, his twist truth in our observation of children. Shall we ignore it in closely confined hands and feet, and he was at the mercy the schoolroom? Shall we call the beginners "babies," of the small fry, as was the bull in the fable. The boys and name the lowest room the “baby room”? Shall we gave over in due time, and the hero in blue recovered his say, “That little boy at the foot of the class may recite," position as they scampered away, laughing derisively. To or pat the eight-year-old upon the head, and call him "cunhis credit, be it said, that he laughed, too.
ning''? Shall we make the work so easy that the child is As I drove away, I said to myself, "If I were out with upconscious of effort, or shall we say, "This is a hard piece an opera glass inspecting birds, or with a tin can in search of work, but you can master it-all the other boys have"? of flowers, I might take to myself the glory of scientific Another suggestion lies in the good nature with which study, and be found in a goodly company. I wonder if the big boy accepted the cudgelings of the little fellows; it is not as scientific, and quite as important as well, to ob- he enjoyed the joke, indeed. Out of wholesome boyish serve boys."
play grows the ability to receive hard knocks without a Child study is attracting much attention in these days. feeling of bitterness or an expression of petulance. I fancy It is interesting to note the records and discussions pre- that the lessons of the play-ground are worth as much to pared by both sage and student; to hear the questions the boy as those of the schoolroom. Do we take advantage arising from all sides, and to note the varying lines of in- of them, and rightly interpret them? vestigation which the new enthusiasm develops. It is not I cannot forbear relating another schoolroom experience our purpose to discuss the merits of scientific investigation, which was very suggestive to me : A little six-year-old, or to question the decision of philosophers. Out of coming home after the first day of school, was met by his honest search for truth, some good must come. Critics mother with the question, "Well, Frank, how do you like may question and deride, but the faithful study will go on. your teacher ?” “Very well, I think.” “Why?" "Well,
Let us say, however, that philosophical study is for phil- I think she is restful." "Resttul? What do you mean by osopher, and not for the young teacher who have not yet that?" "Well, mother," said the child slowly, she does learned to recognize the simplest principles underlying not make you feel mad at all.” The teacher whom the their every-day work, nor to read the action of their own child thus interpreted was an instructive leader of children.
, minds. The child is a complex being; his every act is The child has plainly told us wherein her power lies. modified by manifold influences. Can the young teacher
Every day spent in the schoolroom presents numberless who has not yet learned to understand herself, assume to opportunities for such study of children as these incidents interpret truly the motive, manner, and result of the child's suggest. The child's words and actions teach us of his varying acts, and to record, in statistics, her interpretation? inner life, if we will but faithfully attend. The power of Can we give credit to such statistics before we are sure of interpretation grows out of our sympathy with the child's the teacher's power, experience, and judgment?
experience. None of us can afford to neglect these opporHowever these questions may be answered, we have no tunities. We are tempted to add, few of us need extend doubt that there has been, and always must be among wise our investigation, for the present, beyond them.-- Journal teachers, the conscious study of child life. Froebel's of Education. "Let us live with the children” pointed to this sympathetic study. The fruits of intimate association with child life are
PHYSICAL EDUCATION. shown in the tact, sweetness, and gentleness which grow as the teacher grows in her work. It is our purpose to
L. S. LAMSON. suggest to young teachers a phase of child study which is not only practical and practicable, but which is absolutely In looking over the work done in the past in physical necessary to the well-being and development of both teach- culture, we find that to Dr. Sargent, of Harvard College, er and child. It may be illustrated by the incident belongs the honor of having given the greatest impetus to above described.
physical education, and the Sargent system of developing
exercises has been adopted in most of the colleges and Y. The Boston Normal School of Gymnastics was establishM. C. A. gymnasiums of the country. The rapid spread ed by Mrs. Mary Hemenway in 1889. Free instruction in of the Sargent system of developing exercises led to a gen- the Swedish gymnastics was given to the teachers of the eral reform in the management of the department of phys- Boston schools. In 1890 the Swedish system of gymnasical culture in many colleges and preparatory schools and tics was adopted by the Boston schools and a director apin those belonging to Y. M. C. Associations.
pointed at a salary of $3,000 per year. Many eastern and Athletic-clubs have since been very popular. Dr. Sar- western cities have adopted this system. gent states that between 1860 and 1870 about $200,000 The elective system as taught by Wm. G. Anderson, M. were spent in equipping gymnasiums, between 1870 and D., of Yale College has been adopted by the State 1880 about $500,000, and from 1880 to the present time Board of Connecticut. This system is also used in Washmore than $5,000,000.
ington, D. C., and in many other cities, and is very popManifestations of this interest may be seen everywhere. ular. From the Atlantic to the Pacific, in the north and in the Dr. Anderson has had charge of the Physical Culture south, we may find evidence of it, in the action of school Department at Chautauqua Assembly, and his work has boards, in private institutions, and in the various physical been favorably known in New York, Brooklyn, and other culture conferences which have been held. This interest eastern cities for a number of years. which is so manifest in our own country is also shown in
A BOY'S BELIEF,
It isn't much fun a living sistent efforts of advocates of German and Swedish systems.
If grandpa says what's true, The North American Turner Bund has been for years
That this is the jolliest time o' life the largest and most efficient gymnastic association in the
That I'm a passing through, United States, and it has been developed by Turnverein,
I'm afraid he can't remember, founded by political refugees who came here in 1848.
It's been so awful long, In 1889 the Turner Bund had a membership of 31,869.
I'm sure if he could recollect It had 160 gymnasiums; 140 salaried teachers who had
He'd know that he was wrong. been trained in the Bundes Seminar or Normal School, the oldest institution of the kind in this country.
Did he ever have, I wonder,
A sister just like mine, much has been accomplished by the Turner Bund.
Who'd take his skates, or break his kite, In the schools of Chicago, Cleveland, Kansas City and
Or tangle up his twine? Indianapolis the directors of physical training are all grad
Did he ever have to chop the kindling, uates of the normal school of the Turner Bund.
Or fetch in coal and wood, In Chicago 24 physical culture teachers are employed,
Or offer to turn the wringer ?
If he did, he was awful good ! including the superintendent, Mr. Henry Sudee. In Omaba, Nebraska, St. Joseph, Mo., Canton, O.,
In summer, it's "weed the garden;"
In winter, it's “shovel the snow;'' Denver, Col., and Louisville, Ky., special teachers are
For there isn't a single season employed. In Milwaukee, Wis., Cleveland, O., McKees
But has its work, you know. port, Pa., and Keokuk, Ia., Rock Island and Cairo, Ill.,
And then, when a fellow's tired,
a Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., a single director is employed.
And hopes he may just sit still,
It's “bring me a pail of water, son, In 1884 a Swedish lady was employed tor a short time
From the spring at the foot of the hill.” to teach gymnastics in the Girl's High School of Boston:
How can grandpa remember In 1887 and 1889 Mr. Nessen taught Swedish move
A fellow's grief or joy? ments in the Johns Hopkins University. The Woman's
'Tween you and me, I don't believe
He ever was a boy. College, of Baltimore, opened in 1888 and 1889, was
Is this the jollies time o' life? equipped with a Swedish gymnasium, and has always
Believe I never can. been in charge of a graduate of the Royal Central Gymnas
Nor that it's as nice to be a boy
As a really grown-up man. tic Institute at Stockholm. The gymnasium of the Bryn
--Eva Best in Harper's Young People. Mawr school for girls has had a Swedish teacher.
A WEEKLY EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL
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have not something to do with the weakened condi5. Vicar of Wakefield. 6. Dickens' Child's History of England.
tion of the student. Certain it is that under these new 7. Last Days of Pompeii.
processes the students do not grow stronger, and the 8. Ivanhoe. 9. Tom Brown's School Days at Rugby.
time has come when a word of warning should be 10. Grimm's Popular Tales. 11. Grimm's Household Stories.
given. In some cases students have passed the ex 12. Pickwick Papers.
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with seemingly equal educational facilities, but under 15. Lifeof Washington. 16. Life of Patrick Henry.
a different system of teaching, have fallen as low as 30 17. Jane Eyre. 18. Lucile.
or 40 per cent., and been rejected. 19, Anderson's Fairy Tales.
It may seem hard to reject a student who averages 20. Tom Brown at Oxford. 21. John Halifax, Gentleman.
well in most of the branches but fails in Arithmetic, 22. Tennyson's Poems. 23. Plain Thoughts on the Art of Living.
but when it is remembered that when the principles on 24. Æsop's Fables. 25. Swineford's Literature for Beginners.
which the candidate fails are those which enter into 26. Hints and Helps on English Grammar.
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The same applies to the subject of English GramFor $4.00, we will send the Forum and the weekly mar. However much we may say of learning English EDUCATIONAL NEws one year, the cash must accom-through the Latin or the Greek it cannot be done, and pany the order.
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Let teachers take it to themselves that they can do preach deeper sermons of more worth in one day than no more important thing than that of making their all the lip service you can preach in months upon an pupils thorough in the work as far as they go, espe- unwilling, unreceptive heart. Bear in mind, however, cially in the branches which underlie the work of that no effort is to be spared to aid an inquiring mind higher instruction.
when it is voluntarily opened up to you. Bear in
mind that the time is always given a well-directed Do we not give too little attention in all our schools devoted Christian heart to throw out its net to help to making men and women of our pupils. The work the struggling soul when hands are thrown up for of the teacher is more than that of making scholars of help. Don't you know that when a man
comes in those who come into his care. School officers may here and is led to that period of anxiety for his future demand scholarship as the first requisite, and indeed by the numbers of devoted Christian men who daily the examination seems to inquire for thoroughness in visit this house because of the sweet contentment that this direction almost wholly, but after all is not shines out of their eyes, because of the patient forcharacter of greater importance, and ought not school bearance they see preached by the same Christian officers to urge teachers to greater activity in this men, because of the quiet, manly deportment, because direction ?
of the confidence they see others place in them, will
this anxious soul, without much hesitancy, seek out Lately, a fine building was erected in this city on one of these good men and ask him that burning the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, not for question, 'What shall I do to be saved ?' Or will he mere ornament but intended to benefit morally all
go to some fellow-sufferer whom he knows possesses connected with the company, no matter what their not that consciousness of safety and ask him that position. It is evident that the officers of the com- question ?" pany put a high value on the character of their employees, as is shown in the address of Mr. William J.
Read the advertisement of Hawthorne's works in Latta, in which he says:
to-day's issue. We will furnish this set of Hawthorne “We want him here whether he is a Christian or delivered by mail and the weekly EDUCATIONAL News not, so he is a railroad man. Whether he intends to for one year for $2.50 if paid in advance. This offer be a Christian or not, we want him right here, so he is open to everybody. is a railroad man. Whether he is young or old, halt or blind, clean or dirty, dress suit or blue blouse, we Read our special premium offers on last page. want him if he is on the pay rolls. Poor or rich, From now to January ist, we will allow a discount bring him in. He will find a place, and when in let on these offers to any one who will send us at least the leaven work itself. Don't try to get into his in-four subscribers. ner life, to convert him the first night. Let him alone to enjoy his freedom of act and thought. This must
Personal Itemo. not go out to the world as a church. It has been called a vestibule of the church. It may only be the
Miss M. A. Harris, who has for the past nine years front steps, perhaps the curbstone of the front pave been principal of the Female Department in Waynesment, or even the building across the highway from burg College, has resigned her position there and will the church. Anyhow, if the church is to gain any go to Yale College for a year, to take a course for the membership out of its workings, that will come with degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Miss Annie Acklin out preaching into the candidate's ears nothing but of Waynesburg, has been elected to take her place. religion. It is the example that tells the tale here as Prof. Clarke, who fills the chair of botany in the it does everywhere. The conduct of the institution University of Chicago, is not yet 21 years of age.