« ForrigeFortsæt »
VOL. X., No. 37.
PHILADELPHIA, PA., OCTOBER 13, 1894
$1.50 A YEAR.
law was passed for their establishment. The instruction in
these schools follows on the sixth year of the primary PUBLISHED WEEKLY
schools, and has a three years' course. The pupils are
12 years of age when they enter, and 15 years of age when EDUCATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, they leave to join the technical schools. The three years' Philadelphia, Pa.
course at the secondary schools finishes the education of
the poorer children, whose parents are unable to send them CONTENTS,
to a higher school. There are no barriers to prevent a COMMUNICATIONS: SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SWITZERLAND ......... ....... 579
child's passing from the primary to the secondary school, AUTUMN NATURE STUDY.........
..580 and when it leaves the ordinary day school it can, on passTHE EVILS IN EXAMINATIONS. ........
.........580 ing the examination, enter the secondary school. The DEVICES IN RECITATIONS..........
.581 fees, originally amounting to about $3 per three years' TRUTHFULNESS BY EXAMPLE....
course (33 lessons a week), have now been remitted and ELOCUTIONARY
instruction is quite free. As regards the curriculum I see THE EARLY OWL.......
from a dispatch recently sent to the English Foreign Of. THE BELATED VIOLET..
fice, by the British Representative in Zurich, that it includes EDITORIAL: EDITORIAL NOTES.........
religion, German and French languages, arithmetic and PERSONAL ITEMS.............
.569 history and the Swiss constitution, geography and natuHINTS.......
...570 ral science, especial regard beivg paid to agriculture and EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE..
.571 manufacture; singing, drawing and caligraphy, practice in QUERY COLUMN.............
. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC,.......
Since the law was passed in 1833 there has been no lack Original and Selected.
of students, indeed there was difficulty in findiog suitable
premises and properly qualified teachers. Sometimes a For the EDUCATIONAL NEWS.
single room in a private house, is in an inn, had to serve SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SWITZERLAND, the purpose, and one instance is reported where a second
ary school was successfully conducted for six months in the Comparatively little is known about the educational life watchman's little cabin in a vineyard. The mimimum salof Switzerland, and perhaps not one tourist out of a thousary for the teachers for the 33 compulsory lessons was and who visit that country every year ever ask a single fixed at $190 per annum and apartments. At the present question on the matter. Although Switzerland is a com- time two-thirds of the legal mimimum salaries are paid by paratively small European country, it is yet one of the fore the state and one third by the Commune. Thus, the state most in educational affairs, and it owes a great deal of its pays each secondary teacher $240 per annum; the Comindustrial importance to its excellent system of technical mune $120. If the teacher lives in the country he (or she) education.
has dwelling, fuel, and vegetable garden free, or an equivaIt is not, however, of technical education that I wish to lent in money. In Zurich the commencing salary of a speak, but rather on the method of instruction adopted in secondary teacher is $680 per annum, with an increasethe secondary schools of the Canton of Zurich. These ment every five years of $50, until after 20 years' service schools were founded as far back as the year 1833, when a as a teacher, the maximum of $880 is reached. Some of
the Communes give their teachers more than the legal number of pupils which each teacher had to instruct was
. minimum, and the amount of this ranges from $60 to $200 74, and the average number of absences was 9.7 per pupil per annum. After thirty years' service a teacher can per annum. retire, with the consent of the Board of Education, and
F. C. CHAPPEL, Temple Chambers, London. receive a pension equal to at least half of the pay they received before retiring, and the exact amount is fixed by
AUTUMN NATURE STUDY. the Board of Education, regard being paid to the length of
BY S. ELLEN BROWN. service, pecuniary position of the teacher, efficiency, &c. The teachers pay $8 per annum, and the state contributes $7 per annum, for a pension fund for teachers' widows and To study nature truly one must come in contact with orphans. The widows receive a pension of $80 a year.
her, and autumn offers fine advantages therefor. Teachers have to study for four years at a teachers' col
Undoubtedly the best way to study nature is to take the lege near Zurich and afterwards pass six months in French children into the fields or woods, where they can see the society inland to perfect themselves in French. If a student plant, tree, or rock with its own surroundings. But this leading the secondary school wishes to become a teacher is a way with obstacles for the city teacher. therein, he has to study four years at the college and then
What is practicable for one school is not for another, and pass an examination required for teachers of primary the teacher who thinks she cannot take her children out to schools. After this he must study for two years at a uni-meeť nature may do much by bringing nature in to them. versity, then pass another examination before he can obtain Indeed, if she does not bring nature in to the children, they his certificate as secondary teacher.
will bring it in to her. Not many weeks will have passed As regard school books, these are supplied free of charge before the boy's pockets will be bulging with horse chestin all the secondary schools in Zurich, and in about half the nuts and the girl's handkerchiefs made into receptacles for others in the Canton, the Commune paying expenses and walnut meats and quince cores. Then comes the teacher's receiving, for the purpose, a substantial subsidy from the opportunity. Have plenty of dishes or some other restate.
ceptacle for the nuts. Ask the children to see how. many Mention has been made of religion being taught in these different kinds they can collect. Of course a great many schools. This instruction includes (1) the history of the will have to be thrown away (or put in some convenient Old Testament "as a preparation for the appearance of place for the squirrels to get), but enough can be saved for our Lord, with stress laid upon the most important parts use when the time comes. On the day when the teacher is of the Old Testament from a historical and religious point. ready for the language and nature lesson combined, let the (2) Lite and teaching of our Lord on the basis of one of children bring in leaves and branches of the tree correspondthe three first gospels, and introducing parts of others. (3) ing to the nut they have chosen, and if possible a branch The work of the Apostles, especially those of Paul, on the with the nuts growing. It would be well after taking the basis of extracts from Acts of the Apostles and the Epis- nuts separately to have a lesson comparing them. tles. Besides this the chief traits of the Christian Church
The autumn fruits are used in nearly all schools in com. in vigorous pictures, emphasizing the Reformation. bining language and drawing. The girls are learning that In all three sections a moderate number of texts are if the cores stay inside the fruit, a branch of the quince explained and learned by heart, together with some hymps makes a pretty drawing; it also makes an attractive orna. from the Church hymn book."
ment for the room. The sexes are separated in the schools of Zurich and Then take the autumn flowers - the asters, the goldenWinterthur and in one parish on the lake of Zurich, in all rod, and the rare gentians. There are so many beautiful other cases in the Canton instruction is given in common, stories and poems about these, that it is easy to interest the tendency is to abolish the distinction.
the children. A nature lesson that should not be overNeedlework is taught in the girls' school for four hours looked is the wise provision of the animals in laying up per week, but it is optional. Instruction in most subjects in autumn their winter store of food. is generally given in classes; religion and modern subjects Lastly comes the great lesson of this season, the changare permissible exceptions, when two or three pupils forming color of the leaves. A hard thing for many of us to a class.
In the year 1892 there were 55,840 pupils in the explain, but we should be able to give the children a clear secondary schools in the Canton of Zurich. The average understanding of it, that they may read for themselves the
lesson, that the changing color and falling leat do not mean This we know to be the mental attitude of the average death to the real life within the tree.- Journal of Educa. teacher, in both country and city, where a strict adherence tion.
to a prescribed course of study is required, and enforced
by monthly examinations. The teacher takes his stand by THE EVILS IN EXAMINATIONS.
the course of study, the published outlines, and examination
questions, and labors, according to his zeal, to get enough When the wisdom of the monthly examination, con- of it to stick in the child's memory to meet the requireducted as it has been lor years, is questioned, and the ments of the examination. And we repeat that what the substitution of some other mode of testing pupils' progress child thus learns of the different subjects is of very little is urged, the invariable reply from those who practice it is, worth. Aside from the mastery of the mechanical pro"Well, there are different opinions about the value of ex- cesses of making out words and of constructing them, and aminations. For my part, I think that if a pupil knows a of learning processes of manipulating figures, the child's thing he can tell it. And I do not see any reason why he knowledge is useless lumber for the most part. cannot tell it on examination day as well as at any other This is so for the reason: time; nor why he cannot write it out on paper as well as That what we learn is isolated, the one idea from the recite it orally."
the other. Ideas stand out independently of each other as This is a stock answer which is deemed conclusive by so many unrelated facts. This is true, even when the the stock-superintendent who offers it. And the statement teaching is good enough to teach the actual facts, and is true enough, taken by itself.
does not rest content with mere verbal memorizing. The evil of examinations is not so much in the fact that It is worthless for the reason that the knowledge is pupils tell what they know, on paper, at stated times, as in not assimilated into the child's life. His school consciousthe worthlessness of what they tell. The "stated examina- ness is separated from his life consciousness by a gult which tion” has come to be the culmination of a long series of he seldom bridges. The idea that the life outside is but teaching efforts that have in view the memorizing by the the concrete application of the common school branches of pupil of certain stock questions. We will make plain our learning, for the most part, has never entered the mind of meaning by an example: A man of nature age, and for either teacher or pupil. The school boy or girl comes, years a country-school teacher, was commending to the very soon, to live two distinct lives. The school life deals writer the course of study, the monthly "outlines," and with things that seem to be divorced from his other life, monthly examinations. He said in substance, that by these and have no place anywhere but in school.
When he gets helps the teacher knew very definitely what was required. through the course he lurns his back upon it and goes on He drilled his pupils on the "outlines" and on the examina- building up the life he has been living outside of the school tion questions of previous months, knowing that the next with very scant reference to his school experiences. To questions would be very much like them, and he could use a phrase of Rosenkranz, in his school life he his comteach the classes what they would be expected to know. pletely “estranged" from what he conceived to be his real He thought it an excellent plan, which the county superin- life; so completely that he never afterwards removes the tendents had adopted, of having the questions made, each estrangement, but has to learn over again," in the world month, by the same man who made the outlines, for he was what he was supposed to learn in school. then certain to have no questions that he had not drilled his pupils, upon!
The sole purpose of the above is to show forth the most This was a country teacher's conception of teaching, serious evils of the stated monthly examinations, as a test of and of the great improvement of the modern methods over the teacher's success in teaching a prescribed course of study the old. They gave him a definite idea of what was
ex- as they have existed in the schools for a quarter of a cenpected, and he knew just what to select and what to omit. tury. The present generation of teachers has grown up It had never occurred to him to inquire what were the under this regime and so have the superintendents. What special needs of the children whose education was entrusted wonder that they regard with suspicion and disfavor any to him for the time being. Those needs had been discovered movement so radical as that which demands that the teachand provided for in the course of study, he probably assumed er shift his attention from the course of study to the and the outline told him just what ideas in the course of child? A large number of both superintendents and teachers study might be called for in the examination.
do not know how to do it. They have grown up with the
• conviction that the chief end of the schools is to study can speak out first. In such cases it very often happens
text-books, and the approved methods of testing this study that a smart pupil in the class does all the prompting, so is by frequent examinations. These tests shows to the teach- that it is sometimes hard to tell whether the one standing er what the superintendent thinks the children ought to or the prompter is reading. With certain restrictions this know, and they govern the range of their instruction. is a very good device; as all are anxiously watching for an
The idea of examination is never to go out of the schools, opportunity to prompt, while the one reading is just as but we must break some new ground in our method of anxious not to need prompting, and the interest and attenusing it. For the present, it will be an improvement if the tion are very marked. formal examination be wholly omitted for a year or two, and A device to interest little folks, is teaching recognition superintendents devoted their energies to devising ways of words at sight. Have the children stand with their backs and means to induce the teachers to study the child's to you while you place a word on the board; then at a possessions and needs, and to use the suggestions of the given signal let them turn and see who can name the word course of study in supplying them, so far as they are first. Only familiar words should be used. When one applicable. It may break up the “uniformity" that now pupil does too much of the answering, direct him to remain exists, but uniformity is not the chief end of the school.- quiet and give the others a chance, Public School Journal.
Not long ago I visited a school in which the teacher before asking any one to read aloud, required the class to read
the paragraph silently. The advantages of this can hardly DEVICES IN RECITATIONS.
be overestimated; because after all have read it carefully to
themselves, they have some idea of the modulation and ex. SUPT. CLAUDE MELLOTT.
pression to be used. They assimilate, as it were, the
sense which is to be conveyed, and will read it more naturDevices in recitation should secure attention and at the ally. Some teachers make a point of silent reading. Let same time not detract from the learner's progress.
the class read a paragraph, topic or story silently, at the As reading is une of the fundamnental branches that soon same time with the teacher, and then call upon some one to become monotonous unless the teacher resorts to various tell in his own words what he read. This device is liseful methods, I shall treat of that first. Some teachers in con. in geography, physiology, history and other branches, as ducting a reading class permit one pupil to read until he well as in reading. makes a mistake. This pupil then takes his seat and the
One of the most useful adjuncts to the reading class, is pupil who corrects the mistake reads, commencing where supplementary reading. But until school boards and pathe other stopped. Others allow the pupil to read until trons become more liberal, I shall not discuss it. Let us the teacher sees fit to stop him; and in order to insure the as teachers educate the coming generation (the coming attention of the class, generally stops him in the middle school boards and patrons) in this one particular-liberalor before the end of a paragarph, telling another pupil to ity. read on; while others divide the time given for the recita
A device that costs comparatively nothing, and one that tion equally among the pupils, giving to each as many will recommend itself to every teacher is this: Take a minutes as the size of the class and the time will admit.
story from an old book or paper, and cut the story up into The most common way is to commence at the head of a convenient number of pieces, and distribute them among the class, each pupil reading a paragarph in turn; and with the members of your class. If the paragraphs are numbernever a variation, so continue from day to day. This ed, so much the better; if not, you had better number them method is bound to lead to oppressive monotony, unless so as to avoid confusion during the 'recitation.
You can the teacher, instead of taking the pupils in regular order, call by number upon your pupils to read. The advantages does like the old pedagogue in teaching the alphabet, of this device are: "skip around occasionally."
1. Each child has only a verse or two and he gets it well, A great many teachers in conducting a reading class thus being able to read his part intelligently. give licence to any member of the class to prompt a
2. No one will know what the story is until each recites scholar when he hesitates at a word. Some teachers re. his part in class. Hence the attention of the whole class quire the would-be prompters to raise hands and gain per- will be centred on the one reciting so as to get the story as mission by a nod before telling; others let anyone tell who a connected whole.
If you have many primary pupils, try to procure for each girl friend, was headstrong and fighty and not doing well, one a box of word cards. They cost but a trifle, and I claim the wayward sister. The teacher told Martha the
and asked her to exert her influence over her and help reverily believe that any school board, after seeing the little same thing about Mary and exacted her help to recover ones at work with them, would be willing to pay double their the other sinner from destruction. Neither of the girls price. If the board will not, I know parents will; because was in danger. The teacher did not think they were. She
If the board will not, I know parents will; because probably meant well enough. She intended to profit each parents manifest more interest in the little tots than in the girl by getting her interested in helping the other. But larger ones. And again, during the first years of a child's she did not think far enough or as truly as she ought. The school life the book bill is very small, hence you will gen-element of deception about the matter and the result was
girls compared notes. They discovered that there was an erally find parents not merely willing, but anxious to make not particularly helpful to the teacher. small investments for these beginners.
There is a mathematical accuracy about the truth. It I have seen parents actually disappointed when told by always fits together. There is no safe compromise ground. the teachers to get only a slate and perhaps a primer, for a truth may be acted as well as spoken. It is not necessary
The danger signal is upon the border line. Truth or unlittle one for whom they would gladly spend two or three at all times to tell all that is true. But whatever is said dollars.- Educational Gazette.
and whatever is done in the schools, is to be open and
THEEARLY OWL. you are uncertain. Even a child does not expect a teacher to be the embodiment of all wisdom. If she claims it, he An owl once lived in a hollow tree knows she is masquerading; if she admits a doubt, he
And he was as wise as he could be.
The branch of learning he didn't know knows she is acting truly; he sees that he and his teacher
Could scarce on the tree of knowledge grow. have some things in common; she has a stronger hold up- He knew the tree from branch to root,
And an owl like that can afford to hoot, A boy handed up his written spelling lesson for correc- And he hooted-until, alas! one day, tion. The teacher marked a word as incorrect, which he
He chanced to hear in a casual way,
An insignificant little bird thought was spelled correctly. He gathered up his cour.
Make use of a term he had never heard. age and told her he thought she had made a mistake. She
He was flying to bed in the dawning light brushed bim aside with an indignant remark about doubt
When he heard her singing with all her might, ing her ability to spell. In ten minutes he saw her engaged “Hurray! hurray! for the early worm !" in profound communion with the dictionary. He gained “Dear me,” said the owl, "what a singular term ! confidence. She said nothing, but seemed dejected. He
I would look it up if it weren't so late,
I must rise at dusk to investigate. put his paper in his pocket and went home, and consulted
Early to bed and early to rise his dictionary. He had spelled the word correctly. She Makes an owl healthy and stealthy and wise !" had lost his good opinion forever. It was a serious loss,
So he slept like an honest owl all day, but who shall say that she did not pay the proper penalty
And rose in the early twilight gray,
And went to work in the dusky light for her act. She had made a mistake. It was not serious
To look for the early worm at night. at the outset. It was a comparatively small matter that
He searched the country for miles around, she had an erroneous impression about the spelling of the
But the early worm was not to be found, word. But persistence after she knew better was acting So he went to bed in the dawning light an untruth. It was utterly inexcusable. It was impolitic
And looked for the "worm" again next night,
And again and again and again and again too. Suppose she had given him only what was his due
He sought and he sought, but all in vain. and said, "My boy, I was hasty and wrong about that;
Till he must have looked for a year and a day you were right; I will have to be more careful next time." For the early worm in the twilight gray. He would have been exultant, but that would not have
At last in despair he gave up the search, humiliated her. She would have gained his respect as And was heard to remark as he sat on his perch
By the side of his nest in the hollow tree: well.
“The thing is as plain as night to meIn another case, a teacher in this city told Mary, a
Nothing can shake my conviction firm, young miss among her pupils, that Martha, her intimate
There is no such a thing as an early worm."