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OCT 15 1894



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Vacancies for September.


$75.00 to $250.00 PER MONTH Every day we are requested by authorities to recommend teachers for both present and future can be made working for us. Spare hours turned to openings. During the spring and summer months we are asked by School Boards, Superintend- good account. This is of especial interest and value

Never . ents, College Presidents and Principals to recommend-often having as high as 25 or 30 in a

B. F. JOHNSON & CO., Richmond, Va. single day. We have already, a large number of excellent openings for the school year beginning in September. Superintendencies, High School and Town Principalships, Grammar, Intermediate, Primary and Kindergarten positions, College Professorships, Academy Principals and Instructors. Specialists in Art, Music, Drawing, Book-keeping, Penmanship, French, German,

29th Year | Thomas Maypefrce, M.A.,Ph.D. Elocution, Manual Training, etc. Also several most excellent schools for sale. Now is the time to register if you wish to be in line of promotion and desire a better salary for the coming school

Principal and Founder.. year. Send for circulars to


917-919 Chestnut St. 6034 Woodlawn Ave., (Just South of Chicago University).

Philadelphia. ORVILLE BREWER, Manager.


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Day and Evening Sessions


have been filled by us during our experience of

14 YEARS. We are constantly needing competent teachers for vacancies TWO PLANS,

either with or without fee Send for circulars. CENTRAL EDUCATIONAL BUREAU, 1341 Arch Street, Philadelphia.


postage only; but depends on actua results. 3486 Positions Filled.


Does not our plan commend itself to yu?
First Year Salaries amount to $2,264.850.

Constant vacancies. Send stampfor blanks

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Vol. X., No. 37.


$1.50 A YEAR.



law was passed for their establishment. The instruction in

these schools follows on the sixth year of the primary PUBLISHED WEEKLY

schools, and has a three years' course. The pupils are


12 years of age when they enter, and 15 years of age when EDUCATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, they leave to join the technical schools. The three years' Philadelphia, Pa.

course at the secondary schools finishes the education of

the poorer children, whose parents are unable to send them CONTENTS.

to a higher school. There are no barriers to prevent a COMMUNICATIONS: SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SWITZERLAND.... ......... 579

child's passing from the primary to the secondary school, AUTUMN NATURE STUDY......

580 and when it leaves the ordinary day school it can, on passTHE EVILS IN EXAMINATIONS.....

..580 ing the examination, enter the secondary school. The DEVICES IN RECITATIONS...

..581 fees, originally amounting to about $3 per three years' TRUTHFULNESS BY EXAMPLE....


course (33 lessons a week), have now been remitted and ELOCUTIONARY

instruction is quite free. As regards the curriculum I see THE EARLY OWL.........


from a dispatch recently sent to the English Foreign Of. THE BELATED VIOLET..


fice, by the British Representative in Zurich, that it includes EDITORIAL: EDITORIAL NOTES..........

religion, German and French languages, arithmetic and

568 PERSONAL ITEMS.............

569 history and the Swiss constitution, geography and natuHINTS.........

.570ral science, especial regard being paid to agriculture and EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE....

....571 manufacture; singing, drawing and caligraphy, practice in QUERY COLUMN............... LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC,.....


Since the law was passed in 1833 there has been no lack

of students, indeed there was difficulty in finding suitable Original and Selected.

premises and properly qualified teachers. Sometimes a For the EDUCATIONAL News.

single room in a private house, is in an inn, had to serve SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SWITZERLAND, the purpose, and one instance is reported where a second

ary school was successfully conducted for six months in the Comparatively little is known about the educational life watchman's little cabin in a vineyard. The mimimum salof Switzerland, and perhaps not one tourist out of a thousary for the teachers for the 33 compulsory lessons was and who visit that country every year ever ask a single fixed at $190 per annum and apartments. At the present question on the matter. Although Switzerland is a com- time two-thirds of the legal mimimum salaries are paid by paratively small European country, it is yet one of the fore the state and one third by the Commune. Thus, the state most in educational affairs, and it owes a great deal of its pays each secondary teacher $240 per annum; the Comindustrial importance to its excellent system of technical mune $120. If the teacher lives in the country he or she) education.

has dwelling, fuel, and vegetable garden free, or an equiva. It is not, however, of technical education that I wish to lent in money. In Zurich the commencing salary of a speak, but rather on the method of instruction adopted in secondary teacher is $680 per annum, with an increasethe secondary schools of the Canton of Zurich. These ment every five years of $50, until after 20 years' service schools were founded as far back as the year 1833, when a as a teacher, the maximum of $880 is reached. Some of

.573 reading.

the Communes give their teachers more than the legal number of pupils which each teacher had to instruct was minimum, and the amount of this ranges from $60 to $200 74, and the average number of absences was 9.7 per pupil per annum. After thirty years' service a teacher can per annum. retire, with the consent of the Board of Education, and

F. C. CHAPPEL, Temple Chambers, London. receive a pension equal to at least half of the pay they received before retiring, and the exact amount is fixed by

AUTUMN NATURE STUDY. the Board of Education, regard being paid to the length of service, pecuniary position of the teacher, efficiency, &c.

BY S. ELLEN BROWN. The teachers pay $8 per annum, and the state contributes $7 per annum, for a pension fund for teachers' widows and To study nature truly one must come in contact with orphans. The widows receive a pension of $80 a year.

her, and autumn offers fine advantages therefor. Teachers have to study for four years at a teachers' col

Undoubtedly the best way to study nature is to take the lege near Zurich and afterwards pass six months in French children into the fields or woods, where they can see the society inland to perfect themselves in French. If a student plant, tree, or rock with its own surroundings. But this leading the secondary school wishes to become a teacher is a way with obstacles for the city teacher. therein, he has to study four years at the college and then

What is practicable for one school is not for another, and pass an examination required for teachers of primary the teacher who thinks she cannot take her children out to schools. After this he must study for two years at a uni- meet nature may do much by bringing nature in to them. versity, then pass another examination before he can obtain Indeed, if she does not bring nature in to the children, they his certificate as secondary teacher.

will bring it in to her. Not many weeks will have passed As regard school books, these are supplied free of charge before the boy's pockets will be bulging with horse chestin all the secondary schools in Zurich, and in about half the nuts and the girl's handkerchiefs made into receptacles for others in the Canton, the Commune paying expenses and walnut meats and quince cores. Then comes the teacher's receiving, for the purpose, a substantial subsidy from the opportunity. Have plenty of dishes or some other restate.

ceptacle for the nuts. Ask the children to see how many Mention has been made of religion being taught in these different kinds they can collect. Of course a great many schools. This instruction includes (1) the history of the will have to be thrown away (or put in some convenient Old Testament was a preparation for the appearance of place for the squirrels to get), but enough can be saved for our Lord, with stress laid upon the most important parts use when the time comes. On the day when the teacher is of the Old Testament from a historical and religious point. ready for the language and nature lesson combined, let the (2) Lite and teaching of our Lord on the basis of one of children bring in leaves and branches of the tree correspondthe three first gospels, and introducing parts of others. (3) ing to the nut they have chosen, and if possible a branch The work of the Apostles, especially those of Paul, on the with the nuts growing. It would be well after taking the basis of extracts from Acts of the Apostles and the Epis- nuts separately to have a lesson comparing them. tles. Besides this the chief traits of the Christian Church The autumn fruits are used in nearly all schools in comin vigorous pictures, emphasizing the

emphasizing the Reformation. bining language and drawing. The girls are learning that In all three sections a moderate number of texts are if the cores stay inside the fruit, a branch of the quince explained and learned by heart, together with some hymns makes a pretty drawing; it also makes an attractive ordafrom the Church hymn book,"

ment for the room. The sexes are separated in the schools of Zurich and Then take the autumn flowers-the asters, the goldenWinterthur and in one parish on the lake of Zurich, in all rod, and the rare gentians. There are so many beautiful other cases in the Canton instruction is given in common, stories and poems about these, that it is easy to interest the tendency is to abolish the distinction.

the children. A nature lesson that should not be overNeedlework is taught in the girls' school for four hours looked is the wise provision of the animals in laying up per week, but it is optional. Instruction in most subjects in autumn their winter store of food. is generally given in classes; religion and modern subjects Lastly comes the great lesson of this season, the chang. are permissible exceptions, when two or three pupils forming color of the leaves. A hard thing for many of us to a class. In the year 1892 there were 55,840 pupils in the explain, but we should be able to give the children a clear secondary schools in the Canton of Zurich. The average understanding of it, that they may read for themselves the

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lesson, that the changing color and falling leat do not mean This we know to be the mental attitude of the average death to the real life within the tree.- Journal of Educa. teacher, in both country and city, where a strict adherence tion.

to a prescribed course of study is required, and enforced

by monthly examinations. The teacher takes his stand by THE EVILS IN EXAMINATIONS.

the course of study, the published outlines, and examination

questions, and labors, according to his zeal, to get enough When the wisdom of the monthly examination, con- of it to stick in the child's memory to meet the require. ducted as it has been lor years, is questioned, and the ments of the examination. And we repeat that what the substitution of some other mode of testing pupils' progress child thus learns of the different subjects is of very little is urged, the invariable reply from those who practice it is, worth. Aside from the mastery of the mechanical pro"Well, there are different opinions about the value of ex- cesses of making out words and of constructing them, and aminations. For my part, I think that if a pupil knows a of learning processes of manipulating figures, the child's thing he can tell it. And I do not see any reason why he knowledge is useless lumber for the most part. cannot tell it on examination day as well as at any other This is so for the reason: time; nor why he cannot write it out on paper as well as 1. That what we learn is isolated, the one idea from the recite it orally."

the other. Ideas stand out independently of each other as This is a stock answer which is deemed conclusive by so many unrelated facts. This is true, even when the the stock-superintendent who offers it. And the statement teaching is good enough to teach the actual facts, and is true enough, taken by itself.

does not rest content with mere verbal memorizing. The evil of examinations is not so much in the fact that It is worthless for the reason that the knowledge is pupils tell what they know, on paper, at stated times, as in not assimilated into the child's life. His school consciousthe worthlessness of what they tell. The "stated examina- ness is separated from his life consciousness by a gult which tion” has come to be the culmination of a long series of he seldom bridges. The idea that the life outside is but teaching efforts that have in view the memorizing by the the concrete application of the common school branches of pupil of certain stock questions. We will make plain our learning, for the most part, has never entered the mind of meaning by an example: A man of nature age, and for either teacher or pupil. The school boy or girl comes, years a country-school teacher, was commending to the very soon, to live two distinct lives. The school life deals writer the course of study, the monthly "outlines,” and with things that seem to be divorced from his other life, monthly examinations. He said in substance, that by these and have no place anywhere but in school. When he gets helps the teacher knew very definitely what was required. through the course he turns his back upon it and goes on He drilled his pupils on the "outlines” and on the examina- building up the life he has been living outside of the school tion questions of previous months, knowing that the next with very scant reference to his school experiences. To questions would be very much like them, and he could use a phrase of Rosenkranz, in his school life he his comteach the classes what they would be expected to know. pletely "estranged" from what he conceived to be his real He thought it an excellent plan, which the county superin- life; so completely that he never afterwards removes the tendents had adopted, of having the questions made, each estrangement, but has to "learn over again,” in the world month, by the same man who made the outlines, for he was what he was supposed to learn in school. then certain to have no questions that he had not drilled his pupils upon!

The sole purpose of the above is to show forth the most This was a country teacher's conception of teaching, serious evils of the stated monthly examinations, as a test of and of the great improvement of the modern methods over the teacher's success in teaching a prescribed course of study the old. They gave him a definite idea of what was ex- as they have existed in the schools for a quarter of a cenpected, and he knew just what to select and what to omit. tury. The present generation of teachers has grown up It had never occurred to him to inquire what were the under this regime and so have the superintendents. What special needs of the children whose education was entrusted wonder that they regard with suspicion and disfavor any to him for the time being. Those needs had been discovered movement so radical as that which demands that the teachand provided for in the course of study, he probably assumed er shift his attention from the course of study to the and the outline told him just what ideas in the course of child? A large number of both superintendents and teachers study might be called for in the examination.

do not know how to do it. They have grown up with the

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