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BOOKS AND BOOKMAKING.

precious stones that the legitimate work of the binder seems

to have been turned over to the lapidary and golásmith. The first Bible printed with a date was finished by Faust

When types were first invented they were made to imi

tate the letters made by the copyist, and great pains were Type-setting machines were suggested for book work as

taken to cause the printed volumes to resemble the work

of the monks. early as 1842.

The first book printed by machinery was "Blumenbach's Books were printed in Paris from stereotyped plates by Didot in 1708.

Physiology," which came from the press in 1817. It was Ancient books were sometimes written on slabs of wood, worked on Koenig's press, which printed both sides at the

rate of 900 sheets an hour. ivory or metals.

Gutenberg's Bibles were sold in loose sheets, and each The first book printed in America is said to be an

purchaser selected for himself the style and amount of almanac, at Boston, in 1639. The first printed engravings for use in books were done hand illumination he wanted, the kind of binding and the

number of clasps and bosses he was willing to pay for. on wood in 1519 in Germany.

Paper has been made in China from time immemorial. The first book to have its leaves numbered was Æsop's

Outside of China it was first made at Samarcand, in TurFables, printed by Caxton in 1484. Three-fourths of the inventions used in bookbinding are East for 200 years before the Europeans thought of making

kestan, A. D., 750. It was imported into Europe from the due to the ingenuity of American binders.

it for themselves. Chinese printing is certainly as early as A. D. 593,

The inost ancient books extant are the earthenware tabbooks of that date being now in existence. The first printed books had their leaves printed on one and an inch thick, though the sizes vary greatly. Each is

lets from Nineveh. They are usually nine inches by six, side only, the blank sides being pasted together.

covered with cuneiform characters, often very minute. The Earthenware bricks or tiles, with characters engraved or

impressions were made, after which the plates were baked stamped on them, were undoubtedly the first books.

in a furnace.-Śt. Louis Globe Democrat. Many of the early wood-cuts employed in books were painted over by hand, after the printing had been done.

Harvard college is to try the experiment of having a The library of Gottingen has a Bible written on palm medical adviser and medical inspector of the university. leaves. There are 5,373 pages, each made of a single leaf. Dr. Geo. W. Fitz, a graduate of Harvard medical school

The first known example of bookbinding in boards, in and instructor in physiology and hygiene in the Lawrence the modern style, was a Latin psalter, in the ninth century. scientific school, has been chosen for the position. As

The first book printed with cast metal types was the medical inspector he will look after the sanitary condition “Durandi Rationale.” Cast metal types were first manu- of the dormitories and other college buildings. As medifactured in 1459.

cal adviser it will be his duty to observe, as far as he can, The word book comes to us from the Saxon boc, mean- the health of the individual student. His first and more ing beech, because the Saxons usually wrote either on formal duties will be to inquire into every case of sickness beech boards or on bark.

among the students as soon as he hears of it, and to see French bindings excel in taste and finish. English in that the sick man is being properly attended. Ventilation solidity and strength, American in general excellence and everything, in fact, which concerns the health of the uni,

, rapidity of workmanship.

versity and of its individual members, will be under the Roman books are often composed of a number of pages oversight and direction of Dr. Fitz. of wood strung together with a cord passed through a hole in the corner of each block.

Cambridge University, England, is reported to have Several books of the second and third centuries have 12,927 living members, or graduates and students comleaden leaves. One such in the British Museum has six bined. Of these 6,826 have taken the M.A., or some leaden leaves, with hinges and a clasp.

higher degree ; 3,262 are bachelors and 2,839 are underThe process of bookmaking has from time immemorial graduates, a decrease from last year of 191 members and been so cheap in China that a book of twenty-five or thirty 73 undergraduates. Oxford had nearly 3,200 undergradpages is rarely sold for more than one cent.

uates in 1893-94, which was about the number of students Many mediæval bindings are so encrusted with gold and at Harvard.

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EDITORIAL NOTES,

EDUCATIONAL NEWS.

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Editor

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PREMIUM BOOKS.

A WEEKLY EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL Believing that the real in educational work is al

ways instructive the editor ventures to draw on his PUBLISHED BY

experience of the day occasionally. In conducting THE EDUCATIONAL NEWS CO.,

an examination of a young man for entrance into Lock Box 1259. Philadelphia, Pa.

college this week he was a little suprised at the apALBERT N. RAUB,

plicant's failure to answer some very simple questions RATE OF SUBSCRIPTION.

in English Grammar. On asking how much time and (Postage prepaid by Publisher.)

attention the student was accustomed to give to the Single Subscription, per year, in advance,

$1 50 Single Subscription, per half year,

subject the reply came, “The teacher gives us only

one recitation a week in grammar.” Of course the Entered at the Post-Ofice at Philadelphia, Pa., as Second-Class Mattes.

cause of failure became at once apparent. Bar Office 1020 Chestnut Street, Room 2.

The laws of the state suppose that this subject re

ceives as much attention as any other, but here is an SEE THIS OFFER.

exception. What is the reason for the exception ? That is a query to which there may be many answers.

The teacher may not like the teaching of Grammar. ard books, any one of which will be sent free as a premium deem it unimportant; but none of these is a sufficient

We give below the names of twenty-six extra good stand. She may find it a difficult subject to teach. She may to each subscriber to the WEEKLY EDUCATIONAL NEWS who will send $1.50 in advance for the paper for one year and 10 reason for the neglect which has been shown in this cents to pay postage on the book. 1. "Robinson Crusoe.

school, and which has in this case prevented a worthy 2. Arabian Nights Entertainments. 3. Swiss Family Robinson.

young man's entrance to college. 4: Don Quixote.

Grammar may not be a favorite study with this 5. Vicar of Wakefield. 6. Dickens' Child's History of England.

teacher but this is by no means a valid reason for its 7. Last Days of Pompeii. 8. Ivanhoe.

neglect. 9. Tom Brown's School Days at Rugby. 10. Grimm's Popular Tales. 11. Grimm's Household Stories,

The School Journal says, “There is no comparison 12. Pickwick Papers. 13. Speeches of Webster,

between the proportion of teachers in city schools and 14. Life of Daniel Webster 15. Lifeof Washington.

those who do not take an educational paper." Our own 16. Life of Patrick Henry. 17. Jane Eyre.

experience confirms this. We have made several at18. Lucile.

tempts to bring our own journal to the notice of the 19, Anderson's Fairy Tales. 20. Tom Brown at Oxford.

teachers of the city in which it is published, but al21. John Halifax, Gentleman. 22. Tennyson's Poems.

ways with a loss. That is, the cost of distributing 23. Plain Thoughts on the Art of Living.

three thousand samples free has cost us much more 24. Æsop's Fables. 25. Swineford's Literature for Beginners.

than was paid by the incoming subscribers as a result 26. Hints and Helps on English Grammar. These books are all bound in cloth and well printed. They

of the venture. We may be wrong but we incline to will grace any one's library.

doubt if ten per cent. of the teachers of this city either EDUCATIONAL NEWS CO.,

take or read an educational journal. We trust we do Box 1258.

Philadelphia. them injury and that we may be in error in express

ing the doubt, but certainly if our experience is a For $4.00, we will send the Forum and the weekly criterion by which to judge, a credit of ten per cent. EDUCATIONAL News one year, the cash must accom-lis a liberal allowance. This journal has been pubpany the order.

lished regularly in this city for the past eight years, For three dollars, we wli jind the EDUCATIONAL NEW, weekly for one year, and Macaulay's History of England and samples have occasionally been sent to all the vole, cloth, worth alone $3.75,

principals of schools, but to-day less than 3 per cent.

of the teachers of the city are subscribers, and we for entrance into college well prepared in the fundadoubt if the ratio is larger in the subscription to other mental branches invariably as a rule do well in the educational journals.

college work; and, on the contrary, those who have Let us here quote from the "School Journal.” We but an indifferent grounding in arithmetic and Engquote because it might be regarded impolitic and im- lish grammar are handicapped from the start. Of polite to say it for ourselves. The Journal says, in course not all students find it in their power to secure discussing this question,

a higher education, but, this aside, why not see that "Is it that the city teacher ‘knows it all?' If so, our students even in the ungraded school are thorough education is a smaller subject than we had supposed in their work as far as they go ? The great weakness, it to be. Is it that her problems are so hopeless that as the College professor finds it in the candidates who she doubts the ability of any one to help her solve present themselves, is in a lack of thoroughness and them? This cannot be the reason, for those who do especially a lack of understanding as relates to prinnot take school papers, as a rule, never have taken ciples. The teacher in the high school and still more them. Is it that her problems are all solved for her in the ungraded school has a fertile field for work by the supervising officers who direct her work! here, but alas ! one that receives too little culture and

"If this is not true what is the explanation ? If attention. Less extended territory and more thorough teaching is not more of a mechanical drive, more of a culture is likely to produce more abundant and more trade, in large cities than in smaller towns, villages, profitable results in education as well as in agriculand rural districts, how are we to explain the fact that ture. the publishers of educational journals and pedagogical books depend upon the more scattered rather than *Read our special offers on the outside pages. the more concentrated populations for their patron- Everybody ought to be able to secure a good book at age, while publishers of text-books and mechanical little expense. appliances look to the larger cities ? Could any fact better prove the superior progressiveness among rural Send us personals and news notes on education. teachers over their city cousins than their greater They will be gladly received. willingness to seek and pay for professional help and stimulation ?"

Personal Items These seem strong words but it is certainly true that the country teacher is as a rule the better patron Prof. Bridges, late teacher of mathematics in Metof professional papers. One reason for this is the ropolitan Business College, Dallas, has been elected fact that the city teacher as a rule considers herseif principal of the West Dallas public school, Tex. anchored when she takes a position and too often

B. F. Nihart, who superintended the Herrington relies on special influence rather than special merit to schools last year, has been chosen dean of the normal keep her in place.

department of Kansas Wesleyan University, at Salina.

Professor and Mrs. Frederick A. Hillery of WindIt'looks now as if the next meeting of the National sor, Vermont, have accepted positions as teachers of Educational Association would be at Denver, Col- language in Chamberlain's Institute, Randolph, N. Y. orado, in July next. This will be an excellent oppor

Prof. J. H. Peacock is principal of public school at tunity for the teachers of the East to see something of

Wharton, Texas. the wonders of the West, and many ought to accept the opportunity.

Miss Nannie Pugh, a graduate of the University of

Kansas, goes to a chair at Wellesley. Kansas does More and more each year the writer's experience not confine itself to women of the Mrs. Lease type. convinces him of the great importance of thorough Prof. L. A. Bryan, late of Timpson, Shelby county, training in the lower schools. Students who come Texas, is principal of Center University.

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Miss M. Frances Boice has organized a school of from Cornell University in 1885, and was for several elocution, physical expression and languages, at 102 years a teacher in New York city. She afterward N. 19th street, Philadelphia.

became a student of Leipzig University, and in 1890 Miss Sarah E. Sprague, who has for so many years was appointed professor of Greek in Wellesley. been identified with education in Minnesota, has ac- W. E. A. Aul, of Nashua, Pa., has accepted a posicepted the position of professor of literature in Thorption again in the college at Battle Creek, Mich., where Polytechnic College, Pasadena, Cal.

he graduated in 1885. Miss Nellie Josephine Lockwood, of Burlington, M. F. Miller is in charge of the schools of GeneVt., is the new teacher in charge of the music depart- seo, Ill., this year, succeeding Superintendent Campment. She has studied music in one of the best bell, who is now superintendent at Joliet. schools of Ottawa, in the Music School of Utica,N.Y.,

Herman Krogman, of Saginaw, and a graduate of and graduated from the Potsdam Conservatory of the class of '94 of the University of Michigan, has Music.

accepted the principalship of the high school at NegProf. E. A. Fritter, of Findlay, Ill., has recently aunee, Mich. accepted the position as superintendent of the Monti

W. L. Helton will superintend the schools of Lincello, Ill., schools.

coln, Kas., at $70 per month. Miss Alice M. Clarke, of Lowell, Mass., a teacher

Dr. Eli F. Brown, who has been superintendent of of much experience and a graduate of the Teachers' the schools of Riverside, California, for some years, College, New York city, is principal of the Model has decided to return to Indianapolis, as superintendSchool, at Indiana.

ent of the business college of that city. F. S. Morganthaler, eight years superintendent at

Charles E. Lowrey, Ph. D., librarian of the UniHuntingburgh, will take the superintendency at Rock

versity of Colorado, died August 19.

port, Ind.

Wells College in Aurora has elected William E.

Hints. Waters, Ph. D., of the University of Cincinnati, to its presidency, to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resig

.Yourself. nation of Rev. E. S. Frisbee, D. D. The chair of English literature and rhetoric at Wells has been

BY LUCY HAYES-MACQUEEN. filled by the appointment of Edward Fulton, Ph. D., lately instructor in Harvard University.

If you are a true teacher, your earnest desire is to see

your pupils grow strong and wise, and loving and good. Rev. Thos. K. Beecher, after a pastorate of forty They will imitate you. What are you, yourself? years at Park Church, Elmira, N. Y., has retired from

That little boy, Jack, from Poverty lane, with the the active duties, and Rev. Samuel Eastman, of Roch- pinched face and eager eyes-what is he to you? ester, will hereafter assume the pastorate.

You have heard the old story of the poet, how he said, S. B. Sinclair, M. A, formerly principal of the "I get my inspiration in my garden ;” and when a wouldteachers' training school, Hamilton, Ontario, was at be.poet asked to see this garden, the wise man led him to the beginning of the present year appointed lecturer a narrow back yard in a crowded city, where a few strugon psychology and mathematics in the Provincial gling plants bloomed palely; how the would-be-poet Normal College, Ottawa. He delivered the opening how the poet, looking reverently upward at God’s blue

looked in ill-disguised contempt at "the garden ;" and address to the students of the present session, and in heaven, said: "You see my garden is not very wide nor it urged the importance of the solution of the profes- very long, but, ah! it is wonderfully high.” sicnal problem.

So little Jack should be your inspiration. He is only a Mrs. Julia Josephine Irvine, who has been chosen dot, but he is wonderfully capable of becoming noble and acting president of Wellesley College, was graduated high through yourself.

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First of all, how is your heart toward Jack? I know Cochran, betook themselves to Lenape and near points, teachers who pride themselves on "just hating children." where they spent the day, and at noon lunched at the forks I know "successful teachers” who neither feel love for of the Brandywine. The second party was 'in charge of Jack nor wish for his love in return. They say, "I will Dr. Philips, Professor J. R. Flickinger and Miss Elvira not be a hypocrite. I will teach him well and discipline Speakman, and they went in carriages to the battle-field of him severely, and thus fulfil my duty. I hate maudlin Brandywine. sentimentality.”

If you feel this way, it your heart does not go out to In less than two weeks the Student's Hall of the Jack in love and divine pity, become anything that is hon- University of Pennsylvania will be in course of construction. •est, but do not be a teacher.

Workmen are at present engaged on the ground sounding Your heart being right, study yourself for Jack's sake. carefully to find what depth of foundations is necessary, You wish him to be strong in body. Look after your own and when this important duty is completed the bids for health. Be strong and cheery, and full of human interest construction will be completed. to him, so that he will not be afraid to laugh, and cry, per- Provost Harrison will then award the contract with as haps, before you. Do not talk at him, but to him. Go to little delay as possible, and break ground immediately. his home, and invite him to yours. You wish him to be He fully anticipates having the structure completely finneat. Dress as well as you can, and choose pretty colors, ished and ready for occupancy by the opening of the new for children love them. Arrange your hair becomingly. year. See that your complexion is clear, by keeping your skin soft and healthy with plenty of bathing, just as you teach

The salary of teachers in the suburbs of New York city Jack to become healthy and good-looking by the same is from $480 to $1,000 per year. Many districts keep their process. You want Jack to be wise. How about your-teachers indefinitely, and make a yearly increase in salary self? You will teach him by those grand methods you until a certain maximum is reached. have learned. Do you take at least one good educational journal ? Are you reading the best books written in President Harper, of the University of Chicago, the French on education, for the sake of keeping up your Independent writes, is very fond of music and is an accomFrench and benefiting your mind at the same time? And plished musician. It is said that he at one time thought for complete rest and relaxation of mind, are you taking of making it his life study ; and, notwithstanding the great eight hours' sleep out of the twenty-four ? And what are amount of work he performs, he finds time for his music. you thinking?

At Chautauqua, recently, he surprised the audience by his You want Jack to be good. Are you trying to be? skill on the cornet. You want Jack to be loving. How do you treat your parents and your brothers and sisters ? Are you anxious Minneapolis schools show an increased enrollment of to do them kindnesses, and do you speak tender words at 3,000 over last year. It is attributed to the adoption of home?

free text-books. Jack is looking at you yourself, reading you, weighing you. He sees your deficiencies, but he sees also your vir. Instruction in cookery has become a feature of most of tues ; for the sake of those' he will make up his mind to be the summer schools that have grown out of the Chautauqua noble, and when he has once made up his mind to be SO,

movement. Mrs. Ewing gave lessons in the art at Chauyou have accomplished as much as the noblest poet or tauqua, N. Y.; Mrs. Lincoln, of Boston, at the Long artist or genius, for you have inspired a soul.--School Island Chautauqua; Miss Barrows, of Boston, at the Maine ournal.

Chautauqua Union, at Fryeburg; Mrs. Rorer, at the Penn

sylvania Assembly, at Mt. Gretna; and Miss Bedford, of Educational Intelligence.

New York city, at the Bay View, Michigan, summer school.

Two excursions from the State Normal School, of West The S. W. State Normal School at California, Pa., has Chester, Pa., left that institution at an early hour Sept. 22, opened the Fall term with a good attendance; many imone in the department of botany, and the other in United provements are going forward, including a $15,000 gym. States history. The first party, in charge of Professor nasium.

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