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Vol. X., No. 20.


$1.50 A YEAR.



literature itself, as a whole. In American Literature we'll EDUCATIONAL News,

find much hidden beauty, and much that is elevating, PUBLISHED WEEKLY

creating within us a taste for reading the best literature,

which taste we will retain to the end of life's journey. EDUCATIONAL NEWS COMPANY,

The reading of American Literature in our schools will

also create a taste for the best and most enduring literary Philadelphia, Pa.

productions, such a taste will prove to the pupils through

life a strong means for self education. CONTENTS. COMMUNIOATIONS:

There is great power in American Literature, and should TAE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING AMERICAN LITERA- the time now occupied in our schools by reading such fragTURE READ IN OUR SCHOOLS...

.307 mentary selections as the school readers contain, bu devo!. HISTORICAL RECREATIONS....

308 ed to reading and studying some undying, life-giving mas PLANT STUDY......


ter-piece of American Literature, our boys and girls would CARE OF THE EYES.......


become better men and women. ÆSTHETICS IN THE SCHOOLS...


American Literature contains springs of pure sparkling A REGULAR BOY...

311 waters and if our boys and girls are lead to drink of EDITORIAL:

these pure waters they will become more Americanized, EDITORIAL NOTES.......


We all want the breath of life, and there is no reading, PERSONAL ITEMS..

.313 HINTS..............

but literature that will give us that breath of life to the



fullest extent. American Literature is ennobling and inQUERY COLUMN..

.317 spiriting. American Literature stimulates the young mind LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC........

.318 to a broad and generous culture. American Literature is

developing in character, and opens a broad avenue to hisOriginal and Selected.

tory, geography, science, and general intelligence.

Reading, we are told, is getting thought, and American For the EDUCATIONAL NEWS.

Literature furnishes the best means to get thought. THE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING AMERICAN Good, pure literature will never be read in mature li'e, LITERATURE READ IN OUR PURLIC SCHOOLS. unless the taste for it is cultivated during childhood.

If good literature is taught to our children by the right The theme is a broad one, as the advantages to be de methods, they will in after life prefer it to the trashy rived from having American Literature read in our schools dime-novels now read so largely by our youth. The love are many.

for good literature can never be attained but by thorough Our school reading, as a whole, is dry and uninteresting teaching and studying it in our public schools. and fails to produce good effective readers.

Children are lovers of the beautiful and welcome anything The reading fails to cultivate a taste for that which is that will produce beauty. American Literature contains beautiful and life inspiring. The literary selections given nothing but beauty, and by reading and right methods it in our school-readers are but shadows of literature, and, as can be revealed to the children in such a way as to make such, they fail to inspire the children with the real beauty them not only see the beauty but feel it as well. that lies in the reading and study of American Literature. The beauties and inspirations in American Literature can

1 We do not want to begin with fragments, but with the real' never be exhausted. The more we read and study it the

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more beauty is revealed and the more inspiration we re- Indies that Commodore Perry was sent to subdue them in ceive.

1819. Perry died there soon after, and in 1823 CommoDuring the past forty or fifty years the sentiment in favor dore Porter made their destruction complete. of literature has been constanily increasing. May such a 7. When was Florida bought of Spain ? sentiment continue to grow and expand until all the chil- Ans. Feb. 22, 1819. The United States did not obtain dren of our land are taught American Literature.

full possession, however, before 1821. Jackson was ap. Childhood days are very precious and in the school-pointed its first governor. room the children have no choice. They must take what 8. Mention Monroe's cabinet officers. we feel like giving them, therefore let us give them pure, Ans. John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State; Wil. life-giving American Literature, which will create a tasteliam H. Crawford as Secretary of the Treasury; John C. for that which is pure and beautiful.

Calhoun as Secretary of War, and William Wirt as Attor. Pure American Literature is the production of the best ney-General. American minds and the same principles that controlled 9. What noted general visited this country during this these master.minds can be instilled into the children's administration ? minds by the reading and studying of these productions. Ans. La Fayette, in 1824.

Most children close their school lives without knowing 10. Who invented the cotton gin? what pure literature is. They have learned to read toler- Ans. Eli Whitney, of Connecticut, in 1793. ably well, but have not been taught what to read. Is not II. What is a protective tariff ? such a state of affairs altogether wrong in this progressive Ans. A duty imposed on imported goods for the purcountry of ours? The studying of American Literaturepose of encouraging the manufacture of the goods at home.

? would give not only individual benefit, but the influence 12. What party was in favor of a protective tariff at this derived from its study would be felt throughout the whole time? land.

E. ELLSWORTH BEAMS. Ans. The Whig, as it was called at this time. It also Chester, N. J.

encouraged internal improvements.

13. When did the Democrats begin to be called "LocoFor the EDUCATIONAL NEWS.


Ans. In 1834, because the lights in Tammany Hall,

when extinguished, were relighted with locofo matches. MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, TWO TERMS: 1817–1825. 14. Mention the states that were admitted during this

administration. 1. What did Jefferson say of James Monroe ?

Ans. Mississippi, in 1817; Illinois, in 1818; Alabama, in Ans. "If his soul were turned inside out, not a spot 1819; M

a spot | 1819; Maine, in 1820, and Missouri, in 1821. would be found on it."

15. Give a sketch of the two great parties now in power. 2. What was The Missouri Compromise?

Ans. The great Republican party was now divided into Ans. It was an agreement that Missouri should be ad- the Whig party and the Republican, or Democratic party. mitted as a slave state, and that slavery should be pro- 16. Who were the champions of the Whigs? hibited in all other territories west of the Mississippi and Ans. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. north of parallel 36° 30'.

17. Who were the champions of the Democrats ? 3. Mention the first Trans-Atlantic steamship.

Ans. Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. Ans. The Savannah, in 1819.

18. What was the result of the election of 1824? 4. What was the Monroe Doctrine?

Ans. No one received a majority of the electoral votes, Ans. Monroe in his message in 1823. declared that any the election went to the House of Representatives, by attempt by a foreign nation to gain authority in America whom John Quincy Adams was chosen. would be looked upon as a hostile act.

19. Who was Gregor McGregor ? 5. Who was the last president to wear the cocked hat? Ans. He was the leader of a company of “buccaneers," Ans. James Monroe.

who acted under a commission from the authorities of New 6. Tell something about the sea robbers in the West Granada and Venezuela. They fortified the island of Indies during this administration.

Amelia, as a rendezvous of slave traders and South Amer. Ans. The sea robbers became so annoying in the West ican privateers. When they got so far as to proclaim a


blockade of St. Augustine, the Federal government sent an studied and observed very satisfactorily. When the dearmament against them and broke up the establishment. velopment of the root has been seen and the use of the There was another of the same sort on the island of Gal- root-bairs understood, we may study the formatiou of the veston, off the coast of Texas, under Aury, but it was also fleshy roots in which the nourishment is stored. Stems suppressed.

may be studied in a like manner. First, their development 20. What was the name of the first steamboat that was from the seeds; second, their use as supporting the leaves, put on the lakes ?

then acting likewise as conveyors of nourishment between Ans. It was entitled the Walk-in-the-Water. It OC- the roots and leaves. Cross sections of plant stems should curred in 1818.

be made and examined carefully; also sections of the tree 21. What panic occurred during this administration? stems or branches showing bark, wood and pith. The Ans. The panic of 1819.

leaves and their uses may be studied in connection with 22. Who was called "The Honest Man ?”

the stems. Later in the season we shall be able to study Ans. James Monroe.

them with greater advantage, being able to learn something 23. Whose administration is called "The era of good of their forın, arrangement on the stem, and position in re

. feeling ?"

gard to the buds, etc. Ans. Monroe's.

As to the buds, ask the children to bring you small 24. Who were the “Doughfaces ?”

branches of lilac, cherry, apple or plum (the tree will Ans. Johp Randolph called the eighteen northern men not suffer from the loss of a small branch,) and place them who were induced to vote for the striking out of prohibi- in lukewarm water near the stove or register. Cut a little tion of slavery in the Missouri Compromise. Doughface off the end of the branch under water occasionally and means being easily molded.

change the water frequently. In the course of a few days 25. What two Englishmen were executed during this the buds will begin to swell and bloom out wonderfully. administration ?

A few chestnut buds placed in water and treated in the Ans. Arbuthnot and Ambrister, because they incited same way will burst into leaf in a surprisingly short time. the Indians in Florida. They were seized by Jackson. Formal lessons at stated times are not necessary to

M. D. STAUDT. nature study. It can be done in the odd minutes and it is

more than likely to be carried on at home even more than PLANT STUDY,

at school. Encourage the children to prepare seed glasses at home and develop the buds in the house. Ask them to report observations to you and the class. Have written ac

counts and drawings when possible. Be careful to avoid To know plant life we must begin with a thorough study giving anything of the nature of a task in connection with of the seeds and buds. During the month of April and the work. We might remiud ourselves that the first purthe early part of May we shall have abundant opportunity pose of nature study is not to give a perfect knowledge of for so doing. In our last paper two or three methods of plants and animals. The first object is to create as deep observing seed germination were mentioned. We trust an interest as possible in the work of Nature.— Educational the suggestions will not be considered impracticable. It is Journal. quite possible with a class of forty or fifty to allow every child to observe daily the progress of growth. While the

CARE OF THE EYES. class is engaged with some seatwork, allow six or eight at a time, to go to the table or window, and examine with you Myopia and astigmatism are so rapidly increasing that the seeds or branches that you may be studying. A parents, teachers, and pupils should be alert to

care for couple of pocket microscopes will, of course, aid in the these organs of visions, as glass eyes are more troublesome work, and increase the interest. Tell nothing that the and less convenient. children can find out for themselves. Let that rule be un- First, the eye should be kept fresh. If reading, do not alterable.

look too long at a white page, closely printed, perhaps The study of the structure of roots may begin with the with poor ink on highly calendered paper, but occasionally observation of the development of the tiny rootlets of the lift them to rest for a few seconds on some plain, dark sur. seed. Sweet peas, morning glory, ftax, wheat, oats, etc., face. raised on netting touching the water in a glass can be If traveling on the cars, do not look out of the window



constantly, as the long distances are specially trying, but from an operation for a cystic tumor caused by a cinder in turn the head to watch the inside of the car, occasionally. the eye. If on a boat and the sun shines on the water, turn your

Do not get in the habit of stooping to accommodate back to the sun. The dancing of the glistening waves is your eyes. Bring up your work, if necessary.

, all that you ought to stand at once, and a few seconds of

Do not read while in motion-rocking, walking, or ridsteady looking in the boat, away from both sun and water, ing. The constantly changing focus is exceedingly injurwill rest them.

ious. For a long sleigh-ride on a bright day, with sparkling Never look steadily at a bright light. If obliged to do snow on either side, blue or green glasses or a veil will it at all, look off as much as possible. modify the effect of the general glare and glisten.

A plain diet will help toward good eyesight. So will If reading, turn the back or side-preferably the left-to

common sense. In fact, common sense is at a premium the window or other light. It reading by artificial light of almost everywhere in the department of physical culture. any kind, insist upon a shade, and avoid a lamp set on a

Crying is bad for the eyes; but as everybody cries, it is red table spread. Cover the spread with a newspaper or well to know that an application of very hot water, applied white towel, if you can do no better. Red is a specially gently, will alleviate the bad effects.

it bad reflector of light.

Pretty things rest the eyes. Beauty has practical uses, There is a prejudice against reading while lying down, but one's entire income need not be spent in resting the which I cannot understand, as I've always done it; am

eyes.—School News. nearly a hundred and never wore glasses or a veil, never have "tired” eyes or headache, and do a great deal of night work on printed matter and MS. My theory is: an easy

ÆSTHETICS IN THE SCHOOLS. position where there'll be no strain on the body, but complete rest and a good light, and no injury comes from this How many teachers are there who recognize the love of tabooed practice (unless you do like one of my brothers: the beautiful in child nature and minister to it? I believe go to sleep, gesticulate in dreams, and knock over the there are many who recognize its importance and would lamp, setting things on fire; that I don't advise!) or at least like to do more than they are doing, but they do not know none has come to me.

how or have not the energy and enthusiasm necessary to Sleep in a dark room, and if there are no blinds nor apply their psychology. Others who presume to teach dark shades to the windows, hang up something extra know nothing of true psychological principles and care less Eyes that have not been used to the dark in sleep give out about them. Go into the schoolroom of the untrained, early in life. A certain amount of sleep is absolutely nec- unthinking teacher, and you will find the principle of essary for good eyesight; and even the mere closing of the beauty-which involves as its necessary elements order, eyes half a minute at a time, as frequently as possible all harmony, symmetry, repose--you will find this principle day, is a wonderful help.

violated in every way. It is a scene which every school Cleanliness is necessary for the eyes, and cold water is inspector meets with to a greater or less extent in all lais "freshening." Hot water is restful, and cloths wrung from travels. There is not an element of beauty in it to inspire it and lightly laid on the eyes will reduce pains, aches, in a word of encouragement or approval. It awakens only flammation, swelling, and nervousness.

the opposite of the æsthetic emotion—the feeling of disThat word reininds me to say that nine-tenths of the ner- gust and depression. We must have more of the sense of vousness of this world come through the eye. Be careful. beauty and æsthetic fitness entering into our domestic, Rest your eyes if you would avoid being-cross ! civic and national life. The present municipal officers of

If you need glasses, wear them! But by all means have our different American cities care but little about it. The them fitted! Don't let any one but a “specialist” test or condition of our American streets was the occasion of the fit your eyes any quicker than you'd let a blacksmith re- most caustic comment from foreigners during the World's pair your watch.

Fair period. How are we to get rid of these things in our A flax seed will dislodge dirt, cinders, or other foreign civic life? First get rid of them in your homes and school. matter without pain, trouble or expense. Put it right into rooms. Sporadic, raving editorials and anonymous letters the eye, under the lid and it will chase and expel the in- in the newspapers do not prick the skin of the lazy, venal truder. That knowledge would once have saved a friend officials whose duty it is to clean a city, but who are only

mindful to bring out the hoe brigade just before elections, the solitude of the rocks and hills was wooing and chersemi-annually.

ishing the blossom that flowered upon the vine? The love You must go deeper for reform in these things. You of the beautiful is in us all. It was placed there when our must train a new generation. The boys and girls in your forms and spirits were tempered and fashioned and blended schools will make up the new city boards and mayors and in the workshop of the Great Artist. This divine plant is street commissioners. You must train in them a higher in all the little children, only it may be choked and stunted sense of home and municipal patriotism, based upon a by the weeds of their environment. It is our high privstronger love of fitness, order and beauty. This reform is ilege and duty to clear away the weeds and mephitic coming in home and school and city. I think we shall growths and let in upon it the air and sunlight of heaven. see some of it in our day. Do you ask how it is coming ? - Prof. H. W. Compton, in the Educational Review for I will name some of the sources. It is coming through April. the training of teachers in a deeper knowledge and to a higher sense of the duties and responsibilities of their work. The School of Agriculture, University of Minnesota, It is coming through the kindergarten, where to the little will hold a special term for women in Dairying and Domesplastic minds and hearts of children are taught the very tic Economy, commencing June 5, 1894. Young women elements of beauty in order, form, color and movement. It interested in these subjects, who can spend four weeks at is coming through the primary school, where there will be this school, will surely be greatly benefitted. less slate scratching and number-grinding and where more of the beautiful in sentiment and language will be taught through poem and story, and where elementary science

Elocutionary. will find a place, and nature's forms of beauty will be studied in leaf and flower and shell and plant and cloud.

A REGULAR BOY. It will come through the better architecture of our school buildings and through the better equipment of them with

He was not at all particular musical instruments, books, apparatus for teaching and

To keep the perpendicular, noble pictures upon which the sense of beauty may feed While walking, for he either skipped or jumped. I wish there were cheap engravings and etchings of all the

He stood upon his head awhile, world's great pictures and architecture, that they might be

And when he went to bed a while, placed before the children. I know only of a few portraits He dove among the pillows, which he thumped. of authors, and of a series of art photographs, published in

He never could keep still a bit; the East, which a teacher could afford to own and exhibit

The lookers on thought ill of it; to the children. What a peculiar fascination, what a haunt

He balanced on his ear the kitchen broom; ing influence about a great picture !

And did some neat trapeziug, Who that saw those great works of genius in the art

Which was wonderfully pleasing, gallery of the World's Fair will not carry forever indelibly stamped upon his memory such pictures as "Perseus and

On every peg in grandpa's harness room. Andromeda," "The Flaggellants,” “The Foreclosure of

From absolute inanity, the Mortgage," "Breaking Home Ties" and "Manon Les.

The cat approached insanity caut”? The rude and unlettered stood before those great To see him slide the banisters, so rash; pictures captive to their mighty and mysterious power. A

But once on that mahogany, great picture, even though it be a cheap reproduction of

While trying to toboggan, he the original, works potently upon the feelings and imagi

Upset his calculations with a crash ! nation of a child. Robert Browning, when a mere child, had placed before him an engraving of Caravaggio's pic.

And since that sad disaster ture of "Perseus and Andromeda.” The story of the inno

He has gone about in plastercent victim and her divine deliverer took hold of his im- Not of Paris, like a nice Italian toy; agination and became a part of his life. Robert Browning

But the kind the doctor uses, was a child of genius, you say; this impressibility, this love

When the bumps and cuts and bruises of beauty is not in all the children of our schools. But Overcome a little regular live boy! have I not shown how the humble, nameless little girl in

-- George Cooper in St. Nicholas.

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