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be absorbed and assimilated. But how far the school

teacher shall be held responsible for the child's future in PUBLISHED WEEKLY

life is a question that cannot be so easily and satisfactorily

answered. In the first place, what the child will be deEDUCATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, pends very largely upon its parents, or shall we say on its Philadelphia, Pa.

grandparents or ancestors? The moral fiber especially is

determined very largely by inherited tendencies. If it be CONTENTS.

true, as Archbishop Hughes has asserted, that the teaching COMMONIO ITIONS:

of the first seven years determines what a child will be, WHO IS RESPONSIBLE ?

147 then the child's nurse and early associates, at home and HISTORICAL RECREATIONS.......


on the playground or on the street, will determine what SILENT WORK.


the child will be. My experience with children for a quarDANGER IN CLAY MODELING



ter of a century or more confirms me in the belief that CUT AND DRIED WORK .........

151 many children are so taught when they reach the profesELOCUTIONARY

sional teacher, that nothing short of the "grace of God," if THE LITTLE PHILANTHROPISTS,

.....151 I may use a theological term, can make decent men or EDITORIAL:

women out of them. Except in the lowest part of our EDITORIAL NOTES.......

132 large cities, the smaller country towns offer perhaps the PERSONAL ITEMS....

best street school, for in these towns there are usually no HINTS...........


police regulations, or at least very lax ones, and hence the EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE............

whole juvenile population swarm on the streets all day long QUERY COLUMN.............


..158 and even late at night.

Is there any wonder that every noble sentiment has left Original and Selected.

the child when he arrives at school age, and that in the

estimation of the child schoolrooms are purgatories and For the EDUCATIONAL News.

teachers are "bosses"'? Many of these pupils see someWHO IS RESPONSIBLE ?

thing funny or ridiculous in many of the things that come

before them in school, and as they grow older and still conSomebody has said, I don't know who, that a child is a tinue the street habits, they turn every allusion that will "bundle of possibilities,” and somebody else has added, possibly admit of it into vulgarity. They see in those who “and what the child will be, depends largely on its teach- are in authority enemies and not friends, and since the ers.”

teacher has, to their minds, absolute authority, he or she Scarcely. ay one who has had experience with children must of necessity be their enemy. This produces an unwill in any way dispute or abridge the first part of this as- teachable attitude of mind and hence pupils often go to sertion. Children are bundles of possibilities and the bun-school ten years to get as much training as they should dles can be shaped and formed or moulded into an infinite and would get under more favorable conditions in half variety of beings and they are constantly so shaped and that time. formed,

Who is responsible foy this state of affairs? The plder Anything that can be properly presented to a child can people

, ulter the patenis, older broilers and sistere; The


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traditions of the past are still abroad in many communities. 10. Give a brief account of Blennerhasset. We might almost imagine that the traditions of Greece and Ans. Harman Blennerhasset was an Irish exile, who Rome or Germany of the middle ages still held sway and had laid out an estate and erected a beautiful mansion on that the teachers of to-day are not teachers but pedagogues an island in the Ohio, near Muskingum. It was to this —that is, the people of the community speak and act as if place that Aaron Burr went soon after his duel with Hamil. this were the case.

ton. He here devised a scheme for self-elevation which This state of aftairs produces enormous waste of means has never been fully made known. It is believed that he -time and money. Parents and older people must be contemplated to set up a separate government west of the taught from pulpit and platform that more is necessary | Alleghany Mountains, with himself at its head. He was at than commodious school rooms and good teaching, hearty last arrested, but acquitted. parental co-operation.

H. H. S.

Who exposed Burr's plot ?

Ans. Gen. Wilkinson, of Louisiana. For the EDUCATIONAL NEWS.

12. Mention the Five events, on which Jefferson's fame HISTORICAL RECREATIONS,

is built.

Ans. (1) Because he wrote the Declaration of IndependJEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION.

ence; (2) because he was the originator of religious free

dom in the U. S.; (3) because he founded the decimal sysTWO TERMS-1801-1809.

tem of money; (4) because he was the founder of the Uni.

versity of Virginia; (5) because he possessed fine qualities, 1. Mention the most important event in Jefferson's ad- and had great success as president. ministration.

13. How did Jefferson deliver his inaugural address? Ans. The purchase of Louisiana from Napoleon, for Ads. He dressed in plain clothes, rode alone down to $15,000,000.

Congress, dismounted, hitched his horse, and went into What duel was fought during his administration ? the chamber and read his address, which lasted fifteen min. Ans. The duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander utes. Hamilton, at Wehawken, July 11, 1804. Hamilton was

14 What were the names of the two agents whom Jefkilled.

ferson appointed to negotiate the purchase of Louisiana? 3. Who was called "The Sage of Monticello?"

Ans. Mr. Livingston and James Monroe. Ans. Thomas Jefferson.

15. Who exclaimed: "We have lived long, but this is 4. Of whom was it said that “He died poor in money, the noblest work of our whole lives?" but rich in honor"?

Ans. Mr. Livingston, when the negotiations for the pur. Ans. Or Thomas Jefferson.

chase of Louisiana were completed. 5. What great invention occured during this adminis- 16. What did Napoleon say in regard to the importance tration ?

of the cession? Ans. Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont. The first voy- Ans. “I have just given to England a maritime rival age was made on the Hudson, between New York and Al- that will, sooner or later, humble her pride.” bany.

17. What was the Embargo Act? 6. To whom were ceremonies and titles distasteful? Ans. It was an act passed by the Congress of the U.S., Ans. To Thomas Jefferson.

ordering that all American vessels should be detained in 7. What were the last words of Thomas Jefferson? the ports of the United States. Ans. “This is the fourth day of July.”

18. What was the Milan Decree? 8. Who was called the "Great Expositor"?

Ans. It was an order from Napoleon, forbidding all Ans. Thomas Jefferson.

commerce with England and her colonies. 9. Of whom may it be said:

19. What was the I grab me act? He was born where the sea and the Indies meet,

Ans. It was the Embargo act spelled backwards, by “He touched the corpse and it sprung to its feet." Ans. Of Alexander Hamilton, who was born on the

the opponents of the measure.

What was the Berlin Decree ? island of Nevis, in the West Indies; and because Daniel

Ans. Webster once said of him: "He touched the dead corpse

It was a reply to England, by Napoleon for the

blockade of English ports. of public credit, and it sprung upon its feet.”


21. What were the famous Orders in Council?

tunity for the full and independent action of the faculties Ans. They were orders issued by Great Britain pro. which they are just now in the right condition to demand. hibiting commerce with any part of Europe except Russia. Instead, -if not lett to their own devices and such small

22. By whom was Jefferson elected president ? sense of duty as may have sprouted in their young souls, Ans. By the House of Representatives.

- they are set to some inconsequent handling of various 23. What is remarkable about the death of Jefferson? materials, some dull round of routine work, like copying

Ans. That he and John Adams died on the same day-or it may be, books-pages to be memorized through the July 4, 1826. They were firm friends during the Revolu- drudgery of many repetitions. What follows ? Being tion and opponents during political life. They ame human they mostly shirk the obvious duty, as grown up reconciled, however, on their return to private lise. people would under like unfavoring circumstances, and

24. What war was hatched during this administration? either dawdle time away, or fall straight into mischief; at Ans. The war of 1812-14.

which these dear unthinking teachers grieve, and wonder 25. Who was the inventor of the submarine bomb, why ! called The Torpedo?

Then they give teaching exercises on which they spend Ans. Robert Fulton.

their greatest skill and power. Often they succeed. At26. Who was the inventor of the Congreve Rocket? tention is absorbed, imagination stimulated, thought quickAns. Colonel Congreve.

ened. The pupils lose self-consciousness, see what the 27. Did Jefferson take all his messages to Congress teachers' desire them to see,and give back what the teachers himself?

call for. This is fine. But when, the exercise being over, Ans. No; only the inaugural address. His next mes. these pupils, whose minds are filled full of the subject sage was carried by a secretary. This became the estab- taught and who are eager to learn more about it, are set lished custom.

down to the hard cold study of quite a different subject, by 28. Did Jefferson believe in rotation in office?

way of preparation for the next day's lessons—that is bad! Ans. He gave the chief offices to men of his own party, There are points in those exercises which the pupils need and therefore believed in rotation in office?

to remember, there are facts about those subjects which Shartlesville, Pa.

M. D. STAUDT. the pupils could discover, there are interences which the

pupils should be led to draw, there are statements they SILENT WORK.

might readily formulate. The very best time for the repetitions to be made, the facts to be discovered, the infer

ences to be drawn, the statements to be formulated, is BY LELIA E, PATRIDGE.

when the minds of those pupils are turned with full force Only a certain part of the period spent by pupils in the upon that subject, when the will sets in that directiɔn, and schoolroom can be occupied in recitation. What the desire is aroused. Then pupils will do for themselves and pupils shall do during the rest of the time-often the greater by themselves (under proper conditions) what no one else proportion of the school day—is a problem which the can do for them. Then, thought is evolved, and power pupils are prepared, at all times, to solve practically, with developed. To give such golden moments to other things a promptness, a facility, a zest which the most skilful of is an extravagance beyond belief-if it were not so teachers would do well to study. Unfortunately, the great

To let pass such precious opportunities is a pedamajority of teachers do not do this, because they do not gogical blunder that accounts for thousands of idle, depenrealize that just here is their chief difficulty, right at this dent and helpless pupils, and hundreds of hard-working, point stands their worst stumbling block.

unsuccessful teachers. So they go on redoubling their efforts to make their rec

How long will they continue thus to waste the breath of itations more animated, their teaching exercises more in-life in kindling fires that burn away unused, or worse than teresting, bestowing neither time nor thought upon the that, flame up beyond the bounds and work dire

mischief? silent work which should be carefully planned to follow

The recitation, which was "She be all and the end all" and supplement the work done with the classes. As a consequence, the pupils go back from their recitations to of teaching in the elder days, is now known to be of comtheir seats, alert, eager, with mental powers fully aroused, paratively small value--to the pupil. Whether it be used but find there no work skilfully arranged to furnish oppor- as means of repetition, and review, or test of knowledge




gained, neither purpose has been served, when some pupils ger nails, (well known lurking places of all manner of bacof a class have answered, some have failed and all have teria) and also to suffer contamination from hands not been dismissed. It has merely marked out in the teach-scrupulously clean. Fresh air and

Fresh air and sunlight would do er's mind the work which has been done and what remains much toward neutralizing these ill effects, but in the majorto do. Even the object or observation lesson-an inven-ity of cases, the clay is put away in a dark closet or cup. tion (at least in name) of modern date-is but the prepara- board until wanted again. tion for that which ought to follow. It is the teacher's A kindergartner tells me, corroborative of this, that best, the most that she can do to help along the real work, when she was called to take charge of that branch of work which the pupils themselves must do for themselves, and, in the public schools of a Michigan town, the clay which whenever practicable, by themselves.

was brought out for her to use had already seen three or This is the true province of silent work. Not that half- four years' service, and was of waxy consistency and rank childish play, half aimless work with various materials, and offensive in smell. She promptly told the janitor that planned, as its name would indicate, merely to keep pupils he might throw it all away, and she would see to procurfrom being idle, and intended only for the little children, ing a fresh supply. She says that with care clay can genthat has so long been known as busy work. Though fill- erally be used safely for eight or ten times. Her plan is ing the same spaces in the school days and accomplishing flatten it in a strong muslin bag and then submerge it in the me object, in a far more effective fashion than busy a jar of cold water at once; this is placed where fresh air work, silent work has other and higher purposes to serve; and sunlight find easy access.


As one or two weeks are purposes as much in demand in the highest grammar generally allowed to elapse from one session of clay grades as in the lowest primary. It is neither the modern modeling to another, the water can be poured off and remodification of the kindergarten occupations, nor the newed several times. Thus these purifiers of nature, water ancient act of studying lessons; though it includes both air and sunshine, are allowed to do their work so thorideas and goes beyond them as a means of development oughly that the clay is rendered sweet and pleasant again. and discipline. It covers, in fact, the most important part

Mrs. L. W. Treat superintendent of the kindergarten of school education, and the planning of its arrangement training school at Grand Rapids, advocates, however, that should take by far the larger portion of time devoted by the clay shall be used but once, and the little workers alteachers to preparation for the next day's lesson. lowed to carry away or distribute the articles made. This

Of course, the teachers who are walking still in tradi- is doubtless the radical plan for sanitary safety, and cer-
tionary ways do not care for short cuts or seek to learn tainly if the clay is used over at all, it should be rendered
more economical ways of teaching. Such fail to see that, as wholesome as possible by the precautions cited above.-
important as is the work of the teacher, the work of the Michigan Moderator.
pupils is still more so, and that to content themselves with
preparing their own work while leaving the preparation for

the work of the pupils quite out of their consideration, is
immensely like putting the play of Hamlet on the stage

FLORENCE C. FOX. with the part of Hamlet left out.--Ohio Educational Monthly.

Busy work should supplement the regular class work, as

the idea of unification should be always kept in mind: DANGER IN CLAY MODELING.

Send seventy-five cents to Milton Bradley & Co., asking

them for a sample package of kindergarten material, and HELEN L. MANNING.

this, with a good book on kindergarten methods like

"The Paradise of Childhood," will form a good basis for Medical and sanitary journals have recently called at work in this line. tention to the fact that clay modeling, as ordinarily carried

In form study, for stick laying, two or three packages of on in kindergartens, is a menace to the health of the chil- colored splints will answer every purpose. dren. As these journals seldom reach teachers or the gen

For weaving use these splints and enameled cloth cut in eral public, it may be well to extend the word of caution strips like the kindergarten mats. These are much better through the Moderator. The moist clay, while being used for beginners, as the paper mats are so easily torn. by children is liable to absorb disease germs from the fin- Go to the printing office and ask for the odds and ends

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stiff paper.

which would otherwise be thrown into the waste basket. use and knowledge of language than the teacher will give Margins cut from colored bills and lecture tickets will fur- him in twenty-five years ? nish all the material for colored parquetry that will be discuss subjects with which he has familiarity—the things

The proper lessons in language for a child are such as needed. Cut into inch squares, circles, half circles, tri- he talks about, that he hears about-his house, his comangles and rectangles, sort and keep in boxes or envelopes. panions, the neighbors, the school, his tastes, feelings, and

ideas. He has a world of his own. A few days ago a Let the children lay designs with these, and paste upon magazine writer showed a little serial she conducted when

ten to twelve years of age. It was wholly private and volThey may outline the design with a pencil, and fill in with untary. Her schoolmates were contributors. The articles colored pencils or water colors.

in one number were. The Doings at our Home; Our Break

fast; Our Visitors; The Remarks Made; The Walks to Dissected pictures, kept in separate envelopes, make School; A Dream; Burying a Pet Bird, and Its Funeral, pleasant work for the very little ones.

etc. For word and sentence building, manilla paper, ten

All children can talk enough and well enough; they sim

ply need practice on suitable subjects to become expert cents a yard, cut in inch squares, with letters of the alpha- writers, whether they ever become able writers is another bet written upon each side, may be kept in spool boxes in thing. All the teacher can do is to see that they become the children's desks. With these they may form the ready writers. Aiming at this he will drop all cut and

dried work.---Ex. words and stories which they have learned in their reading lesson.

Elocutionary. When the children are ready for print reading, printed letters should take the place of the written. One dollar

THE LITTLE PHILANTHROPISTS. will pay for the printing of enough alphabets to supply a class of thirty. The printer will know in what proportion I stood in the midst of a busy throng, to print the different letters.

On holiday shopping bent, For number work old calendars may be cut up, and

And while I waited with nothing to do

But to watch the faces that met my view, given to the children for sorting, copying, and combining.

Of the many who came and went,The designs for sticklaying may be used to illustrate the

I chanced to take note of a little maid, combinations and separations of numbers. They are so An employe of the store,-simple they may be easily copied from the board by the Who, with pad and pencil, from clerk to clerk, the smallest children.- The Moderator.

Was flitting so earnestly at her work,

I longed to know something more.

As she passed me I stopped the eager child,

And asked what her task might be;When the teachers were advised to put the grammar

“Why, Katie was running a check just now,

When some way or other, she don't know how, out of the primary, and advanced primary school they

She dropped fifty cents, you see.' asked, "What is to go in its place?" They were told,

“The firm paid the customer back, of course, "Language work." And here is a specimen selected from

But Katie must make it good; books that were to be an advance on the grammar: “A She has no money, her folks are so poor,

-mouse once ran about here and there on the back of a They scarcely can keep the wolf from the door, sleeping lion: Suddenly the-beast awoke and seized

She would pay it if she could.” the-mouse with claws.". The piece was made up

"If it is not paid she may lose her place

And that she cannot afford; by taking one of Æsop's fables and striking out the adjec

So the girls are giving their names to me, tives; the pupil was asked to put them back again.

To put in a penny or nickel, maybe, Let a thinking teacher ask himself, Will this give a pu- To make up the little hoard." pil power to employ his mother tongue? And if he is a I took out my purse and a tender made

To cancel the little debt;thinking teacher he will have none of it. There is a little

"No, lady, I could not do that,” she said, book entitled “Artificial Production of Stupidity in Schools.” This process will yield stupidity, if the pupil can be made

"A nickel or penny I'll take instead,

And thank you for what I get.” to follow it.

It is wonderful that teachers should hunt around for a "If I let you give the whole fifty cents, book, and more wonderful still they should take such a The girls would blame me, no doubt;book. What is a child set to examinė himself on by his For we all are anxious to have a chance," mother when she first tries to have him talk? How is it (And this she said with a furtive glance,) he accumulates in five years without a teacher more real of helping poor Katie out."


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